Cooley Anemia Publications (11121)
Cooley Anemia Publications
Downstream analyses include viability, recovery, differentiation in semi-solid media and performance in liquid cultures and viral transductions.
We demonstrate that HSPCs isolated either by ammonium-chloride potassium (ACK)-based lysis or by gradient isolation are suitable for functional analyses in clonogenic assays, high-level HSPC expansion and efficient lentiviral transduction. For cryostorage of cells, gradient isolation is superior to ACK lysis, and cryostorage in freezing media containing 50% fetal bovine serum demonstrated good results across all tested criteria. For assays on freshly isolated cells, ACK lysis performed similar to, and for thalassemic samples better than, gradient isolation, at a fraction of the cost and hands-on time. All isolation and storage methods show considerable variation within sample groups, but this is particularly acute for density gradient isolation of thalassemic samples.
This study demonstrates the suitability of small-volume blood samples for storage and preclinical studies, opening up the research field of HSPC and gene therapy to any blood diagnostic laboratory with corresponding bioethics approval for experimental use of surplus material.
The relation of the klf10 gene polymorphism (TIEG, TIEG1, EGRα) (rs3191333: c*0.141C>T) to phenotype was studied through baseline mean corpuscular volume, HbF, and transfusion history, whereas evaluation of response to HU therapy was carried out clinically and laboratory.
The frequency of the mutant klf10 genotype (TT) and that of the mutant allele (T) was significantly higher among B-TM patients compared with those with B-TI and SCD patients. Only homozygous SCD patients for the wild-type allele within the klf10 gene had a significantly lower transfusion frequency. The percentage of HU responders and nonresponders between different klf10 polymorphic genotypes among B-TI or SCD patients was comparable.
Although the klf10 gene does not play a standalone role as an HbF modifier, our data support its importance in ameliorating phenotype among β-hemoglobinopathies.
In addition, the FA genetic defect fragilizes the HSCs. These particular features might explain why the first clinical trials using murine leukemia virus derived retroviral vectors conducted for FA failed to show engraftment of corrected cells. The gene therapy field is now moving towards the use of lentiviral vectors (LVs) evidenced by recent succesful clinical trials for treatment of patients suffering from adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD), β-thalassemia, metachromatic leukodystrophy and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. LV trials for X-linked severe combined immunodificiency and Fanconi anemia (FA) defects were recently initiated[11, 12]. Fifteen years of preclinical studies using different FA mouse models and in vitro research allowed us to find the weak points in the in vitro culture and transduction conditions, which most probably led to the initial failure of FA HSC gene therapy. In this review we will focus on the different obstacles, unique to FA gene therapy, and how they been overcome through the development of optimized protocols for FA HSC culture and transduction and the engineering of new gene transfer tools for FA HSCs. These combined advances in the field hopefully will allow the correction of the FA hematological defect in the near future.
Patient was treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to a low dose of 20 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. The patient had symptomatic relief of paraparesis by the 5th fraction and nearly regained full power in bilateral lower limbs by EBRT conclusion. Patient was begun on hydroxyurea post EBRT and was symptom free at 2-month follow up. With a follow-up of 18 months so far, he remains asymptomatic and free of recurrence. MRI correlation of pre-EBRT, post-EBRT and at first follow-up showed a significant reduction in the size of EMH, increase in diameter of spinal canal post EBRT but a persistent edema which had no clinical manifestation. Though there was a 58% drop in leukocyte count by the end of EBRT, there was no leukocytopenia. We suggest that EBRT should be treatment of choice for SCC due to EMH as it produces as rapid and durable response with minimal acute hematological side-effects.
The patients were screened for α-globin genotype. The Sβ-thal patients were also screened for the HBG2 Xmn-1 polymorphism. β-Thal mutations were determined by arrayed primer extension or direct sequencing. There were 70 SS and 32 Sβ-thal patients with mean ages of 14.8±5.9 and 14.2±5.9 years, respectively. The Sβ-thal patients had more frequent, severe pain episodes per year compared with the SS, while the patterns among Sβ-thal and Sβ-thal patients were not significantly different. There were no differences in the frequencies of acute chest syndrome, gallstones, and blood transfusion in the SS and Sβ-thal patients. However, none of the Sβ-thal patients had been transfused. Among the Sβ-thal patients, 25 had β-thal and 7 had β-thal mutations, the most common being cd39 (C→T) and IVS-I-110 (G→A), respectively. Sβ-thal shows a severe phenotype in Kuwait, even among those with Sβ-thal, in whom the IVS-I-110 (G→A) mutation is predominant.
We later analyzed correlations of hemoglobin levels with ocular parameters.
A statistically significant difference emerged between patients with β-thalassemia minor and the healthy controls in terms of mean values of subfoveal, nasal, and temporal choroidal thickness (p = 0.001, p = 0.016, and p = 0.010, respectively). Except for central macular thickness, differences in paracentral macular thicknesses between the groups were also significant (superior: p < 0.001, inferior: p = 0.007, temporal: p = 0.001, and nasal: p = 0.005). Also, no statistically significant differences were noted for retinal nerve fiber layer thickness between two groups.
Mean values of subfoveal, nasal, temporal choroidal, and macular thickness for the four quadrants were significantly lower in patients with β-thalassemia minor than in healthy controls.
In Malaysia, the national screening program for thalassemia was implemented for early pregnancy or secondary school girls; however many participants do not turn-up and missed the screening test. Screening for thalassemia using samples from cord blood is an alternative choice as it is a readily available source of blood and hence early detection of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential use of cord blood for the screening of HbE hemoglobinopathy by using capillary electrophoresis (CE).
Cord blood samples were collected from 300 newborns of healthy mothers. Hematological parameters were determined and hemoglobin quantitation for all cord blood samples were performed using capillary electrophoresis system (CES) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Majority of cord blood samples (63%) revealed Hb AF followed by Hb AFA2 (20%). Hb AFE was detected in 10.7% with the mean value of Hb E ranging from 2.3%-11.1%.
Hemoglobin E was detected in cord blood using capillary electrophoresis system. It can be recommended in areas where Hb E/β is prevalent. Implementation of a screening strategy using CE on cord blood sampling will identify the disease early. With regular follow-up on these patients, the status of their disease can be determined earlier and appropriate management implemented.
The optimal cutoff values of HbA2 for screening silent α-thalassemia, α-thalassemia trait, intermedia α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia trait were 2.85%, 2.65%, 2.25% and 3.45%, respectively; the areas under receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve were 0.709, 0.839, 0.979 and 0.997 respectively; the sensitivities were 0.481, 0.721, 0.953 and 0.994, and the specificities were 0.846, 0.837, 0.929 and 0.969 respectively.
The optimal cutoff values of HbA2 for screening different type of thalassemia based on our laboratory data are established by using ROC curve. According to the area under ROC curve, a satisfactory accuracy for screening intermedia α-thalassemia and β-thalassemia trait can be achieved by detecting hemoglobin A2 level.