Aneurysm Abdominal Publications (27257)
Aneurysm Abdominal Publications
Consecutive patients, referring for a CV assessment in a 6 months period, were screened. AA was visualized by subcostal view in longitudinal and transverse plans in order to determine the greatest anterior-posterior diameter. After excluding 5 patients with AA aneurysm, 508 outpatients were enrolled. All patients underwent a sequential assessment including clinical history with collection of CV risk factors, physical examination, PSID exam and standard Doppler echoc exam using a 2.5 transducer with harmonic capability, both by expert ultrasound operators, during the same morning. Standard echocardiography operators were blinded on PSID exam and viceversa.
Diagnostic accuracy of AA size by PSID was tested successfully with standard echo machine in a subgroup (n = 102) (rho = 0.966, p < 0.0001). AA diameter was larger in men than in women and in ≥50 -years old subjects than in those <50 -years old (both p < 0.0001). AA was larger in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) (p < 0.0001). By a multivariate model, male sex (p < 0.0001), age and body mass index (both p < 0.0001), CAD (p < 0.01) and heart rate (p = 0.018) were independent predictors of AA size (cumulative R (2) = 0.184, p < 0.0001).
PSID is a reliable tool for the screening of determinants of AA size. AA diameter is greater in men and strongly influenced by aging and overweight. CAD may be also associated to increased AA diameter.
Pre-, intra- and postoperative variables, influential procedural improvements and follow-up data including aortic remodelling analyses are presented.
Overall 30-day mortality was 10%, 10% for AAD, 7% for CAD and 13% for TAA. Univariable analysis identified low left ventricular ejection fraction, peripheral arterial disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severely compromised haemodynamics as risk factors for in-hospital death. Logistic regression analysis defined compromised haemodynamics and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass as significant. After 7 years, estimated survival was 55% for AAD, 74% for CAD and 73% for TAA patients. Freedom from aorta-related late death was 94%, 91% in AAD, 100% in CAD and 97% in TAA. Positive or stable aortic remodelling down to the stent graft end was achieved in 92% AAD, 82% in CAD and full aneurysmal exclusion in 88%. Further downstream, negative remodelling was observed in 27% of the AAD, 41% of the CAD and 22% of the TAA patients. Freedom from endovascular intervention downstream was 96% in AAD, 75% in CAD and 74% in TAA patients. Freedom from thoraco-abdominal surgery was 97%, 65% and 93%, respectively.
The E-vita Open hybrid stent graft renders durable long-term performance without any proximal endoleakage or graft failure over time and represents the ideal landing or docking zone for either thoracic endovascular thoracic repair or thoraco-abdominal surgery, if required. No reinterventions were necessary down to the end of the stent graft, proving that the disease is overcome along the hybrid graft down to mid-thoracic level.
People with AAA have an increased prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk of cardiovascular events. Despite this association, little is known about the effectiveness of pharmacological prophylaxis in reducing cardiovascular risk in people with AAA. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2014.
To determine the long-term effectiveness of antiplatelet, antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medication in reducing mortality and cardiovascular events in people with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).
For this update the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist (CIS) searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register (14 April 2016). In addition, the CIS searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2016, Issue 3) and trials registries (14 April 2016) and We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles.
Randomised controlled trials in which people with AAA were randomly allocated to one prophylactic treatment versus another, a different regimen of the same treatment, a placebo, or no treatment were eligible for inclusion in this review. Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality.
Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, and completed quality assessment and data extraction. We resolved any disagreements by discussion. Only one study met the inclusion criteria of the review, therefore we were unable to perform meta-analysis.
No new studies met the inclusion criteria for this update. We included one randomised controlled trial in the review. A subgroup of 227 participants with AAA received either metoprolol (N = 111) or placebo (N = 116). There was no clear evidence that metoprolol reduced all-cause mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 1.41), cardiovascular death (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.76), AAA-related death (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.06 to 16.92) or increased nonfatal cardiovascular events (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.58 to 3.57) 30 days postoperatively. Furthermore, at six months postoperatively, estimated effects were compatible with benefit and harm for all-cause mortality (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.95), cardiovascular death (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.23 to 2.39) and nonfatal cardiovascular events (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.59 to 3.35). Adverse drug effects were reported for the whole study population and were not available for the subgroup of participants with AAA. We considered the study to be at a generally low risk of bias. We downgraded the quality of the evidence for all outcomes to low. We downgraded the quality of evidence for imprecision as only one study with a small number of participants was available, the number of events was small and the result was consistent with benefit and harm.
Due to the limited number of included trials, there is insufficient evidence to draw any conclusions about the effectiveness of cardiovascular prophylaxis in reducing mortality and cardiovascular events in people with AAA. Further good-quality randomised controlled trials that examine many types of prophylaxis with long-term follow-up are required before firm conclusions can be made.
9, 11.4, and 4.7% at original, first, and second rescan, respectively. There were no differences in screening outcomes between scanning stages (98.4, 97.6, and 97.4% <3 cm). There were 42 men (0.13%) with aortas ≥5.5 cm at original scan, but none at first and second rescan. A significantly greater proportion with non-visualized aorta were from more deprived (5.0%) than less deprived areas (1.7%). Deprivation quintile and staff role were significant independent non-visualized aorta predictors at original scan, and staff role at first rescan. Men from less deprived areas were three times as likely to have aortas visualized than those from more deprived areas (OR = 3.0, CI = 2.4-3.8) at original scan. A man scanned by screening technician compared with lead sonographer was 51% less likely to have aorta visualized at original scan and 94% less likely at first rescan. Conclusions The risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm in men with non-visualized aorta on first or subsequent rescans is no more than for those with visualized aorta on original scanning. Men from deprived areas are much more likely to have non-visualized aorta at original scan.
106 patients underwent EVAR and 52 OSR. EVAR eligibility was higher for the Ovation system (72%) compared to the rest of the devices (Incraft:63%, Nellix:60%, Endurant-II:59%, Excluder:55%, Zenith-Flex:36%, Aorfix:35%, P-Value<0.001). Non-suitable proximal neck anatomy followed by access vessel inadequacy were the primary reasons for ineligibility.
New generation aortic endografts with innovative proximal sealing mechanisms and ultra-low profile delivery systems are increasing patient eligibility for EVAR.
This study evaluated the radiation doses (dose area product (DAP)), fluoroscopy durations and their relationships to the patients, aneurysms, and stent-graft characteristics.
This study included 127 patients with a mean age of 73 years. The mean DAP was 4.8 mGy.m2, and the fluoroscopy time was 21.8 minutes. Aortic bilateral iliac aneurysms, higher body mass index, aneurysms with diameters larger than 60 mm, necks with diameters larger than 28 mm, common iliac arteries with diameters larger than 20 mm, and neck angulations superior to 50 degrees were associated with an increased radiation dose. The number of anatomic risk factors present was associated with increased radiation exposure and fluoroscopy time, regardless of the anatomical risk factors.
The radiation exposure during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair is significant (mean DAP 4.8 mGy.m2) with potential hazards to the surgical team and the patients. The anatomical characteristics of the aneurysm, patient characteristics, and the procedure's technical difficulty were all related to increased radiation exposure during endovascular aortic aneurysm repair procedures. Approximately 40% of radiation exposure can be explained by body mass index, neck angulation, aneurysm diameter, neck diameter, and aneurysm type.
Reoperations included subsequent OR or EVAR procedures performed on the abdominal aorta or iliac arteries, surgical treatment of temporally related bowel obstruction, as well as treatment of abdominal or groin wound complications ≤6 months and treatment of bowel or lower limb ischemia ≤10 days.
Of 6677 patients who underwent AAA repair, 476 (7.1%) required reoperations. OR was associated with a higher rate of reoperations overall (10.0% vs 6.3%; P < .01), with most being intra-abdominal and wound complications. OR also had higher rates of bowel ischemia requiring operation (0.7% vs 0.3%; P = .01) and lower extremity ischemia (0.5% and 0.06%; P < .01). Significantly more endovascular stents were placed during EVAR (2.8% vs 0.5%; P < .01). Logistic regression showed EVAR is a negative predictor for reoperation after controlling for comorbidities (P < .001).
The long-term burden of reoperations after OR may actually be more significant than current understanding when including all possible abdominal complications in an extended analysis. Future prospective trials should include all potential reoperations extended >30 days with associated cost analysis. As surgical innovation in EVAR technology advances, complication comparisons with OR should undergo frequent re-evaluation given that endovascular indications and outcomes continue to expand and improve.
A retrospective case-control study was designed using data from a prospective multicenter database. Patients who electively underwent standard EVAR with an Endurant stent graft (Medtronic Ave, Santa Rosa, Calif) for a degenerative abdominal aortic aneurysm from January 2008 to December 2012 in three high-volume centers in The Netherlands were included. All measurements were obtained using dedicated reconstruction software and center-lumen line reconstruction. Patients with an infrarenal neck diameter of ≥30 mm were compared with patients with a neck diameter of <30 mm. The primary end point was freedom from neck-related adverse events (a composite of type Ia endoleak, neck-related secondary intervention, and endograft migration). Secondary end points were primary clinical success, type Ia endoleak, neck-related reinterventions, endoleaks, and aneurysm-related secondary interventions.
Four-hundred twenty-seven patients were included. Seventy-four patients (17.3%) with a neck diameter of ≥30 mm were compared with a control group of 353 patients. There were no significant differences at baseline between groups including demographics, comorbidities, baseline aneurysm diameter, infrarenal neck length, suprarenal angulation, or infrarenal neck angulation. Median stent graft oversizing was 12.5% (7.9-16.1) and 16.6% (12.0-23.1) in the ≥30-mm neck-diameter and control groups, respectively (P < .001). Median follow-up was 3.1 years (1.2-4.7) and 4.1 years (2.7-5.6) for the large neck and control groups, respectively (P < .001). Type Ia endoleaks occurred in 17 patients (4.0%) and were significantly more frequent in patients with ≥30-mm neck diameter (9.5% vs 2.8%; P = .005). Neck-related secondary interventions were performed in 20 patients (4.7%) and were also more common among patients with neck diameters of ≥30 mm (9.5% vs 3.7%; P = .04). The 4-year freedom from neck-related adverse events were 75% and 95% for the large neck and control groups, respectively (P < .001). On multivariable regression analysis, infrarenal neck diameter of ≥30 mm was an independent risk factor for neck-related adverse events (odds ratio [OR], 3.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-9.1), type Ia endoleak (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.0-8.3), and neck-related secondary interventions (OR, 3.2, 95% CI, 1.1-9.2).
EVAR in patients with large diameter necks is associated with an increased risk of neck-related adverse events in midterm follow-up. This may influence the clinical decision regarding choice of repair and toward a more intensive surveillance following EVAR in these patients in the long term.
METHODS Publically available National Vascular Registry data were used to compare the number of AAAs treated in those centres across the UK that reported outcomes for the periods 2008-2012, 2009-2013 and 2010-2014. Furthermore, the number and characteristics of patients referred for consideration of elective AAA repair at a single tertiary unit were analysed yearly between 2010 and 2014. Clinic, casualty and theatre event codes were searched to obtain all AAAs treated. The results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) were assessed. RESULTS For the 85 centres that reported outcomes in all three five-year periods, the median number of AAAs treated per unit increased between the periods 2008-2012 and 2010-2014 from 192 to 214 per year (p=0.006). In the single centre cohort study, the proportion of patients offered elective AAA repair increased from 74% in 2009-2010 to 81% in 2013-2014, with a maximum of 84% in 2012-2013. The age, aneurysm size and CPET results (anaerobic threshold levels) for those eventually offered elective treatment did not differ significantly between 2010 and 2014. CONCLUSIONS The results do not support the assumption that reporting individual surgeon outcomes is associated with a risk averse strategy regarding patient selection in aneurysm surgery at present.