Acrodermatitis Enteropathica Publications (719)
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica Publications
In this study, we report the role of ZIP4 in human epidermis. ZIP4 is predominantly expressed in human keratinocytes, and its expression is dramatically reduced upon epidermal differentiation. ZIP4 knockdown in human keratinocytes down-regulates Zn levels and the transcriptional activity of a key epidermal Zn-binding protein, ΔNp63, and dysregulates epidermal differentiation in a reconstituted human skin model, resulting in the appearance of proliferating keratinocytes even in the uppermost layers of the skin. We verified that, among the amino acid residues in its Zn-binding motif, Cys205 is critical for the processing and nuclear distribution of ΔNp63 and, therefore, Zn-dependent transcriptional activity. Our results suggest that ZIP4 is essential for maintaining human epidermal homeostasis through the regulation of Zn-dependent ΔNp63 activity and can provide insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the cutaneous symptoms observed in AE patients.
This caused biochemical and clinical improvement with resolution of skin lesions.
Breast milk is a valuable and necessary adjunct to specialized formula in maple syrup urine disease to prevent specific amino acid deficiency in the neonatal period.
In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.
This finding highlights the possibility that the acral, periorificial and anogenital dermatitis in AE might be caused by contact with different irritants in daily life, such as chemicals, foods, urine or feces, respectively. This review focuses on the recent advances regarding the functional role of zinc in skin and describes how zinc deficiency causes various cutaneous manifestations.
One such disorder is maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a genetic deficiency of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, the enzyme that degrades the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) isoleucine, leucine and valine. Treatment involves restricting BCAAs to prevent accumulation. We report a case of an infant being treated for MSUD, who developed the triad of AE/AD after a period of poor BCAA formula intake. The child was found to have low isoleucine and normal zinc levels. Increasing the isoleucine dose improved the eruption, thus the diagnosis of AD secondary to isoleucine deficiency was made. This case emphasizes the importance of carefully balancing BCAA levels while treating MSUD, as deficiency can precipitate AD.
Among skin disorders associated with zinc deficiency, acrodermatitis enteropathica is a disorder caused by mutations in the ZIP4 transporter and subsequent zinc deficiency. The triad acrodermatitis enteropathica is characterized by alopecia, diarrhea, and skin lesions in acral, periorificial, and anogenital areas. We highlight the underlying mechanism of the development of acrodermatitis because of zinc deficiency by describing our new findings. We also discuss the accumulating evidence on zinc deficiency in alopecia and necrolytic migratory erythema, which is typically associated with glucagonomas.