Chemical Worker's Lung Publications (9)


Chemical Worker's Lung Publications

Radiol. Clin. North Am.
Radiol Clin North Am 2016 Nov 27;54(6):1077-1096. Epub 2016 Aug 27.
Department of Radiology, 1959 Northeast Pacific Street, RR 215, Box 357115, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

Occupational lung diseases span a variety of pulmonary disorders caused by inhalation of dusts or chemical antigens in a vocational setting. Included in these are the classic mineral pneumoconioses of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, and asbestos-related diseases as well as many immune-mediated and airway-centric diseases, and new and emerging disorders. Although some of these have characteristic imaging appearances, a multidisciplinary approach with focus on occupational exposure history is essential to proper diagnosis. Read More

Ind Health
Ind Health 2009 Aug;47(4):443-8
Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Department of Occupational Medicine of First Faculty of Medicine and General Teaching Hospital, 120 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic.
BMJ Case Rep
BMJ Case Rep 2009 2;2009. Epub 2009 Feb 2.
Royal Victoria Infirmary and University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Royal Victoria Infirmary and University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle, NE1 4LP, UK.

This case involves a 36 year old non-smoker who worked in a factory producing food flavourings for potato crisps. He developed exertional breathlessness associated with fixed airway obstruction shortly after an uncharacteristically high exposure to the food flavouring chemical diacetyl. Unfortunately, even though he was removed from further exposure to this agent, his symptoms and spirometry did not improve. Read More

Int Arch Occup Environ Health
Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2005 Aug 12;78(7):593-602. Epub 2005 Jul 12.
Hamburg State Department for Science and Health, Institute for Occupational Medicine, University of Hamburg, Germany.

To present recent data on the occurrence of non-malignant occupational airway diseases in Germany and to compare mainly affected occupations of obstructive airway diseases caused by allergens and irritants with available surveillance data from other countries.
Sources of German data were statistics for the year 2003 of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs and of the federation of statutory accident insurance institutions for the industrial sector.
Confirmed cases of non-malignant occupational respiratory diseases in Germany are mainly benign asbestos-associated diseases (occupational disease no. Read More

4103: 1,975 cases), silicosis/coal worker's pneumoconiosis (occupational disease no. 4101: 1,158 cases), obstructive airway diseases due to allergens (occupational disease no. 4301: 935 cases), chronic obstructive bronchitis and/or emphysema in hard coal miners (occupational disease no. 4111: 414 cases), obstructive airway diseases due to irritants and toxic agents (occupational disease no. 4302: 181 cases), diseases caused by ionising radiation (171 cases), diseases due to isocyanates (occupational disease no. 1315: 55 cases), and 22 cases of other rare occupational lung and airway diseases. Miners, bakers, chemical workers, hairdressers and health care workers are mostly affected. Bakers were also frequently affected by occupational asthma in Finland, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the Piedmont region in Italy, South Africa, and New Zealand. Further, high frequencies of occupational asthma were reported for health care workers in France, Italy, New Jersey, Michigan, and South Africa.
Despite completely different legal definitions and regulations, comparably high numbers of occupational obstructive diseases in western countries require better primary and secondary prevention in industries with high incidence, especially in bakeries, the health care sector, farming, and mining. Furthermore, there is a urgent need for harmonization of recognition and compensation systems for occupational diseases as well as of respective preventive strategies within the European Union.

Environ. Health Perspect.
Environ Health Perspect 2000 Aug;108 Suppl 4:665-74
UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.

Exposures to asbestos and synthetic fibers remain areas of great concern in the field of occupational lung disease. Despite extensive study, the health effects associated with fibers remains an area of substantial controversy. In particular, effects of fibers at relatively low doses, particularly for mesothelioma, remain a matter of evolving opinion, especially when integrated with the divergence of opinion on relative pathogenicity of different fiber types. Read More

Mechanistic studies continue to provide a window into pathogenesis and some hope for understanding dose-response relationships at the lower levels seen in contemporary Western workplaces and the general environment. Changes in clinical assessment based on use of new chest imaging techniques beyond the traditional plain film are also an area of evolution and begin to challenge B-reading as the definitive tool for noninvasive assessment of disease. Public health concerns have to a great extent been transported to the developing world where there is a strong trend toward increased use of asbestos, although it has been virtually eliminated from commerce in most developed countries. For nonasbestos fibers, the major unsettled issues are their relative potencies as carcinogens for the human lung and mesothelium and the need to sort out the relation between physical and chemical properties of these fibers and their pathogenicity. The recent discovery of "flock worker's lung" due to synthetic fibers once again alerts us to emerging diseases associated with new technologies.

Am. J. Ind. Med.
Am J Ind Med 1995 Apr;27(4):471-83
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA.

Since 1988, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has notified workers who were subjects in occupational epidemiology studies of the study findings ("worker notification"). This paper describes seven notifications and the worker's reactions to them. The chemicals of interest in the studies were: carbon monoxide, o-toluidine, bis-chloromethyl ether, polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, acid mist, and dioxin. Read More

Materials describing the study results were sent to 15,958 subjects who were notified of their increased risk of arteriosclerotic heart disease, bladder cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, kidney dysfunction, laryngeal cancer, all cancers combined, or soft tissue sarcoma. Workers provided feedback via telephone calls, and for three notifications, by postcards containing workers' comments and ratings of the notification materials. The percentage of telephone calls received from notified workers ranged from 0.3% to 3.8%, and the percentage returning postcards ranged from 8.8% to 17.6%. The two largest categories of callers were those with questions about their disease risk (30%) or who reported on their health status (25%). Most of the comments on postcards (26%) were complimentary or expressed appreciation for receiving the letters; reports of ill health were second (20%). A majority (66%) rated the notification materials well done. Few of the callers (5%) requested information on legal issues. Most (85%) did not find the materials, which ranged in reading level from sixth to ninth grade, too hard to read, although 15% reported difficulty reading them. Although this response system was effective in producing some input from workers, its limitation is that respondents may not be representative of all notified workers. However, such information is useful because there are few data on the effects of notifications on workers.

Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Nihon Ika Daigaku Zasshi 1994 Nov;61(6):590-601
Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.

Aromatic nitro- and amino-compounds (ANA) are notorious methemoglobin forming substances. From 1987 to 1993, the author surveyed the exposure level to ANA and health status of workers in a chemical industry where they synthetize nitrophenol and anisidine from chloro-nitrobenzene. The ANA exposure indicator was the diazo-reaction positive substance in the worker's urine (Dz) and the biological effect of ANA was monitored through the methemoglobin concentration in the blood (MHb). Read More

The following results were obtained from the survey. 1. Both the Dz and MHb values tended to become lower between 1987 and 1993. 2. The MHb levels of the workers were a little higher than the control levels, and the difference between the values was statistically significant (p < 0.01); both levels were, however, within the normal range. 3. The MHb value was estimable from a mathematical model: MHb = (k1-k2/a) x DU x CH, where k1 and k2 were constants and a, DU and CH indicated the activity of glutathione S transferase in erythrocytes (GST), DZ in urine and blood hemoglobin concentration, respectively. The correlation coefficient of the multiple regression was statistically significant (R2 = 0.263, p < 0.01). This model suggests that the biotransformed fraction of ANA in the pulmonary uptake site, the lung, could not penetrate into erythrocytes or act as an MHb former. The model seemed to be consistent and valid when urinary DZ values were less than 1.0 (mg/mg creatinine) and MHb values were less than 2.0 (mg/ml blood). Thus, the upper limit of normal levels for MHb can be considered to be 2.0 (mg/ml blood), or 12-1.6% of total hemoglobin in blood. 4. The significance of the uptake sites, i.e., lung, skin etc., was discussed with reference to the evidence obtained from the longshoremen cases, who were percutaneously exposed to chloronitrobenzene in 1984. 5. Hemolysate solutions from the blood of workers were applied to isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), and Hb species of different valencies were separated; intermediate MHbs, where the heme iron in one of the components of Hb, i.e., in the alpha or beta chain was oxidized and MHb where both the alpha and beta chain heme iron oxidized and Hb X and Y, were separated and easily discernible. The correlation matrix was calculated using the data relevant to IEF and other indicators; MHb estimated spectrophotometrically, GST activity of erythrocytes, Hb and urinary DZ vale. The statistical procedure of principal component analysis was applied to the matrix, and two major principal components were extracted from the calculation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Lung 1994 ;172(6):347-54
Ruhr-University Bochum, Department of Molecular Genetics, Germany.