Angiokeratoma Corporis Diffusum Fabry Syndrome Publications (3736)
Angiokeratoma Corporis Diffusum Fabry Syndrome Publications
We diagnosed PCS in 612 patients (29.1%, 407 men, 205 women) and ACS in 1,489 patients (70.9%). Their age (median 46 vs. 47 years, p = 0.205) and stroke severity (modified Rankin Scale: both 2, p = 0.375, Barthel Index 90 vs. 85, p = 0.412) were similar. PCS was found to be more frequent among the male gender (66.5 vs. 60.1% with ACS, p = 0.003). Vertebral artery (VA) dissection was more often the cause of PCS (16.8%) than was carotid artery dissection of ACS (7.9%, p < 0.001). Likewise, small vessel disease (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment [TOAST] = 3, PCS: 14.7%, ACS: 11.8%) and stroke of other determined aetiology (TOAST = 4, PCS: 24.5%, ACS: 16.0%) were more frequent in those with PCS. Furthermore, patent foramen ovale (PFO; PCS: 31.1%, ACS: 25.4%, p = 0.029) was more often detected in patients with PCS. In contrast, large-artery atherosclerosis (TOAST = 1, PCS: 15.4%, ACS: 22.2%) and cardio-embolic stroke (TOAST = 2, PCS: 15.6%, ACS: 18.0%) were less frequent in those with PCS (p < 0.001) as were preceding cerebrovascular events (10.1 vs. 14.1%, p = 0.014), TIA (4.8 vs. 7.7%, p = 0.016) and smoking (53.2 vs. 61.0%, p = 0.001). The presence, extent, and location of WMH and CMB did not differ between the 2 groups.
Our data suggested a different pattern of aetiology and risk factors in young patients with PCS compared to those with ACS. These findings especially call for a higher awareness of VA dissection and potentially for more weight of a PFO as a risk factor in young patients with PCS. Clinical trial registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00414583.
Eight additional subjects received two doses of 1000 mg lucerastat or placebo separated by 12 h. In the MAD study, 37 subjects received placebo or 200, 500, or 1000 mg b.i.d. lucerastat for 7 consecutive days. Six subjects in the 500 mg cohort received lucerastat in both absence and presence of food.
In the SAD study, 15 adverse events (AEs) were reported in ten subjects. Eighteen AEs were reported in 15 subjects in the MAD study, in which the 500 mg dose cohort was repeated because of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values in 4 subjects, not observed in other dose cohorts. No severe or serious AE was observed. No clinically relevant abnormalities regarding vital signs and 12-lead electrocardiograms were observed. Lucerastat Cmax values were comparable between studies, with geometric mean Cmax 10.5 (95% CI: 7.5, 14.7) and 11.1 (95% CI: 8.7, 14.2) μg/mL in the SAD and MAD study, respectively, after 1000 mg lucerastat b.i.d. tmax (0.5 - 4 h) and t1/2 (3.6 - 8.1 h) were also within the same range across dose groups in both studies. Using the Gough power model, dose proportionality was confirmed in the SAD study for Cmax and AUC0-∞, and for AUC0-12 in the MAD study. Fed-to-fasted geometric mean ratio for AUC0-12 was 0.93 (90% CI: 0.80, 1.07) and tmax was the same with or without food, indicating no food effect.
Incidence of drug-related AEs did not increase with dose. No serious AEs were reported for any subject. Overall, lucerastat was well tolerated. These results warrant further investigation of substrate reduction therapy with lucerastat in patients with glycolipid storage disorders. SAD study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under the identifier NCT02944487 on the 24(th) of October 2016 (retrospectively registered). MAD study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under the identifier NCT02944474 on the 25(th) of October 2016 (retrospectively registered).
A Study to Assess the Safety and Tolerability of Lucerastat in Subjects With Fabry Disease. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02930655 .
Her paternal uncle had chronic renal failure and intellectual disability, and her paternal aunt was affected with congestive cardiac failure. The patient has two sisters with no significant medical illness. However, her nephew has acroparesthesia, anhidrosis, and school phobia, and her niece shows mild phenotypes. The patient's enzyme analysis showed very low α-galactosidase A (α-gal A) activity in dried blood spot (DBS), lymphocytes, and skin fibroblasts with massive excretion of Gb3 and Gb2 in urine and lyso-Gb3 in DBS and plasma. Electron microscopic examination showed a large accumulation of sphingolipids in vascular endothelial cells and keratinocytes. Chromosomal analysis and comparative genomic hybridization microarray showed 10q26 terminal deletion. Molecular data showed a novel heterozygous stop codon mutation in exon 1 of the GLA gene in her sisters and niece, and a hemizygous state in her nephew. When we checked the methylation status, we found her non-mutated allele in the GLA gene was methylated. However, the non-mutated alleles of her sisters were non-methylated, and those of her niece were partially methylated. The chromosomal and methylation study may speculate the severity of her clinical phenotypes.
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a 30-year-old Chinese man with a diagnosis of Fabry disease, GLA gene (IVS4+919G>A) mutation were reprogrammed into iPSCs and differentiated into iPSC-CMs and energy metabolism was analyzed in iPSC-CMs.
The FD-iPSC-CMs recapitulated numerous aspects of the FD phenotype including reduced GLA activity, cellular hypertrophy, GB3 accumulation and impaired contractility. Decreased energy metabolism with energy utilization shift to glycolysis was observed, but the decreased energy metabolism was not modified by enzyme rescue replacement (ERT) in FD-iPSCs-CMs.
This model provided a promising in vitro model for the investigation of the underlying disease mechanism and development of novel therapeutic strategies for FD. This potential remedy for enhancing the energetic network and utility efficiency warrants further study to identify novel therapies for the disease.
4; 64.1] and 61.3 [60.4; 65.1] years, respectively), 13 males (54.2%) and five females (83.3%) received agalsidase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) before biopsy. Median left ventricular mass indexed to height (LVMI) within ±6 months of biopsy was 65.3 (52.7; 93.1) in males and 53.2 (42.0; 55.0) g/m(2.7) in females. A moderate, positive, statistically significant correlation was found between the percentage area Gb3 accumulation in cardiomyocytes and LVMI (Spearman's ρ, 0.45; p = 0.014); a smaller, positive, non-statistically significant correlation was observed between cardiomyocyte diameter and LVMI (Spearman's ρ 0.16, p = 0.394). Moderate, statistically significant, negative correlations were found between Gb3 accumulation and ERT duration (Spearman's ρ, -0.49, p = 0.007) and between cardiomyocyte size and ERT duration (Spearman's ρ, -0.37, p = 0.048). Longer ERT duration was associated with smaller amounts of Gb3 accumulation and smaller cardiomyocyte size. Further follow-up is recommended to confirm these trends in a larger sample size.
FC, defined as maximal left ventricular wall thickness ≥ 15 mm, was present in 12. The Mainz Severity Score Index was calculated for each patient. Pulsed tissue Doppler was applied to the RV free wall at the tricuspid annular level and at the septal and lateral corners at the mitral annular level to obtain systolic tissue Doppler velocities (RV Sa, septal Sa, and lateral Sa, respectively). Twelve patients with amyloid light-chain cardiac amyloidosis were studied as a control group.
Echocardiography revealed RV hypertrophy (RVH) in 31% of patients with AFD, all but one of whom were male and all of whom had concomitant left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). All patients with AFD had normal RV fractional area change (47.9 ± 6.5%) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (21.7 ± 3.2 mm) and all but one also had normal RV Sa (13.2 ± 2.2 cm/sec). RVH positively correlated with indices of LVH (r = 0.8, P = .0001, for all parameters evaluated), as well as with Mainz Severity Score Index (r = 0.70, P = .0001). Septal and lateral Sa were decreased in almost all patients (means, 7.7 ± 1.8 and 7.9 ± 1.9 cm/sec, respectively), irrespective of the presence of LVH. Compared with control subjects with cardiac amyloidosis, patients with FC showed better indices of RV systolic function (P < .001 for all: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RV fractional area change, and RV Sa) despite similar RV wall thickness (6.2 ± 1.2 vs 6.9 ± 1.9 mm, P = NS).
RVH is common in patients with AFD and correlates with disease severity and LVH. RVH, however, does not significantly affect RV systolic function. Patients with FC have better RV systolic function compared with those with cardiac amyloidosis with similar levels of RV thickness. The combination of low LV Sa values and normal RV Sa values might be helpful in the differential diagnosis of infiltrative heart disease.
LysoGb3 was assessed at different times in two brothers with classic Fabry disease (genotype c. 370-2 A > G). The firstborn was diagnosed after clinical onset at 11 years of age, whereas the second-born was diagnosed in the neonatal period. LysoGb3 was measured in dried blood spots by high-sensitive electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Blood LysoGb3 concentrations were consistent with patients' age and clinical picture, with lower levels in the asymptomatic neonate (19.1 ng/ml) and higher levels in the symptomatic child (94.3 ng/ml). In the second-born, LysoGb3 doubled during the first 5 months of life (37.4 ng/ml), reaching ~40% concentration observed in the symptomatic period. The neonatal LysoGb3 concentration in classic Fabry disease exceeded that observed in normal subjects by over 15 times.
A substantial increase of LysoGb3 was documented during the first months of life in classic Fabry disease, suggesting an early plateau during the pre-symptomatic period. Such a progressive metabolic trend during the pre-symptomatic period implies the potential definition of a metabolic threshold useful for a preventive therapeutic approach of classic Fabry disease. Additionally, the consistent increase of LysoGb3 in the neonatal period in classic Fabry disease suggests LysoGb3 as a useful marker for improving the specificity of newborn screening for Fabry disease.
We used qualitative content analysis to analyze the anonymized transcripts. We conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies that used PROs to investigate burden of disease or to assess the impact of interventions across the five LSDs of interest.
Interviews with seven researchers and six HTA experts representing eight countries revealed five themes. These were: (i) the importance of using psychometrically sound PROs in studies with rare diseases, (ii) the paucity of disease-specific PROs, (iii) the importance of having PRO data for economic analyses, (iv) practical and psychometric limitations of existing PROs, and (v) suggestions for new PROs. The systematic review has been completed.
The interviews highlight current challenges and opportunities experienced by researchers and HTA experts involved in work with rare LSDs. The ongoing systematic review will highlight the experience, opportunities, and limitations of PROs in LSDs and provide suggestions for future research.