Acanthosis Nigricans Publications (2197)
Acanthosis Nigricans Publications
Two white women aged 49 and 60 years manifested marked central body fat deposition with severe lipoatrophy of their limbs and buttocks and pronounced acanthosis nigricans. They had hypertension, dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, and poorly controlled diabetes (glycated hemoglobin 8.3% and 10.2%, respectively) despite the use of three classes of oral antidiabetic drugs taken in combination in the first case, and high doses of insulin in the second case. Four months after the addition of glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue to their previous treatment they both showed a pronounced improvement in metabolic control (glycated hemoglobin 5.6% and 6.2%, respectively). In the first case, a weight loss of nearly 30 kg was recorded.
We intend to demonstrate that glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues could be a valuable tool for patients with lipodystrophic disorders, probably by improving body fat distribution, with favorable results in insulin-sensitivity and glycemic control.
Serum levels of leptin were measured by ELISA. Results: Body mass index (BMI), uric acid (UA) levels, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher in AN than OB (P<0.05). The levels of leptin were significantly higher in AN than OB (P<0.001) after adjustment for BMI and gender. In male patients, AN showed lower serum levels of testosterone than OB (P<0.001). Multiple Logistic-regression analysis demonstrated that UA (OR 4.627, 95%CI 2.443-8.762, P<0.001) and Leptin (OR 4.098, 95%CI 1.237-13.581, P=0.021) were independent risk factors for AN. In addition, low testosterone level was an independent risk factor for AN in male obese patients (OR 39.062, 95%CI 5.523-283.808, P<0.001). Conclusions: AN is associated with more severe hyperinsulinemia and hyperuricemia in obese patients, as well as lower serum testosterone levels in male patients. UA and Leptin were independent risk factors for AN in obese patients. Low testosterone may be a valuable predictor of AN in male obese patients.
The children were then stratified by tertiles of TG: HDL-C ratio. The strength between TG:HDL-C ratio and other parameters of IR were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Odds ratio was estimated using multiple logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, pubertal stages and IR potential risk factors. Children with IR had significantly higher TG:HDL-C ratio (2.48) (p = 0.01). TG:HDL-C ratio was significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.104, p < 0.005) and waist circumference (r = 0.134, p < 0.001). Increasing tertiles of TG:HDL-C ratio showed significant increase in mean insulin level (p = 0.03), HOMA-IR (p = 0.04) and significantly higher number of children with acanthosis nigricans and metabolic syndrome. The odds of having IR was about 2.5 times higher (OR = 2.47; 95% CI 1.23, 4.95; p = 0.01) for those in the highest tertiles of TG:HDL-C ratio. Hence, TG:HDL-C may be a useful tool to identify high risk individuals.
A mean follow-up of 3 years for these patients was performed.
Patients were categorized into 4 groups, based on the autoantibody response (Ab+ or Ab-) and C-peptide secretion (β+ for fasting level 0.4-2.1 ng/mL and β- if < 0.4 ng/mL). Group1 (type 1a): Ab+ β- (21%), group 2 (type 1b): Ab- β- (9%), group 3 (DD): Ab+ β+ (31%) and group 4 (classic type 2 DM): Ab- β+ (39%). The mean age of the DD patients in our study was 15.1 ± 6.4 years. A total of 41% of the study population presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and 61% of the study population presented with positive family history of DM. The mean BMI was 26.8 kg/m(2) with 64% of overweight or obese patients. Ninety two percent of the patients were started on insulin at the time of diagnosis. During a mean follow-up of 3 years, only 32% of the patients with DD required insulin and 78% were on metformin alone or with insulin.
Our findings enable us to arrive at the conclusion that almost one-third of the young Saudi diabetic patients reveal atypical forms of DM (double diabetes) expressing features resulting from both T1D and T2D.
Current understanding suggests that it is associated with insulin resistance and has a unique role in secondary prevention. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive overview of AN in obese adolescents, covering its history, current knowledge on the condition, its clinical significance, management challenges, and the direction of future research.
We report a case of CS with severe PPK that improved dramatically with systemic administration of acitretin 0.3 mg/kg/day.
Our aim was to determine whether skin signs are feasible as cutaneous markers for the prediabetic or diabetic state.
Data were collected from the databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane. Articles were excluded if the populations presented with comorbidities or received treatment with drugs affecting the skin. Also, animal studies, studies with poor methodology and pilot studies were excluded.
Among the 34 included original articles, an association with diabetes was shown as follows: in eight articles with AN, five articles with ST, three articles with GA, two articles with NL, PR and SD respectively and in one article with RF. Three papers indirectly showed an association of DD with diabetes. Association between bullous skin lesions and diabetes was only documented by case reports and case series.
The results indicate a benefit of diabetes screening in individuals presenting with AN, ST or BD. Further studies are required to enlighten a possible association with RF, GA, SD or NL. Until such studies are available, it is advisable to screen individuals with the skin lesions presented by measuring their glycated haemoglobin.
Fifteen patients with bilateral axillary-AN were studied in Razi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Diagnosis was confirmed by two independent dermatologists. Each side skin lesion was randomly allocated to either topical mixed cream of tretinoin 0.05%- ammonium lactate 12% or long-pulsed alexandrite laser. Duration of treatment was 14 weeks. At endpoint, the mean percent reduction from baseline in pigmentation area was compared between the two groups.
The study population consisted of 15 patients three males and 12, females. The mean age of patients was 28.5±4.9 years. The mean percent reduction was 18.3±10.6%, in tretinoin/ammonium lactate group and 25.7±11.8% in laser group (P=0.004).
These findings indicate that the application of alexandrite laser is a relative effective method for treatment of axillary-AN. However, this issue requires further studies with prolonged follow-up period.
The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity. Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR) was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed.
Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures.
We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases.