Acalculous Cholecystopathy Publications (7)


Acalculous Cholecystopathy Publications

Indian J Gastroenterol
Indian J Gastroenterol 2012 Jul 2;31(4):186-90. Epub 2012 Sep 2.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160 012, India.

To evaluate the role of quantitative cholescintigraphy with fatty meal in the management of biliary dyskinesia and to describe the findings according to Sostre score (SS) criteria in patients with gallbladder (GB) in-situ and biliary pain. We performed a retrospective analysis of the hepatobiliary (HIDA) studies (n = 35) performed for evaluation of biliary dyskinesia either due to biliary pain, opioid induced sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD), recurrent pancreatitis (RP) or post cholecystectomy syndrome (PCS). Gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) was calculated from the post fatty meal HIDA images (excluding PCS patients). Read More

Studies with GBEF ≤40 % and SS >4 were considered to have cholecystopathy and SOD respectively. Three of the 13 patients with PCS had SS of 6 each, suggestive of SOD. Delayed biliary visualization (>15 min) and activity in common bile duct 60 min > liver 15 min were the specific features in these cases. Opioid induced SOD patients had SS >4 with retrograde refilling of GB in one patient and normalization of the SS parameters after nifedipine challenge in the other patient. Patients with RP and biliary pain were stratified into four groups, normal (GBEF >40 % and SS ≤4), cholecystopathy (GBEF ≤40 % and SS ≤4), normal with SOD (GBEF >40 % and SS >4) and cholecystopathy with SOD (GBEF ≤40 % and SS >4). Four patients with intact GB had cholecystopathy with scintigraphic features of SOD. Quantitative cholescintigraphy with fatty meal and SS scoring identified biliary dyskinesia and SOD in patients with biliary pain, recurrent pancreatitis and post-cholecystectomy syndrome.

AJR Am J Roentgenol
AJR Am J Roentgenol 1994 Jul;163(1):117-21
University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, IL 61656.

This study reports the clinical and radiologic findings in seven patients infected with HIV who had 10 consecutive episodes of symptomatic cholecystopathy induced by infusion of interleukin-2.
Ten episodes of right upper quadrant pain associated with gallbladder wall thickening were seen in seven of 29 HIV-infected patients who received IV interleukin-2. Patients received 6-18 million IU/day of continuous interleukin-2 infusion for 5 days. Read More

Patients with right upper quadrant pain underwent sonographic examinations, which were interpreted prospectively. Medical records and previous sonographic studies were reviewed retrospectively. Follow-up was obtained through outpatient visits and sonography.
Right upper quadrant pain during these 10 episodes of cholecystopathy usually developed 4-5 days after starting infusion of interleukin-2. Sonography during that time showed gallbladder wall thickening (mean thickness, 12.4 mm; range, 5-18 mm) and a wide variety of sonographic appearances. Tenderness during sonography was focal in six episodes, diffuse in one, and absent in three. Sludge was identified in one episode; calculi were not seen. Findings on radionuclide biliary scans were normal in three cases. Symptoms abated rapidly in every case after infusion of interleukin-2 was reduced or stopped. No surgery was necessary. When treatment was repeated, three patients had recurrent episodes, with clinical courses and sonographic aberrations showing little variance from the initial episodes. Follow-up sonography in three episodes showed a maximal thickness of the gallbladder wall of 4 mm. No patient had a history or laboratory evidence of intrinsic biliary disease.
Symptomatic thickening of the gallbladder wall during infusion of interleukin-2 can exactly mimic other forms of acalculous cholecystitis, except that when associated with interleukin-2 the thickening is rapidly reversible and surgery is not required. Radionuclide scans can be useful in clinical decision making. The process appears to be benign, and cessation of interleukin-2 therapy, along with close clinical observation, appears to be the appropriate treatment.

Pediatr Med Chir
Pediatr Med Chir 1989 Jul-Aug;11(4):429-32
Istituto di Clinica Pediatrica, Cattedra di Ematologia Pediatrica, Italia.

The presence of cholelithiasis was diagnosed by ultrasonography in 10 patients with thalassemia major aged 16 to 33 years. Other 10 patients aged 7 to 19 years showed acalculous cholecystopathy. Serum liver enzymes and ferritin levels, as well as splenectomy do not influence significantly the production of gallstones. Read More

Significant differences were observed in the age of patients with gallstones when compared to subjects without gallstones or with acalculous cholecystopathy. Although, in the last years, the high transfusional regimen has decreased the incidence of cholelithiasis, the frequent liver disease could be a cause of acalculous cholecystopathy in younger thalassemic patients.

Schweiz Med Wochenschr
Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1987 Aug;117(33):1217-20
Ospedale della Beata Vergine, Mendrisio.

So-called acalculous gallbladder disease is an ill-defined entity, mainly seen in young women, which could be due to a motility disorder of the biliary tract. Seven young women with relapsing pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen or in the epigastrium, with cholesterol crystals in the bile and with normal sonographic and radiologic findings as well as normal gastroscopy, were investigated by hepato-biliary scintigraphy with 99mTc-HIDA. This first group was compared with a second group of 6 young women suffering from irritable colon, and with a third group of 6 asymptomatic control subjects. Read More

The half emptying-time of the gallbladder after cholecystokinin injection was 104.36 +/- 43.93 minutes in the first group, 17.92 +/- 23.57 minutes in the second and 20.42 +/- 23.67 minutes in the third group (p less than 0.005). After 6 weeks of ursodeoxycholic acid treatment, regression of pain and a significant reduction in the half emptying-time from 104.36 +/- 43.93 to 74.35 +/- 52.79 minutes (p less than 0.01) was observed in the first group. These results, which need to be confirmed by further studies, show that in acalculous gallbladder disease there is a delay in gallbladder emptying which could explain the formation of cholesterol crystals by bile stasis as described by various authors.

Can J Surg
Can J Surg 1986 Nov;29(6):429-33

There are many controversies regarding the surgical management of calculous gallbladder disease. Newer data in the surgical literature and competing medical treatments compound this confusion. In this guest lecture the author reviews current data and provides an update in seven controversial areas: the timing of operation in acute cholecystitis, the management of the diabetic patient with gallstones, the treatment of the patient with asymptomatic gallstones, the medical treatment of gallstones, the use and abuse of operative cholangiography, the management of the patient with gallstone pancreatitis and management of the patient with acalculous cholecystopathy. Read More


Since the initial description of Crohn's disease (CD) located in the distal ileum, great number of cases has been observed, and we know that this disease can occur in any part of the digestive tube, from mouth to anus. The duodenal involvement is rare and no more than two hundred cases have been observed. A case of Crohn's disease located in the duodenum, with a severe acalculus cholecystitis, without intestinal involvement is presented. Read More

Radiological study showed a stenotic process in the first, second and third duodenal portion, later on confirmed by endoscopy. This was confirmed at surgery, when a gastrojejunostomy with truncal vagotomy, cholecystectomy, besides duodenum and liver biopsies were performed. The patient is asymptomatic four years after surgery. It is considered that bile reflux, resulting from involvement of Vater papilla by CD, is responsible factor of the biliary pathology.