Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema Publications (3539)


Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema Publications

BMC Nephrol
BMC Nephrol 2017 Jan 6;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 6.
University of Aberdeen, Institute of Applied Health Sciences, Aberdeen, UK.

Reducing readmissions is an international priority in healthcare. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common, serious and also a global concern. This analysis evaluates AKI as a candidate risk factor for unplanned readmissions and determines the reasons for readmissions. Read More

GLOMMS-II is a large population cohort from one health authority in Scotland, combining hospital episode data and complete serial biochemistry results through data-linkage. 16453 people (2623 with AKI and 13830 without AKI) from GLOMMS-II who survived an index hospital admission in 2003 were used to identify the causes of and predict readmissions. The main outcome was "unplanned readmission or death" within 90 days of discharge. In a secondary analysis, the outcome was limited to readmissions with acute pulmonary oedema. 26 candidate predictors during the index admission included AKI (defined and staged 1-3 using an automated e-alert algorithm), prior AKI episodes, baseline kidney function, index admission circumstances and comorbidities. Prediction models were developed and assessed using multivariable logistic regression (stepwise variable selection), C statistics, bootstrap validation and decision curve analysis.
Three thousand sixty-five (18.6%) patients had the main outcome (2702 readmitted, 363 died without readmission). The outcome was strongly predicted by AKI. Multivariable odds ratios for AKI stage 3; 2 and 1 (vs no AKI) were 2.80 (2.22-3.53); 2.23 (1.85-2.68) and 1.50 (1.33-1.70). Acute pulmonary oedema was the reason for readmission in 26.6% with AKI and eGFR < 60; and 4.0% with no AKI and eGFR ≥ 60. The best stepwise model from all candidate predictors had a C statistic of 0.698 for the main outcome. In a secondary analysis, a model for readmission with acute pulmonary oedema had a C statistic of 0.853. In decision curve analysis, AKI improved clinical utility when added to any model, although the incremental benefit was small when predicting the main outcome.
AKI is a strong, consistent and independent risk factor for unplanned readmissions - particularly readmissions with acute pulmonary oedema. Pre-emptive planning at discharge should be considered to minimise avoidable readmissions in this high risk group.

J. Vet. Sci.
J Vet Sci 2017 Jan 4. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
Department of Veterinary Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.
Rom J Morphol Embryol
Rom J Morphol Embryol 2016 ;57(3):1099-1105
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania;

Observation of major pathological alterations in a young person involves etiological and clinical justifications, in order to properly assess, treat and control these conditions. The aim of this paper is to present severe, acute pathological lesions, installed in a young person, secondary to hypodiastolic heart failure, due to persistent supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, triggered by a post-traumatic external stimulus, with complete remission post-electrical conversion. Pathological and clinical modification are revealed, in a young person, shortly after a minor thoracic trauma, in the absence of traumatic injury but with high-frequency palpitations onset and progressive installation of vascular, visceral and interstitial stasis modifications, as well as of vascular and tissular hypoperfusion with reactive vasoconstriction. Read More

These clinical and paraclinical aspects were: stasis hepatomegaly with hepatojugular reflux, pulmonary congestion with stasis rales, peripheral edema, transudative polyserositis - pericarditis, hydrothorax, ascites, dilatation of inferior vena cava and suprahepatic veins, decrease of arterial blood pressure, tissue and cutaneous vasoconstriction. Anatomical and clinical aspects, with major alterations (Vth degree hepatomegaly, polyserositis, peripheral edema, tachyarrhythmic heart contractions, hypotension, pallor accentuated by vasoconstriction) acutely installed in a previously healthy young person, require a rapid lesions diagnosis and emergency treatment due to vital risk, control of acute heart failure manifestations remission and proper monitoring. Differential diagnosis was focused on determining possible aspects like: acute heart failure (of various etiology), internal post-traumatic lesions or hemorrhages, tuberculosis polyserositis, collagenosis, nephrotic syndrome, protein deficiencies, neoplasia with hepatic determinations, hematological diseases (lymphomas, leukemias), considered in young patients. Severe visceral, vascular and tissular pathological alterations were reactively induced in a young person, by stasis and hypoperfusion due to hypodiastolic heart failure caused by persistent supraventricular tachyarrhythmia triggered post-traumatic, on a proarrhythmic structural heart.


Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) are among the most common complications after noncardiac surgery. Men, smokers, and elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or heart failure are more likely to experience PPC. The majority of patients undergoing vascular surgery belong in these categories and are at higher risk of developing PPC. Read More

Moreover, the surgical site is one of the most important risk factors associated with PPC, and aortic surgery carries the highest risk. The aim of this systematic review was to obtain an additional understanding of the real incidence of PPC after open abdominal aortic surgery and the impact of PPC on survival.
Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Hospitals PARTICIPANTS: Patients who underwent open abdominal aortic surgery.
A literature search was performed on BioMedCentral, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Register of clinical trials. All prospective or retrospective studies reporting data on PPC after open abdominal aortic surgery were included. Co-primary endpoints were the PPC rate and the correlation between PPC and perioperative mortality. The secondary endpoint was the difference in the PPC rate and mortality between elective and urgent surgery. Data on 269,637 patients from 213 studies were analyzed. The overall median incidence of PPC was 10.3% (interquartile range 5.55%-19.1%). Pneumonia, respiratory insufficiency, prolonged mechanical ventilation, need for unplanned mechanical ventilation, atelectasis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions were the most common PPC reported in the literature. Occurrence of PPC was associated with postoperative mortality (r = 0.65, p<0.01) and was significantly higher in urgent procedures (p<0.001).
Incidence of PPC after open abdominal aortic surgery is high and is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality.

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao 2016 Dec;48(6):1006-1011
Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.

To investigate the early complication rate and identify patient-related independent clinical risk factors for early complications in patients following interventional pulmonology procedures.
In the period from December 2014 to December 2015, sufficient data of Peking University First Hospital Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine Department for analysis were identified in 218 subjects. Interventional pulmonology procedures were performed in all the patients. Read More

Early complications after the procedures were defined as newly respiratory failure, arrhythmia requiring treatment, severe hemoptysis, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pulmonary edema, tracheoesophageal fistulae, bronchopleural fistulae, acute coronary syndrome, acute cerebrovascular accident, and death. Patient-related clinical risk factors were defined as coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, cerebral infarction, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, arrhythmia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and previous interventional pulmonology treatment. The patient-related independent clinical risk factors which had close relations to the occurrence of early complications were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis with Logistic regression.
There were 56.4% male and 43.6% female subjects in this study. There were 10.6% current smokers, 26.6% former smokers, and 62.8% non-smokers. The overall early complication rate was 8.3%. In all the subjects groups, the patient-related independent clinical risk factors for the early complication rate were coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (B=1.545, P=0.006, OR=4.686, 95% CI 1.568-14.006), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (B=1.037, P=0.049, OR=2.820, 95% CI 1.675-11.790), and current smoking status (B=1.412, P=0.032, OR=4.139, 95% CI 1.134-15.109); for the newly respiratory failure rates were coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (B=2.207, P=0.004, OR=9.087, 95% CI 2.028-40.714), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (B=1.646, P=0.048, OR=5.188, 95% CI 1.783-34.375), and lesions involving three central airways (B=1.899, P=0.032, OR=6.680, 95% CI 1.182-37.740). In the malignant group, the patient-related independent clinical risk factor for the early complication rate was current smoking status (B=2.953, P=0.006, OR=19.161, 95% CI 2.360-155.572). In the benign group, the patient-related independent clinical risk factor for the early complication rate was only coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (B=1.976, P=0.022, OR=7.214, 95% CI 1.324-39.298).
Closer monitoring of patients with identified clinical risk factors is advisable prior and immediately after interventional pulmonology procedures. In order to avoid or minimize early complications, special attention should be directed toward patients who are current smokers, or patients with lesions involving three central airways, or with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2016 Dec 17. Epub 2016 Dec 17.
Department of Obstetrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
BMC Nephrol
BMC Nephrol 2016 Dec 7;17(1):198. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
Department of Renal Medicine, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, M6 8HD, United Kingdom.

Identification of patients at risk of developing adverse events would enable aggressive medical therapy and possibly targeted revascularization. The aim of this study is to characterize the determinants of long-term outcomes in atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD).
Patients with a radiological diagnosis of ARVD were recruited into this single-center prospective cohort study between 1986 and 2014. Read More

Data collected included baseline co-morbid conditions, annualized prescribed medications and laboratory data (serum creatinine [υmol/L], proteinuria [g/24 h]). Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to explore association with these end-points: death, end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), cardiovascular event (CVE) and the first of any of these events.
A total of 872 patients were recruited into this study. However, 42 patients were excluded due to missing baseline data and hence case records for 830 patients were reviewed. Over median follow-up of 57.1 months (interquartile range: 21.7-96.9), incidence per 100 patient years of death, ESKD, CVE and any event was 13.5, 4.2, 8.9 and 21.0 respectively. Macrovascular disease (MVD), congestive heart failure (CHF), flash pulmonary oedema (FPE) and greater proteinuria at baseline were individually associated with increased risk for all end-points in multivariable analysis (Death: MVD -HR 1.24 [95% CI 1.02-1.50]; CHF -HR 1.33 [95% CI 1.08-1.64]; FPE - HR 2.10 [95% CI 1.50-2.92]; proteinuria - HR 1.14 [95% CI 1.08-1.20]). Higher estimated glomerular filtration rate at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with reduced risk of all end-points (Death: HR 0.92 [95% CI 0.89-0.94])., Administration of statins and renin angiotensin blockade (RAB) at baseline were also associated with reduced adverse events, especially death (RAB: HR 0.83 [95% CI 0.70-0.98]; statins: HR 0.79 [95% CI 0.66-.94]) and ESKD (RAB: HR 0.84 [95% CI 0.71-1.00]; statins: HR 0.79 [95% CI 0.66-0.93]). Revascularization was associated with reduced risk of death (HR 0.65 [95% CI 0.51-0.83]) and ESKD (HR 0.59 [95% CI 0.46-0.76]).
All patients with ARVD require intensive vascular protection therapy to help mitigate systemic atherosclerosis, optimize cardiovascular risk and improve clinical outcomes. More effort is required to identify the minority of patients who may benefit from revascularization.

Iran J Basic Med Sci
Iran J Basic Med Sci 2016 Oct;19(10):1049-1055
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah.

The purpose of the current study was to assess the feasibility of microspheres from biocompatible polymer for oral bioavailability (BA) enhancement of potent sulfonamide- type loop diuretic- Furosemide - which used in the treatment of congestive heart failure, caused edema, cirrhosis, renal disease and as an adjunct in acute pulmonary edema. The comparatively poor and inconstant BA of furosemide, which occurs site-specifically in the stomach and upper small intestine, has been ascribed to the poor dissolution of furosemide.
In attempt to enhance the drug BA, poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres of furosemide were obtained using solvent-evaporation method and the carrier characteristics were investigated subsequently. Read More

The in vivo performance of optimum formulation was assessed by pharmacokinetic evaluation of drug after orally administration of free and loaded in microspheres to rats (4 mg/Kg). For this reason, the concentration of drug in plasma was measured by a new developed and sensitive method of HPLC. Acceptable drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of microspheres were obtained to be 70.43 and 85.21 %, respectively. Microspheres provided improved pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax = 147.94 ng/ml, Tmax = 1.92 hr) in rats as compared with pure drug (Cmax = 75.69 ng/ml, Tmax = 1.5 hr). The obtained AUC of drug in microsphere was 10 fold higher than of the free drug.
The results showed that the prepared microspheres successfully improved BA of the poorly water-soluble drug effectively.

J. Heart Lung Transplant.
J Heart Lung Transplant 2016 Oct 2. Epub 2016 Oct 2.
Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) whether stable heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have elevated extravascular lung water (EVLW) when compared with healthy control subjects; and (2) the effect of acute β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist inhalation on lung fluid balance.
Twenty-two stable HFrEF patients and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were studied. Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) (via re-breathe) and lung tissue volume (Vtis) (via computed tomography) were assessed before and within 30 minutes after administration of nebulized albuterol. Read More

EVLW was derived as Vtis - Vc.
Before administration of albuterol, Vtis and EVLW were higher in HFrEF vs control (998 ± 200 vs 884 ± 123 ml, p = 0.041; and 943 ± 202 vs 802 ± 133 ml, p = 0.015, respectively). Albuterol decreased Vtis and EVLW in HFrEF patients (-4.6 ± 7.8%, p = 0.010; -4.6 ± 8.8%, p = 0.018) and control subjects (-2.8 ± 4.9%, p = 0.029; -3.0 ± 5.7%, p = 0.045). There was an inverse relationship between pre-albuterol values and pre- to post-albuterol change for EVLW (r(2) = -0.264, p = 0.015) and DmCO (r(2) = -0.343, p = 0.004) in HFrEF only.
Lung fluid is elevated in stable HFrEF patients relative to healthy subjects. Stimulation of β2ARs may cause fluid removal in HFrEF, especially in patients with greater evidence of increased lung water at baseline.