Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis Publications (1027)
Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis Publications
By preparing the initial guideline in 2010 standardization of diagnostics and adaption of the "Moers convention" which was not based on medical knowledge was in the focus, whereas the current update deals with fine emendation and extension, especially of the compensation rate (adaption with the Reichenhall recommendation).The diagnosis of silicosis (including mixed dust pneumoconiosis) is based on a detailed occupational history, and predominantly on the typical radiological findings. However, at initial diagnosis the standardized LD-HRCT takes an important role because of its high sensitivity and specificity. Exceptional cases are those with characteristic findings in chest X-ray follow-up. Correspondingly, it is mentioned in the guideline: "The standardized appraisal of the Low-Dose-Volume HRCT requires application of the CT classification (ICOERD, International Classification of Occupational and Environmental Respiratory diseases). In order to diagnose silicosis in CT scan opacities with sharp borders in both central upper lung fields and their circumferencies have to be documented. By comparing with ILO standard radiographs at least profusion category 1 in the right and left upper lung fields has to be reached (total profusion category 2)."The pathologic minimal requirement for the diagnosis of silicosis which has undergone controversial discussion has now also been defined. Corresponding to Hnizdo et al. 2000 it is now mentioned: "Finding of less than 5 silicotic granuloma per lung lobe by palpation is regarded as insignificant." This is a convention and not a threshold based on detailed medical scientific and statistical studies; it is based on extended experience in the South African gold mines.This guideline also deals with silicotic hilar (and sometimes mediastinial) lymph nodes; according to the guideline working group they do not closely correlate with the degree of pulmonary involvement. Extended conglomerating and enduring lymph-node processes may lead to dislocation of the hili with impairment of large bronchi and vessels. Shell-like calcifications dominating in the periphery of lymph nodes produce so-called egg-shell hili.The paragraph on exercise testing is now extended: if neither ergometry nor spiroergometry can be performed a 6 minute walking test by measuring oxygen saturation should be done.Furthermore, in individual expert opinion examinations right heart catheterization (the patient is not obliged to give informed consent) may be recommended, if echo cardiography gives evidence for pulmonary hypertension or if it is difficult to differentiate between right and left heart failure. The presence of pulmonary hypertension which is of prognostic relevance has to be considered when grading reduction in earning capacity.For interpretation of spirometry values the new GLI reference values has to be applied. Grading of impairment is due to the recommendation of the DGP.According to current medical scientific knowledge it is unclear, whether certain disorders of the rheumatic group such is scleroderma or Caplan syndrome which are sometimes associated with silicosis (or coal workers' pneumoconiosis) belong in toto to the occupational disease number 4101 (silicosis). Within this context, additional studies are needed to clarify the role of occupational quartz exposure and other risk factors.The guideline working group hopes that this update will help to optimize diagnostics and expert opinion of silicotic patients.
Chemotherapy for localized RME produced primary tumor regression and vanishing of the left lung lesion. Two lesions in the right lung remained unchanged. On thoracoscopy multiple minute nodules disseminated in both lungs were detected. Histopathology excluded RME spread but indicated anthracosis in the lung parenchyma and intrapulmonary lymph nodes. Heavy smoking by parents and previous home furnace combustion appeared to be predisposing factors. Uncommon non-malignant intrapulmonary diseases, including anthracosis, should be considered when staging pediatric cancer.
Results: The HSP70-1+190 loci GC genotype occurrence frequencies of coal worker's pneumoconiosis was significantly higher than the control group (χ(2)=6.75, P<0.05) , the risk of coal worker's pneumoconiosis armed with HSP70-1+190 GC genotype individual was 2.21 times of CC genotype individual (95%CI: 1.03~4.75) , and HSP70-2+1267 and HSP70-hom+2437 loci polymorphism were no significant difference between the two groups (HSP70-2+1267: χ(2)=3.30, P=0.19; HSP70-hom+2437: χ(2)=0.12, P=0.94) . Conclusion: HSP70-1+190 GC genotypes may be a susceptible genotype, the genotype individual may be more likely to suffer from coal worker's pneumoconiosis.
The aim of the present study is to study the aetiology of mediastinal adenopathy in our population with the help of EBUS.
This was a retrospective analysis of all EBUS procedures done by the authors and the diagnosis thus obtained at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India between April 2010 and December 2011.
A total of 300 patients underwent EBUS in the above period. Most common aetiology encountered in our population was a granulomatous disorder (53% cases) like tuberculosis and sarcoidosis whilst malignancy was third in order of diagnosis (17% cases). Lymph node enlargement due to anthracosis was another uncommon aetiology encountered in the study (5% cases).
Benign granulomatous disorders like tuberculosis and sarcoidosis are the most common causes of mediastinal adenopathy in our population. EBUS is proving its worth for diagnosing mediastinal adenopathy.
During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described.
6%) of these were performed on known extrapulmonary malignancy patients.
There were 28 male and 35 female patients, with median ages of 65 years (min-max: 53-87) and 57 years (min-max: 39-76), respectively. From the 63 cases, 138 lymph nodes (LNs) were sampled with EBUS-TBNA (median: 2 LNs/patient; min-max: 1-4). Results of EBUS-TBNA revealed malignancy in 18 (28.5%) and nonmalignancy in 45 (71.5%). In the nonmalignant group, there were false negatives in 5 (7.9%), anthracosis in 13 (20.6%), reactive adenitis in 16 (25.3%), sarcoidosis in 7 (11.1%), and tuberculosis in 2 (3.1%), and 2 were not evaluated (lost to follow-up) (3.1%). The diagnostic sensitivity, accuracy, and negative predictive value of EBUS-TBNA per patient were 78.2%, 91.8%, and 88.3%, respectively.
EBUS-TBNA is a safe, minimally invasive, and effective method and can be considered as the initial test for the histopathological diagnosis of mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy in patients with extrapulmonary malignancy.
The hawk was discharged and temporarily removed from the education program; 1 month later, upon reintroduction into the program, it collapsed again. Physical examination and hematologic findings were similar to those after the first episode. Transcoelomic and transesophageal echocardiography and CT angiocardiography findings were consistent with cardiomyopathy. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Initial cardiac treatment included furosemide (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) and pimobendan (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h). After 10 days of treatment, peak and trough plasma concentrations of pimobendan were measured at 25, 196 and 715.97 ng/mL, respectively; the dosage was decreased to 0.25 mg/kg (0.11 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours. No overt signs of toxicosis were detected. A sample was collected to reevaluate plasma pimobendan concentration after 30 days of treatment; results were not obtained prior to the patient's death but revealed a peak concentration of 16.8 ng/mL, with an undetectable trough concentration. The hawk was found dead 6 months after initial evaluation. Necropsy revealed cardiomegaly, but histologic examination did not reveal an inciting cause of cardiac dysfunction. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cardiac disease in raptors may be underreported. Transcoelomic and transesophageal echocardiography and CT angiography provided useful information for the diagnosis of cardiac disease in the hawk of this report.