Asystole Publications (55524)


Asystole Publications

Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol
Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol 2016 Dec 30;13(4):393-398. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
Department and Clinic of Psychiatry in Tarnowskie Góry, SMDZ in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland.

To evaluate the incidence and severity of the impairment of selected cognitive functions in patients after sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in comparison to patients after myocardial infarction without SCA and healthy subjects and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic and clinical parameters and the duration of cardiac arrest on the presence and severity of the described disorders.
The study group comprised 30 cardiac arrest survivors, the reference group comprised 31 survivors of myocardial infarction without cardiac arrest, and the control group comprised 30 healthy subjects. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Digit Span test from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Lauretta Bender's Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) were used to assess the presence of cognitive impairment. Read More

An original questionnaire developed by the author was used for overall mental state assessment.
The Bender test demonstrated a significant difference in the presence and severity of visual-motor skills between the study group and the control group, while BVRT and MMSE revealed increased incidence of cognitive impairment in the study group. The Bender and BVRT (D/D)/SS (version D, method D, scaled score) scales indicated cognitive impairment in 53.3% of these patients, while the BVRT (C/A)/SS test indicated cognitive impairment in 40%. For the reference group, the values were 32.3% and 12.9%, respectively. No correlation was found between the severity of cognitive impairment and the duration of cardiac arrest.
Impairment of visual-motor skills, short-term visual memory, concentration, and visual-motor coordination occurs much more frequently and is more severe in individuals after SCA than in healthy individuals. Impairment of memory trace storage and recall after delay occurs more frequently in patients after SCA than in patients after myocardial infarction without cardiac arrest and in healthy individuals. SCA duration did not have any influence on the severity of the described disorders.

Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol
Kardiochir Torakochirurgia Pol 2016 Dec 30;13(4):347-352. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Therapy and Emergency Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland.

Admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) may be preceded by dramatic events leading to permanent neurological injury. Plasma S100 protein levels are proved to be clinically useful in predicting neurological outcome following cardiac arrest. It is unclear, however, whether this may be extrapolated to a broader population of ICU patients. Read More

To assess the utility of plasma S100 protein in predicting death, permanent neurological damage, or unfavourable outcome at admission to the intensive care unit.
The concentration of plasma S100 protein was established in 102 patients on admission to the ICU, regardless of their neurological status and the reason for admission. The majority of patients were admitted with various cardiac diseases, excluding trauma patients. The patients were classified into three groups with the following binary outcomes: permanent neurological deficit or restoration of consciousness; unfavourable outcome (death or survival with permanent neurological deficit) or favourable outcome; and death or survival.
Plasma S100 protein levels at admission facilitated the identification of patients who later developed a permanent neurological deficit or regained consciousness (p < 0.0001). All patients with plasma S100 protein over 0.532 μg/l at ICU admission either developed a permanent neurological deficit or had an unfavourable outcome (death or survival with permanent neurological deficit). However, sensitivity for this cut-off value was only 48% and 40%, respectively.
Plasma S100 protein levels over 0.532 μg/l are specific but not sensitive for both permanent neurological deficit and unfavourable outcome when assessed in a heterogeneous population at admission to the ICU.

Emerg Med Australas
Emerg Med Australas 2017 Jan 16. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

We have previously established that paramedic exposure to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is relatively rare, therefore clinical exposure cannot be relied on to maintain resuscitation competency. We aimed to identify the current practices within emergency medical services (EMS) for developing and maintaining paramedic resuscitation competency.
We developed and conducted an online cross-sectional survey of Australian and New Zealand EMS in 2015. Read More

The survey was piloted by one EMS and targeted at education managers.
A total of nine of the 10 EMS responded to the survey. All EMS reported that they provide resuscitation training to paramedics at the commencement of their employment (median 16 h, interquartile range [IQR]: 7-80). With the exception of one EMS that did not provide any refresher training, a median of 4 h (IQR: 1-7) resuscitation training was provided to paramedics annually. All EMS used cardiac arrest simulations and skill stations to train paramedics. Paramedic exposure to OHCA was not taken into account to determine their training needs. Resuscitation competency was tested by EMS: annually (3/9), biennially (4/9) or not at all (2/9). Two EMS used CPR-feedback devices in clinical practice and only one EMS regularly performed formal debriefing after OHCA cases. Barriers to resuscitation competency included: difficulty removing paramedics from clinical duties for training and a lack of paramedic exposure to OHCA.
All of the surveyed EMS provided initial resuscitation training to paramedics, but competency testing and refresher training practices varied between services. A lack of individual exposure to cardiac arrest and training time were identified as barriers to resuscitation competency.

Heart Rhythm
Heart Rhythm 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Bergman Clinics, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) is a rare primary cardiac arrhythmia syndrome that is diagnosed in a resuscitated cardiac arrest victim, with documented ventricular fibrillation, in whom no underlying cause is identified after comprehensive clinical evaluation. In some patients causative genetic mutations are detected which facilitate patient treatment and follow-up. The feasibility of next generation sequencing (NGS) has increased with its greater availability and decreasing costs. Read More

The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield of NGS in IVF patients.
A total of 33 patients initially diagnosed with IVF were included (mean age 53±15; 42% male). In all included patients NGS of 33 genes + the DPP6 haplotype were screened and normal in a previous stage. Genetic screening comprised NGS of a panel of 179 additional genes. Variants with a minor allele frequency of <0.05% were assessed for pathogenicity using existing mutation databases and in silico predictive algorithms.
In one out of 33 patients, a likely pathogenic mutation was detected. The added yield of genetic testing with NGS of 179 additional genes is 3% in IVF patients. In 15% of the patients one or multiple variants of uncertain clinical significance were detected.
The added yield of genetic screening of extended NGS panels in patients initially diagnosed with IVF is minimal. Routine analysis of large diagnostic NGS panels is therefore not recommended.

Resuscitation 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
Center for Clinical Management Research, Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.
Resuscitation 2017 Jan 10. Epub 2017 Jan 10.
Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Knowledge about heart rhythm conversion from non-shockable to shockable rhythm during resuscitation attempt after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and following chance of survival is limited and inconsistent.
We studied 13,860 patients with presumed cardiac-caused OHCA not witnessed by the emergency medical services from the Danish Cardiac Arrest Register (2005-2012). Patients were stratified according to rhythm: shockable, converted shockable (based on receipt of subsequent defibrillation) and sustained non-shockable rhythm. Read More

Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors of rhythm conversion and to compute 30-day survival chances.
Twenty-five percent of patients who received pre-hospital defibrillation by ambulance personnel were initially found in non-shockable rhythms. Younger age, males, witnessed arrest, shorter response time, and heart disease were significantly associated with conversion to shockable rhythm, while psychiatric- and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were significantly associated with sustained non-shockable rhythm. Compared to sustained non-shockable rhythms, converted shockable rhythms and initial shockable rhythms were significantly associated with increased 30-day survival (Adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-3.8; and OR 16.4, 95% CI 12.7-21.2, respectively). From 2005 to 2012, 30-day survival chances increased significantly for all three groups: shockable rhythms, from 16.3% (CI: 14.2%-18.7%) to 35.7% (CI: 32.5%-38.9%); converted rhythms, from 2.1% (CI: 1.6%-2.9%) to 5.8% (CI: 4.4%-7.6%); and sustained non-shockable rhythms, from 0.6% (CI: 0.5%-0.8%) to 1.8% (CI: 1.4%-2.2%).
Converting to shockable rhythm during resuscitation attempt was common and associated with nearly a three-fold higher odds of 30-day survival compared to sustained non-shockable rhythms.

We examined the early outcomes and the long-term survival associated with different degrees of hypothermia in patients who received antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) for >30 minutes.
During a 10-year period, 544 consecutive patients underwent proximal and total aortic arch surgery and received ACP for >30 minutes and 1 of 3 levels of hypothermia: deep (14.1°C-20°C; n = 116 [21. Read More

3%]), low-moderate (20.1°C-23.9°C; n = 262 [48.2%]), and high-moderate (24°C-28°C; n = 166 [30.5%]). A variable called "predicted temperature" was used in propensity-score analysis. Multivariate analysis was done to evaluate the effect of actual temperature on outcomes.
The operative mortality rate was 12.5% (n = 68) overall and was 15.5%, 11.8%, and 11.5% in the deep, low-moderate, and high-moderate hypothermia patients, respectively (P = .54). The persistent stroke rate was 6.6% overall and 12.2%, 4.6%, and 6.0% in these 3 groups, respectively (P = .024 on univariate analysis). On multivariate analysis, actual temperature was not associated with mortality, but lower temperatures predicted persistent stroke and reoperation for bleeding. In the propensity-matched subgroups, the patients with predicted deep hypothermia had (nonsignificantly) greater rates of persistent stroke (12.2% vs 4.9%; relative risk, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.87-1.15) and reoperation for bleeding (14.6% vs 2.4%; relative risk, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.87-1.15) than the patients with predicted moderate hypothermia. On long-term follow-up (mean duration, 5.12 years), 4- and 8-year survival rates were 62.3% and 55.7% in the deep hypothermia group and 75.4% and 74.2% in the moderate hypothermia group (P = .0015).
In proximal and arch operations involving ACP for >30 minutes, greater actual temperatures were associated with less stroke and reoperation for bleeding. There were no significant differences among the predicted hypothermia levels, although a trend toward a higher rate of adverse events was noticed in the deep hypothermia group. Long-term survival was better in the moderate hypothermia group.

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Dr Antoni Jurasz Memorial University Hospital in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland; Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Ergonomics, Division of Ergonomics and Physical Effort, Collegium Medicum UMK in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland. Electronic address:

To investigate the potential beneficial effects of posterior pericardial drainage in patients undergoing heart surgery.
Multiple online databases and relevant congress proceedings were screened for randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of posterior pericardial drainage, defined as posterior pericardiotomy incision, chest tube to posterior pericardium, or both. Primary endpoint was in-hospital/30 days' cardiac tamponade. Read More

Secondary endpoints comprised death or cardiac arrest, early and late pericardial effusion, postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF), acute kidney injury, pulmonary complications, and length of hospital stay.
Nineteen randomized controlled trials that enrolled 3425 patients were included. Posterior pericardial drainage was associated with a significant 90% reduction of the odds of cardiac tamponade compared with the control group: odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.13 (0.07-0.25); P < .001. The corresponding event rates were 0.42% versus 4.95%. The odds of early and late pericardial effusion were reduced significantly in the intervention arm: 0.20 (0.11-0.36); P < .001 and 0.05 (0.02-0.10); P < .001, respectively. Posterior pericardial drainage significantly reduced the odds of POAF by 58% (P < .001) and was associated with significantly shortened (by nearly 1 day) overall length of hospital stay (P < .001). Reductions in postoperative complications translated into significantly reduced odds of death or cardiac arrest (P = .03) and numerically lower odds of acute kidney injury (P = .08).
Posterior pericardial drainage is safe and simple technique that significantly reduces not only the prevalence of early pericardial effusion and POAF but also late pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. These benefits, in turn, translate into improved survival after heart surgery.

Cardiol Young
Cardiol Young 2017 Jan;27(S1):S75-S79
Children's Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Program,Sibley Heart Center Cardiology and Emory University,Atlanta,Georgia,United States of America.

The recreational use of illicit drugs remains an enormous and growing problem throughout the United States of America and around the world. Cocaine is most frequently thought of when considering the cardiovascular toxicity of illicit drugs. The association of cocaine use with sudden death due to myocardial ischaemia and infarction is well recognised, and this risk appears to be amplified by concomitant cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption. Read More

Like cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives lead to indirect stimulation of the autonomic nervous system through the release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin in nerve terminals of the central and autonomic nervous systems. However, amphetamine lacks the ion channel-blocking properties of cocaine. Also similar to cocaine, coronary artery spasm may be induced in individuals with or without atherosclerotic disease and may lead to myocardial infarction. With the movement across the United States of America to legalise marijuana, or cannabis, for medicinal and recreational purposes, it is important to consider its potential deleterious effects. Marijuana has long been thought to have very few adverse effects with the exception of long-term dependence. There are, however, scattered reports of acute adverse events up to and including sudden death. These appear to be due to myocardial infarction. In conclusion, the incidence of sudden death associated with the use of these drugs varies from rare in the case of marijuana use to not infrequent with some drugs such as cocaine. It is important for care providers to recognise the potential for drug abuse when caring for a sudden cardiac arrest survivor.

Cardiol Young
Cardiol Young 2017 Jan;27(S1):S49-S56
1Department of Pediatrics,Children's Heart Centre,Division of Cardiology,British Columbia Children's Hospital,Vancouver,British Columbia,Canada.

Since the sentinel description of exercise-triggered ventricular arrhythmias in 21 children, our recognition and understanding of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia has improved substantially. A variety of treatments are now available, but reaching a diagnosis before cardiac arrest remains a challenge. Most cases are related to variants in the gene encoding for ryanodine receptor-2 (RyR2), which mediates calcium-induced calcium release. Read More

Up to half of cases remain genetically elusive. The condition is presently incurable, but one basic intervention, the universal administration of β-blockers, has improved survival. In the past, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) were frequently implanted, especially in those with a history of cardiac arrest. Treatment limitations include under-dosing and poor compliance with β-blockers, and potentially lethal ICD-related electrical storm. Newer therapies include flecainide and sympathetic ganglionectomy. Limited data have suggested that genotype may predict phenotype in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, including a higher risk of life-threatening cardiac events in subjects with variants in the C-terminus of ryanodine receptor-2 (RyR2). At present, international efforts are underway to better understand this condition through large prospective registries. The recent publication of gene therapy in an animal model of the recessive form of the disease highlights the importance of improving our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of the disease.