Aortic Stenosis Publications (47291)
Aortic Stenosis Publications
Significant CT findings were identified, operative notes were reviewed, and patient outcomes were reported.
A total of 32 contrast chest CT examinations were performed in 24 patients with suspected LVAD thrombosis. LVAD thrombus was identified on CT in two patients (one in the outflow graft and one in the inflow cannula), and complications were found in two patients (one with inflow cannula malposition and one with outflow graft stenosis at aortic anastomosis site). Thirteen patients (67%) underwent LVAD explantation for clinically presumed LVAD thrombosis (LVAD exchange in seven, orthotopic heart transplant in six). LVAD thrombus was confirmed at the time of surgery in eight patients (62%; six in the motor, two in the outflow graft).
CT has a low sensitivity but high specificity for detecting LVAD thrombus. The sensitivity is higher, but still modest for the detection of thrombus in the outflow cannula.
5%) undergoing transfemoral TAVI for severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. At baseline, VWF:Ag was 210±90IU/dl with a mean VWF activity of 166±106IU/dl; activity-to-antigen ratio was 0.85±0.45. Heyde's syndrome (severe aortic stenosis plus GI bleeding from angiodyplasia) was observed in 2/74 (2.7%). Whereas preprocedural loss of high-molecular-weight (HMW) VWF multimers was found in thirty-six patients (48.6%), none of the patients fulfilled criteria for possible acquired VW syndrome. After TAVI, an increase of both VWF:Ag and activity compared to baseline was observed (p<0.01). In patients with HMW multimer loss, post-interventional recovery of multimers occurred in all cases. In the two patients with Heyde's syndrome, a trend towards reduced VWF:Ag was seen, with loss of HMW multimers in one patient. Of interest, all patients suffering from periprocedural major bleeding (5/74; 6.8%) exhibited activity-to-antigen ratios <0.7, indicating subclinical VWF dysfunction.
Whereas clinically relevant VWF dysfunction is rare, loss of HMW VWF multimers is common in TAVI patients. Similar to surgery, TAVI leads to a restoration of this loss. Furthermore, VWF parameters may be useful parameter to evaluate risk of periprocedural bleeding.
The primary outcome was 30 day mortality and secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction, stroke, life threatening bleeding, major access site vascular complications and renal failure. There were no significant differences in 30 day and six months-one year mortality between TAVR and TAVR with PCI group. There were also no significant differences in myocardial infarction, stroke, and life threatening bleeding and major access site vascular complications between the two groups. PCI in addition to TAVR in patients with concomitant severe aortic stenosis and CAD is safe and feasible and does not increase procedural risk.
In experienced hands, the procedure has become well tolerated and the results more predictable. So far, two trials using two different devices [Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve (PARTNER) 1A and US CoreValve High Risk] have shown that TAVI is able to compete in terms of mortality with SAVR in high-risk patients. These findings have been extended to the intermediate-risk population in two recently published randomized controlled trials [PARTNER 2 and Nordic Aortic Valve Intervention (NOTION)]. The two meta-analyses suggested improved survival in both high and intermediate-risk patients during the first 2 years following the intervention. The survival benefit was only found in patients treated via the transfemoral access, and appeared more pronounced in women.
Individual randomized trials enrolling high and intermediate-risk patients have established the noninferiority of TAVI in comparison with SAVR, whereas subsequent meta-analyses suggest superiority of transfemoral TAVI in terms of a sustained survival benefit 2 years after valve implantation irrespective of the surgical risk category. The benefit of TAVI appears more pronounced in women than in men.
30 patients with severe AS were treated (15 AVR, 15 TAVI). Before the procedures (t0) and after 1 week (t1) echocardiography and PWV were evaluated.
On the whole population, subjects with higher PWV showed higher transvalvular pressure gradient at baseline (mean: 56.5 ± 15.1 vs 45.4 ± 9.5; peak: 93.3 ± 26.4 vs 73.3 ± 14.9, p = 0.02) and, a significantly greater response to the procedures (mean: -42.9 ± 17.2 vs -27.9 ± 10.1, peak: -68.7 ± 29.2 vs -42.8 ± 16.4, p = 0.02). When the two different procedures groups were separated, data were confirmed only in the TAVI subgroup.
In patients undergoing procedures for AS, PWV is correlated with transvalvular gradient and, in TAVI subjects, is able to predict the echocardiographic response. Baseline evaluation of PWV in patients candidates to TAVI can help the selection of subjects, even if larger and longer studies are needed before definitive conclusion can be drawn.
Systolic MDCT data of 73 patients, referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) who also had MR, were evaluated. The MDCT systolic phase with the smaller left ventricular volume and the largest mitral regurgitant orifice was selected. Using planimetry, the mitral ROA was measured. The mitral ROA was multiplied with the velocity time integral of the MR jet on echocardiography for the calculation of the integrated regurgitant volume (RVol). MDCT analysis showed a mean mitral ROA of 11.3 ± 7.4 mm(2) and a mean integrated RVol of 21.4 ± 14.7 mL/beat, whereas echocardiography showed a mean effective ROA and RVol of MR of 13.3 ± 8.2 mm(2) and 23.9 ± 13.6 mL/beat, respectively. Compared with echocardiography, grading based on integrated mitral RVol resulted in reclassification of 10% of the patients from severe to non-severe MR and 14% of the patients from non-severe to severe MR.
Integrated mitral RVol is a quantitative parameter of MR severity by combining the true cross-sectional mitral ROA assessed with MDCT and Doppler mitral haemodynamics which resulted in a significant reclassification of MR grade in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR.
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of statins in aortic valve stenosis.
Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS - IBECS, Web of Science and CINAHL Plus. These databases were searched from their inception to 24 November 2015. We also searched trials in registers for ongoing trials. We used no language restrictions.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing statins alone or in association with other systemic drugs to reduce cholesterol levels versus placebo or usual care. Data collection and analysis: Primary outcomes were severity of aortic valve stenosis (evaluated by echocardiographic criteria: mean pressure gradient, valve area and aortic jet velocity), freedom from valve replacement and death from cardiovascular cause. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization for any reason, overall mortality, adverse events and patient quality of life.Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The GRADE methodology was employed to assess the quality of result findings and the GRADE profiler (GRADEPRO) was used to import data from Review Manager 5.3 to create a 'Summary of findings' table.
We included four RCTs with 2360 participants comparing statins (1185 participants) with placebo (1175 participants). We found low-quality evidence for our primary outcome of severity of aortic valve stenosis, evaluated by mean pressure gradient (mean difference (MD) -0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.88 to 0.80; participants = 1935; studies = 2), valve area (MD -0.07, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.14; participants = 127; studies = 2), and aortic jet velocity (MD -0.06, 95% CI -0.26 to 0.14; participants = 155; study = 1). Moderate-quality evidence showed no effect on freedom from valve replacement with statins (risk ratio (RR) 0.93, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.06; participants = 2360; studies = 4), and no effect on muscle pain as an adverse event (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.09; participants = 2204; studies = 3; moderate-quality evidence). Low- and very low-quality evidence showed uncertainty around the effect of statins on death from cardiovascular cause (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.15; participants = 2297; studies = 3; low-quality evidence) and hospitalization for any reason (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.84; participants = 155; study = 1; very low-quality evidence). None of the four included studies reported on overall mortality and patient quality of life.
Result findings showed uncertainty surrounding the effect of statins for aortic valve stenosis. The quality of evidence from the reported outcomes ranged from moderate to very low. These results give support to European and USA guidelines (2012 and 2014, respectively) that so far there is no clinical treatment option for aortic valve stenosis.
Significant valvular regurgitation and (or) stenosis is often present with subsequent operation performed at the fifth to sixth decade of life. The functional status of QAV is predominantly regurgitant; whereas pure stenotic QAV can be as few as in only 0.7% of the patients. QAV is usually an isolated anomaly, but other congenital heart defects can be present in 18-32% of the patients. About one-fifth of them require a surgical operation. Tricuspidalization is a preferred technique for QAV repair. As not all the patients with a QAV necessarily warrant a surgical operation, decision-making in patient selection and surgical procedure of choice are crucial. Antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis is necessary in the QAV patients with unequal-sized cusps.
We evaluated the reactive oxygen species concentration, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities as well as nitrite levels in samples of aortas harvested during aortofemoral bypass for treatment of advanced aortoiliac occlusive disease.
We observed a higher level of reactive oxygen species in total aortoiliac occlusion group (48.3±9.56 pmol/mg protein) when compared to severe aortoiliac stenosis (33.5±7.4 pmol/mg protein) and control (4.91±0.8 pmol/mg protein) groups (P<0.05). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity was also higher in total aortoiliac occlusion group when compared to the control group (3.81±1.7 versus 1.05±0.31 µmol/min.mg protein; P<0.05). Furthermore, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly higher in the severe aortoiliac stenosis and total aortoiliac occlusion groups when compared to the control cases (P<0.05). Nitrite concentration was smaller in the severe aortoiliac stenosis group in comparing to the other groups.
Our results indicated an increase of reactive oxygen species levels and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase activity in human aortic samples of patients with advanced aortoiliac occlusive disease. The increase of antioxidant enzymes activities may be due to a compensative phenomenon to reactive oxygen species production mediated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. This preliminary study offers us a more comprehensive knowledge about the role of oxidative stress in advanced aortoiliac occlusive disease in human beings.