Acanthosis Nigricans Publications (2197)


Acanthosis Nigricans Publications

J Med Case Rep
J Med Case Rep 2017 Jan 13;11(1):12. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar São João, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200, Porto, Portugal.

Lipodystrophic syndromes are uncommon medical conditions which are normally associated with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver disease. These complications are generally difficult to treat, particularly diabetes, due to severe insulin resistance. We present two case reports of successful treatment of diabetes with glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues in patients with clinical features of lipodystrophic syndromes. Read More

Two white women aged 49 and 60 years manifested marked central body fat deposition with severe lipoatrophy of their limbs and buttocks and pronounced acanthosis nigricans. They had hypertension, dyslipidemia, fatty liver disease, and poorly controlled diabetes (glycated hemoglobin 8.3% and 10.2%, respectively) despite the use of three classes of oral antidiabetic drugs taken in combination in the first case, and high doses of insulin in the second case. Four months after the addition of glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue to their previous treatment they both showed a pronounced improvement in metabolic control (glycated hemoglobin 5.6% and 6.2%, respectively). In the first case, a weight loss of nearly 30 kg was recorded.
We intend to demonstrate that glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues could be a valuable tool for patients with lipodystrophic disorders, probably by improving body fat distribution, with favorable results in insulin-sensitivity and glycemic control.

Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017 Jan 12. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
World J Diabetes
World J Diabetes 2016 Dec;7(20):621-626
Rim Braham, Aus Alzaid, Asirvatham Alwin Robert, Rania Ahmad Ahmad, Mohamed Abdulaziz Al Dawish, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh 11159, Saudi Arabia.

To determine the clinical and biological characteristics of double diabetes (DD) among young people in Saudi Arabia.
This was a retrospective descriptive chart review study including 312 young newly diagnosed diabetic patients (aged 12-20 years), whom were admitted over a five year period (January 2009 to December 2013). Family history of diabetes mellitus (DM) (first degree), physical body mass index (BMI), acanthosis nigricans, history of auto-immune disease and laboratory information for glycosylated hemoglobin, basal C peptide level and diabetes autoantibody response (anti-GAD, anti-IA2 and anti-ICA) were collected from medical report. Read More

A mean follow-up of 3 years for these patients was performed.
Patients were categorized into 4 groups, based on the autoantibody response (Ab+ or Ab-) and C-peptide secretion (β+ for fasting level 0.4-2.1 ng/mL and β- if < 0.4 ng/mL). Group1 (type 1a): Ab+ β- (21%), group 2 (type 1b): Ab- β- (9%), group 3 (DD): Ab+ β+ (31%) and group 4 (classic type 2 DM): Ab- β+ (39%). The mean age of the DD patients in our study was 15.1 ± 6.4 years. A total of 41% of the study population presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and 61% of the study population presented with positive family history of DM. The mean BMI was 26.8 kg/m(2) with 64% of overweight or obese patients. Ninety two percent of the patients were started on insulin at the time of diagnosis. During a mean follow-up of 3 years, only 32% of the patients with DD required insulin and 78% were on metformin alone or with insulin.
Our findings enable us to arrive at the conclusion that almost one-third of the young Saudi diabetic patients reveal atypical forms of DM (double diabetes) expressing features resulting from both T1D and T2D.

Adolesc Health Med Ther
Adolesc Health Med Ther 2017 16;8:1-10. Epub 2016 Dec 16.
Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Tseung Kwan O Hospital, Tseung Kwan O, Hong Kong, China.

Obesity in adolescence is a public health priority because it usually tracks into adulthood, resulting in enormous medical and social costs. This underscores the importance of early identification and intervention. Acanthosis nigricans (AN) was once considered a rare paraneoplastic dermatosis, but is now frequently observed in obese adolescents. Read More

Current understanding suggests that it is associated with insulin resistance and has a unique role in secondary prevention. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive overview of AN in obese adolescents, covering its history, current knowledge on the condition, its clinical significance, management challenges, and the direction of future research.

Pediatr Dermatol
Pediatr Dermatol 2016 Dec 23. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Costello syndrome (CS) is a multisystem congenital disorder characterized by coarse facial features, cardiac defects, intellectual disability, and predisposition to malignancies. Dermatologic findings can include cutaneous papillomas, skin redundancy, acanthosis nigricans, and keratosis pilaris. Palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) is present in approximately 76% of patients with CS, with disabling functional consequences in severe cases. Read More

We report a case of CS with severe PPK that improved dramatically with systemic administration of acitretin 0.3 mg/kg/day.

Diabetes mellitus and the prediabetic state are associated with a number of skin manifestations. This study is a systematic review of the following manifestations: acanthosis nigricans (AN), skin tags (ST), diabetic dermopathy (DD), rubeosis faciei (RF), pruritus (PR), granuloma annulare (GA), necrobiosis lipoidica (NL), scleroedema diabeticorum (SD) and bullosis diabeticorum (BD). These conditions possibly relate to underlying diabetogenic mechanisms. Read More

Our aim was to determine whether skin signs are feasible as cutaneous markers for the prediabetic or diabetic state.
Data were collected from the databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane. Articles were excluded if the populations presented with comorbidities or received treatment with drugs affecting the skin. Also, animal studies, studies with poor methodology and pilot studies were excluded.
Among the 34 included original articles, an association with diabetes was shown as follows: in eight articles with AN, five articles with ST, three articles with GA, two articles with NL, PR and SD respectively and in one article with RF. Three papers indirectly showed an association of DD with diabetes. Association between bullous skin lesions and diabetes was only documented by case reports and case series.
The results indicate a benefit of diabetes screening in individuals presenting with AN, ST or BD. Further studies are required to enlighten a possible association with RF, GA, SD or NL. Until such studies are available, it is advisable to screen individuals with the skin lesions presented by measuring their glycated haemoglobin.

Indian Dermatol Online J
Indian Dermatol Online J 2016 Nov-Dec;7(6):498-503
Consultant Pathologist, Toprani Advanced Lab Systems, Race Course Circle, Vadodara, India.

The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN) lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases.
It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. Read More

The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity. Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR) was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed.
Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures.
We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Dec 17. Epub 2016 Dec 17.
Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University Clinic of Navarra, University of Navarra, IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, PO Box 4209, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain.