Atrial Fibrillation Publications (62272)


Atrial Fibrillation Publications

Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris)
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) 2017 Jan 11. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
Cardiology department, Pasteur university hospital, Nice, France.
Europace 2017 Jan 13. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Unit of Hygiene, University of Pavia, Via Strada Nuova 65, 27100 Pavia, Italy

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the leading rhythm disorder in western countries. A direct relationship between left atrium (LA) enlargement and electromechanical remodelling has been established. A causative link between epicardial fat (EF), visceral adipose tissue deposited around the heart, and AF has been hypothesized. Read More

Several reports suggested the association between EF and the presence of AF. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between AF and EF depot, performing a meta-analysis of observational case series studies.
Studies were identified by searching electronic databases by two independent investigators using 'atrial fibrillation' and 'epicardial fat' as keywords. Comparisons between healthy participants and AF cases were performed using a random effect meta-analysis estimating standardized mean difference among comparison groups. Meta regression was used to address the effect given by potential biological and technical confounders. Through a search result of 502 articles, only 7 were selected to conduct the present study. The comparison between all AF with respect to healthy participants resulted in a 32.0 ml of EF difference (95% confidence interval (CI) = 21.5, 42.5) showing that EF volume is higher in AF cases. A statistical significant difference of EF was observed when comparing both persistent and paroxysmal AF subtypes with respect to healthy participants (EF difference 48.0 ml (95% CI = 25.2, 70.8) and 15.7 ml (95% CI = 10.1, 21.4) for persistent and paroxysmal, respectively). A significant EF difference resulted also when comparing persistent to paroxysmal AF subtypes (29.6 ml (95% CI = 12.7, 46.5)) CONCLUSIONS: The present work expands the strength of previously reported association between EF amount and atrial arrhythmia.

BMJ Open
BMJ Open 2017 Jan 13;7(1):e013535. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
Primary Care and Population Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Aldermoor Health Centre, Southampton, UK.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a cause of stroke and a marker of atherosclerosis and of all patients with stroke, around 17% have AF. The screening and treatment of AF could prevent about 12% of all strokes. Several relatively low-cost devices with good accuracy now exist which can detect AF including WatchBP and AliveCor. Read More

However, they can only measure the ECG or pulse over short time periods. Inexpensive devices such as heart rate monitors, which are widely available, can measure heart rate for prolonged periods and may have potential in screening for AF. This study aims to determine the accuracy of AliveCor and WatchBP along with a bespoke algorithm using a heart rate monitor belt (Polar H7) and a wearable RR interval recorder (Firstbeat Bodyguard 2) for detecting AF during a single screening visit in primary care patients.
A multicentre case-control diagnostic study comparing the four different devices for the detection of AF with a reference standard consisting of a 12-lead ECG in GP surgeries across Hampshire, UK. We aim to recruit 92 participants with AF and 329 without AF aged 65 years and over. We will ask participants to rate comfort and overall impression for each device. We will collect qualitative data from participants capturing their experience of using wearable devices in order to evaluate acceptability. We will collect data from GPs to determine their views on AF screening.
This protocol was approved by the London-City & East Research Ethics Committee in June 2016. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations and the Atrial Fibrillation Association, UK.
ISRCTN17495003, Pre-results.

J Cardiol
J Cardiol 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
Department of Bio-informational Pharmacology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Chromosome 4q25 has been repeatedly identified as atrial fibrillation (AF)-sensitive locus in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and is considered to hold some clues to AF pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate the clinical utilities in Japanese and to unveil the function of the 4q25 locus in affecting transcription of adjacent genes.
We conducted AF GWAS in Japanese population (1382 AF cases and 1478 controls) and the replication panel (1666 AF cases and 1229 controls) with detailed clinical information which showed the acceleration of AF onset. Read More

Stepwise investigations with linkage disequilibrium analysis, histone code patterns, and reporter assay in the 4q25 locus were performed.
The AF GWAS confirmed a significant association of rs4611994 and rs1906617 in chromosome 4q25 with AF. In the clinical analysis, AF onset of the individuals with risk allele accelerated 2.5 years compared with those with protective allele (p=0.00012). Next, in the functional analysis, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the variant group selected by linkage disequilibrium analysis were identified as candidates for the cis-regulatory element toward adjacent genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Among them, rs4611994 and rs72900144 regions showed higher effects on the transcriptional activity of luciferase gene in the risk alleles than those in the protective alleles (p<0.0001, p<0.005, respectively).
AF GWAS in Japanese confirmed the association with 4q25 locus and indicated that its SNP affected the acceleration of AF onset. The candidate regions of the causative SNPs, rs4611994 and rs72900144, could alter the adjacent gene expression level.

Vascular disease (VD), as assessed by history of myocardial infarction or peripheral artery disease or aortic plaque, increases stroke risk in atrial fibrillation (AF), and is a component of risk assessment using the CHA2DS2-VASc score. We investigated if systemic atherosclerosis as detected by ultrasound carotid plaque (CP) could improve the predictive value of the CHA2DS2-VASc score.
We analysed data from the ARAPACIS study, an observational study including 2027 Italian patients with non-valvular AF, in whom CP was detected using Doppler Ultrasonography. Read More

VD was reported in 351 (17.3%) patients while CP was detected in 16.6% patients. Adding CP to the VD definition leaded to higher VD prevalence (30.9%). During a median [IQR] follow-up time of 36months, 56 (2.8%) stroke/TIA events were recorded. Survival analysis showed that conventional VD alone did not increase the risk of stroke (Log-Rank: 0.009, p=0.924), while addition of CP to conventional VD was significantly associated to an increased risk of stroke (LR: 5.730, p=0.017). Cox regression analysis showed that VD+CP was independently associated with stroke (HR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.05-3.01, p=0.0318). Reclassification analysis showed that VD+CP allowed a significant risk reclassification when compared to VD alone in predicting stroke at 36months (NRI: 0.192, 95% CI: 0.028-0.323, p=0.032).
In non-valvular AF patients the addition of ultrasound detection of carotid plaque to conventional VD significantly increases the predictive value of CHA2DS2-VASc score for stroke.

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016 Dec 21. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
Division of Thoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Sunnyvale, Calif; Veterans Affair Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, Calif.

Surgeons have hesitated to adopt minimally invasive diaphragm plication techniques because of technical limitations rendering the procedure cumbersome or leading to early failure or reduced efficacy. We sought to demonstrate efficacy and durability of our thoracoscopic plication technique using a single running suture.
We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent our technique for diaphragm plication since 2008. Read More

We used a single, buttressed, double-layered, to-and-fro running suture with additional plicating horizontal mattress sutures as needed.
Eighteen patients underwent thoracoscopic plication from 2008 to 2015. There were no operative mortalities and 2 unrelated late deaths. Median hospital stay was 3 days (range, 1-12). Atrial fibrillation occurred in 1 patient (5.5%), pneumonia occurred in 2 patients (11%), reintubation occurred in 1 patient (5.5%), and ileus occurred in 1 patient (5.5%). Of 14 patients with complete follow-up, median follow-up was 29.4 months (range, 3.4-84.7). Significant increases between preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function tests (% predicted values) were found for mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (73.5% ± 3.5% to 88.8% ± 4.5%, P = .002) and mean forced vital capacity (70.6% ± 3.5% to 82.3% ± 3.5%, P = .002). Preoperative mean Baseline Dyspnea Index was 8.1 ± 0.7. Mean Transitional Dyspnea Index 6 months postoperatively was 7.1 ± 0.6 (moderate to major improvement). Transitional Dyspnea Index at last contact (median 29.4 months postoperatively) was 7.2 ± 0.6 (P = .38). Compared with previously published results, this is at least equivalent.
Thoracoscopic diaphragm plication with a running suture is safe and achieves excellent early and long-term improvements. This addresses technical challenges of tying multiple interrupted sutures by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without any apparent compromise to efficacy or durability.

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Dr Antoni Jurasz Memorial University Hospital in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland; Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Ergonomics, Division of Ergonomics and Physical Effort, Collegium Medicum UMK in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland. Electronic address:

To investigate the potential beneficial effects of posterior pericardial drainage in patients undergoing heart surgery.
Multiple online databases and relevant congress proceedings were screened for randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of posterior pericardial drainage, defined as posterior pericardiotomy incision, chest tube to posterior pericardium, or both. Primary endpoint was in-hospital/30 days' cardiac tamponade. Read More

Secondary endpoints comprised death or cardiac arrest, early and late pericardial effusion, postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF), acute kidney injury, pulmonary complications, and length of hospital stay.
Nineteen randomized controlled trials that enrolled 3425 patients were included. Posterior pericardial drainage was associated with a significant 90% reduction of the odds of cardiac tamponade compared with the control group: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.13 (0.07-0.25); P < .001. The corresponding event rates were 0.42% versus 4.95%. The odds of early and late pericardial effusion were reduced significantly in the intervention arm: 0.20 (0.11-0.36); P < .001 and 0.05 (0.02-0.10); P < .001, respectively. Posterior pericardial drainage significantly reduced the odds of POAF by 58% (P < .001) and was associated with significantly shortened (by nearly 1 day) overall length of hospital stay (P < .001). Reductions in postoperative complications translated into significantly reduced odds of death or cardiac arrest (P = .03) and numerically lower odds of acute kidney injury (P = .08).
Posterior pericardial drainage is safe and simple technique that significantly reduces not only the prevalence of early pericardial effusion and POAF but also late pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. These benefits, in turn, translate into improved survival after heart surgery.

BMC Fam Pract
BMC Fam Pract 2017 Jan 13;18(1). Epub 2017 Jan 13.
Iberoamerican Cochrane Center, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Sant Antoni Ma Claret 167, 08025, Barcelona, Spain.

Oral anticoagulant therapy reduces the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, but many patients are still not prescribed this therapy. The causes of underuse of vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants are not clear but could be related, in part, to patients' and physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards the benefits and downsides of this treatment. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate and synthesize patients' and physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards the benefits and downsides of vitamin K antagonist, in order to explore potential factors related with its underuse. Read More

We included studies that used qualitative or mixed methods and focused on patients' and/or physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards oral anticoagulation. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, ISI WoK, and PsycINFO from their inception until May 2013. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies and synthesized results using a thematic analysis approach.
We included a total of nine studies. In four studies, the quality assessed was excellent and in five was moderate. We identified three themes that were of interest to both physicians and patients: information to reinforce anticoagulation use, balance of benefits and downsides, roles in decision-making and therapy management. Three additional themes were of interest to patients: knowledge and understanding, impact on daily life, and satisfaction with therapy. The main difficulties with the use of anticoagulant treatment according to physicians were the perceived uncertainty, need of individualised decision-making, and the feeling of delegated responsibility as their main concerns. The main factors for patients were the lack of information and understanding.
Physicians' and patients' perceptions and attitudes might be potential factors in the underuse of treatment with vitamin K antagonists. Improving the quality and usability of clinical guidelines, developing tools to help with the decision-making, enhancing coordination between primary care and hospital care, and improving information provided to patients could help improve the underuse of anticoagulation.