Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Publications (64130)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Publications
The term dyspnea refers to a wide variety of subjective perceptions, some of which can be influenced by the patient's emotional state. A distinction is drawn between dyspnea of acute onset and chronic dyspnea: the latter, by definition, has been present for more than four weeks. The history, physical examination, and observation of the patient's breathing pattern often lead to the correct diagnosis, yet, in 30-50% of cases, more diagnostic studies are needed, including biomarker measurements and other ancillary tests. The diagnosis can be more difficult to establish when more than one underlying disease is present simultaneously. The causes of dyspnea include cardiac and pulmonary disease (congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndrome; pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and many other conditions (anemia, mental disorders).
The many causes of dyspnea make it a diagnostic challenge. Its rapid evaluation and diagnosis are crucial for reducing mortality and the burden of disease.
Despite the application of broad-spectrum antibiotics and appropriate supportive care, she had a poor response to the treatment. During the daily visit in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), numerous white larvae were detected in both nostrils. Further investigation of oropharynx and tracheal tube aspiration, showed no more larvae in mentioned parts. An hour later, nasal spontaneous bleeding occurred. Otorhinolaryngology consultation was performed and led to surgical procedure. In ENT examination, there were numerous larvae and massive clot formation in both inferior meatuses and distal nasal septum perforation. Thirty-seven extracted larvae were transferred to Medical Entomology lab by vial 70% ethanol and 5 live larvae for rearing. After precise investigation by aid of light microscopy, the larvae were identified as Chrysomya bezziana. Due to discovered 2(nd) larvae stage and duration of hospitalization, this infestation was identified as nasal myiasis.
For every participant, the median and interquartile range (IQR; denoting within-subject variability) of 12 tidal breathing parameters were calculated. Individual data were then combined by cohort and summarized by its median and IQR.
After correction for multiple comparisons, inspiratory time (median tI) and its variability (IQR of tI) were lower in patients with COPD (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) as were ratios derived from tI (tI/tE and tI/tTot, both p<0.01) and their variability (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). IE50SLP (the ratio of inspiratory to expiratory flow at 50% tidal volume calculated from the SLP signal) was higher (p<0.001) in COPD while SLP-derived time to reach peak tidal expiratory flow over expiratory time (median tPTEFSLP/tE) was shorter (p<0.01) and considerably less variable (p<0.001). Thoraco-abdominal asynchrony was increased (p<0.05) in COPD.
These early observations suggest that, like traditional techniques, SLP is able to detect different breathing patterns in COPD patients compared with subjects with no respiratory disease. This provides support for further investigation into the potential uses of SLP in assessing clinical conditions and interventions.
Comprehension of these determinants can have significant implications in optimizing self-management implementation and give further directions for the development of self-management interventions. Data were collected among COPD patients (N=46) and their HCPs (N=11) in three general practices and their collaborating affiliated hospitals. Mixed methods exploration of the data was conducted and collected by interviews, video-recorded consultations (N=50), and questionnaires on consultation skills. Influencing determinants were monitored by 1) interaction and communication between the patient and HCP, 2) visible and invisible competencies of both the patient and the HCP, and 3) degree of embedding self-management into the health care system. Video observations showed little emphasis on effective behavioral change and follow-up of given lifestyle advice during consultation. A strong presence of COPD assessment and monitoring negatively affects the patient-centered communication. Both patients and HCPs experience difficulties in defining personalized goals. The satisfaction of both patients and HCPs concerning patient centeredness during consultation was measured by the patient feedback questionnaire on consultation skills. The patients scored high (84.3% maximum score) and differed from the HCPs (26.5% maximum score). Although the patient-centered approach accentuating self-management is one of the dominant paradigms in modern medicine, our observations show several influencing determinants causing difficulties in daily practice implementation. This research is a first step unravelling the determinants of self-management leading to a better understanding.
We aimed to investigate differences between male and female partners of patients with COPD regarding their own characteristics and their perceptions of patients' characteristics.
Four hospitals in the Netherlands.
One hundred and eighty-eight patient-partner couples were included in this cross-sectional study.
General and clinical characteristics, health status, care dependency, symptoms of anxiety and depression, social support, caregiver burden, and coping styles were assessed during a home visit.
Female partners had more symptoms of anxiety and a worse health status than male partners. Social support and caregiver burden were comparable, but coping styles differed between male and female partners. Female partners thought that male patients were less care dependent and had more symptoms of depression, while these gender differences did not exist in patients themselves.
Health care providers should pay attention to the needs of all partners of patients with COPD, but female partners in particular. Obtaining an extensive overview of the patient-partner couple, including coping styles, health status, symptoms of anxiety, and caregiver burden, is necessary to be able to support the couple as effectively as possible.
However, it is currently not clear which models are best to predict exacerbations in patients with COPD. Therefore, our aim was to identify and critically appraise studies on models that predict exacerbations in COPD patients. Out of 1382 studies, 25 studies with 27 prediction models were included. The prediction models showed great heterogeneity in terms of number and type of predictors, time horizon, statistical methods and measures of prediction model performance. Only two out of 25 studies validated the developed model, and only one out of 27 models provided estimates of individual exacerbation risk, only three out of 27 prediction models used high-quality statistical approaches for model development and evaluation. Overall, none of the existing models fulfilled the requirements for risk-stratified treatment to personalise COPD care. A more harmonised approach to develop and validate high- quality prediction models is needed to move personalised COPD medicine forward.
14 articles with 20 329 patients (combinations n=9292; monocomponents n=11 037) were included in this study. LABA/LAMA combinations were always more effective than the monocomponents in terms of the improvement in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 s, transition dyspnoea index and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire scores after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. No significant publication bias was identified. Significant discrepancies with previous network meta-analyses have been found, with overall differences ranging from 26.7% to 43.3%.Results from previous network meta-analyses were misleading because no adequate attention was given to formulating the review question, specifying eligibility criteria, correctly identifying studies, collecting appropriate information and deciding what it would be pharmacologically relevant to analyse. The real gradient of effectiveness of LABA/LAMA fixed-dose combinations remains an unmet medical need; however, it can be investigated indirectly using a high-quality meta-analytic approach.
An explanatory mixed-method study nested in a cluster randomized trial in primary care was conducted. Pre-intervention questionnaires were sent to all participating nurses (N=24) to identify expectations. Post-intervention questionnaires identified experiences after applying the intervention followed by two focus groups to further extend exploration of findings. Questionnaires were analyzed by descriptive analyses. To identify themes the audio-taped and transcribed focus groups were independently coded by two researchers.
The nurses described the intervention as a useful, structured and individualized tool to guide COPD patients in living with the consequences of COPD. Applying the intervention took less time than the nurses initially expected. The intervention enables to provide patient-centered care and to address patient needs. Barriers were encountered, especially in patients with a lower social economic status, in patients with a lower health literacy and in patients with other cultural backgrounds than the Dutch background.
Nurses perceived the COPD-GRIP intervention as a feasible, individualized tool. According to the nurses, the intervention is a valuable improvement in the care for COPD patients.
We performed a cross-sectional study based on two electronic questionnaires, one for general practitioners and one for their staff. Both questionnaires were divided into two parts, a part exploring the degree of task delegation regarding management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in general practice and a part concerning the general job satisfaction and motivation to work.
We found a significant association between perceived "maximal degree" of task delegation in management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the staff's overall job satisfaction. The odds ratio of the staff's satisfaction with the working environment displayed a tendency that there is also an association with "maximal degree" of task delegation. In the analysis of the general practitioners, the odds ratios of the results indicate that there is a tendency that "maximal degree" of task delegation is associated with overall job satisfaction, satisfaction with the challenges in work, and satisfaction with the working environment.
We conclude that a high degree of task delegation is significantly associated with overall job satisfaction of the staff, and that there is a tendency that a high degree of task delegation is associated with the general practitioners' and the staff's satisfaction with the working environment as well as with general practitioners' overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with challenges in work. To qualify future delegation processes within general practice, further research could explore the reasons for our findings.
The BPA system was well tolerated and delivered reliable results comparable to measurements with a mouthpiece. The parameters forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ), forced vital capacity (FVC), and mean forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (MFEF25-75 ) changed in the early postoperative examinations (2 weeks postoperative), whereas MFEF25-75 , FEF75 , peak expiratory flow (PEF), and peak inspiratory flow (PIF)) showed differences from baseline in long-term follow-up (3 months postoperative).
We provide a practicable method of lung function testing in laryngectomized patients with COPD that is essential to tailor inhalation therapy despite tracheotomy. Lung function measurements of laryngectomized patients with COPD should be performed under stable clinical conditions a few weeks after surgery. Guidelines of COPD might be complemented considering the subgroup of laryngectomized patients.
4. Laryngoscope, 2016.