Cowden Disease Multiple Hamartoma Syndrome Publications (1638)
Cowden Disease Multiple Hamartoma Syndrome Publications
Clinically, it is mainly diagnosed by radiological images and pathological results. Some studies have elucidated the pathogenesis of Carney triad. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for Carney triad. Generally speaking, the prognosis of patients with Carney triad has been satisfied. According to current reports, the rate of 40-year survival is up to 73%. The case reports an 18-year-old girl suffering from pulmonary chondroma and posterior mediastinal paraganglioma, simultaneously with pulmonary hamartoma, breast fibroma and lower limb chondroma.
Key negative regulators of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway include PTEN and TSC1/TSC2 and germline loss-of function mutations of these genes are established to cause PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Mosaic forms of these conditions lead to increased activation of PI3K and mTOR at affected sites and there is phenotypic overlap between these conditions. All are associated with significant morbidity with limited options for treatment other than symptomatic therapies and surgeries. As dysregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been implicated in cancer, several small molecule inhibitors targeting different components of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway are under clinical investigation. The development of these therapies brings closer the prospect of targeting treatment for somatic PI3K/AKT/mTOR-related overgrowth syndromes. This review describes the clinical findings, gene function and pathogenesis of these mosaic overgrowth syndromes, and presents existing and future treatment strategies to reduce or prevent associated complications of these disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The lesions were surgically removed under general anesthesia and no clinical signs of recurrence were found three months after surgical excision. Considering the severe symptoms of the syndrome and the strong tendency to malignant development of the associated lesions all clinicians should focus their efforts to the early diagnosis and, when possible, multidisciplinary treatment. Key words:Early diagnosis, multiple hamartoma syndrome, oral papillomatosis, cancer predisposition, case report.
Cowden patients with gastrointestinal polyps were selected for medical record and pathologic slide review.
Of 19 total patients, genetic testing revealed pathogenic PTEN mutations in 12. Pan-colonic (11-patients, 58%) and pan-gastrointestinal (8-patients, 42%) polyp distributions were common. Inflammatory (juvenile) polyps were the most common of the hamartomatous polyp (18 patients, 95%), along with expansive lymphoid follicle polyps (12 patients, 63%), ganglioneuromatous polyps (10 patients, 53%), and intramucosal lipomas (5 patients, 26%). The findings of 2 or more hamartomatous polyp types per patient emerged as a newly described and highly prevalent (79%) feature of Cowden syndrome. Ganglioneuromatous polyps, rare in the general population, and intramucosal lipomas, which may be unique to Cowden syndrome, should both prompt further evaluation. Colonic adenomas and adenocarcinomas were common; 10 patients (53%) had single and 3 (16%) had ≥3 adenomas, whereas 2 (11%) had colonic adenocarcinoma, strengthening the emerging association of colorectal cancer with Cowden syndrome.
The clinical phenotypes and gastrointestinal manifestations in Cowden syndrome are quite variable but this series adds the following new considerations for this syndromic diagnosis: multiple gastrointestinal hamartomas, especially 2 or more hamartoma types, and any intramucosal lipomas or ganglioneuromas. These features should warrant consideration of Cowden syndrome.
Upper GI endoscopy and histologic examination revealed glycogenic acanthosis of the esophagus and several hundred gastric polyps. In our case, increased FDG uptake of the esophageal wall contributed to the diagnosis of CS.
We performed a systematic analysis and review of the medical literature for Cowden syndrome and meningioma and additionally present the case of a 29-year- old CS patient diagnosed with multiple meningiomas. We found strong evidence for high incidence of brain tumors in CS patients. In particular meningiomas and gangliocytomas/Lhermitte-Duclos disease were often associated with 8% and 9% respectively in CS patients. Since aberrations in chromosome 10q are associated with meningiomas, it is likely that the underlying mutations in CS drive to a certain extent neoplastic meningioma growth. We propose to include meningiomas and brain tumors in the major criteria spectrum of CS-related disorders. This could warrant early diagnosis of brain lesions and close therapy, as well as better monitoring of patients with CS.
To our knowledge, this is the first case of multiple meningiomas in this syndrome. Further studies are therefore warranted to assess the significance of these findings in Cowden syndrome.
A middle-aged Afro-Caribbean known endometrial carcinoma patient (post surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy), presented with a locally advanced breast carcinoma. She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by a modified radical mastectomy and axillary lymph node clearance. Her past medical history included a sphenoid wing meningioma for which she received definitive external beam radiotherapy. She was also known to have a multinodular goiter, anal polyp and longstanding mucocutaneous lesions. Further workup revealed additional smaller meningiomas, a parotid arteriovenous malformation, a lung cyst and pancreatic lipomas. Overall, consortium criteria were met for the diagnosis of Cowden syndrome. Furthermore, genetic testing identified a pathogenic mutation in the PTEN gene. She will be closely followed with annual clinical examination, dermatologic assessment and screening colonoscopies. She will perform interval whole body contrast enhanced CT for continued surveillance for metastatic disease.
Cowden syndrome is likely to be an under diagnosed condition, but critically important to identify due to its cancer predisposition. When encountering multi-organ tumors, diagnostic criteria for Cowden syndrome should be sought in order to increase the diagnostic rates. Cancer surveillance for carcinoma detection in the early and curative stages remains the most critical aspect of management.
Somatic mutations were identified in genes involving regulation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway in 14/38 individuals (37%). Three individuals had somatic mutations in PRKACA, which encodes a cAMP-dependent protein kinase that acts as a repressor protein in the Shh pathway, and four subjects had somatic mutations in GLI3, an Shh pathway gene associated with HH. In seven other individuals, we identified two recurrent and three single brain-tissue-specific, large copy-number or loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) variants involving multiple Shh genes, as well as other genes without an obvious biological link to the Shh pathway. The Shh pathway genes in these large somatic lesions include the ligand itself (SHH and IHH), the receptor SMO, and several other Shh downstream pathway members, including CREBBP and GLI2. Taken together, our data implicate perturbation of the Shh pathway in at least 37% of individuals with the HH epilepsy syndrome, consistent with the concept of a developmental pathway brain disease.