Primary constipation: an underlying mechanism.

1989Feb
Med. Hypotheses
Med Hypotheses 1989 Feb;28(2):71-3

Primary (simple) constipation is a consequence of habitual bowel elimination on common toilet seats. A considerable proportion of the population with normal bowel movement frequency has difficulty emptying their bowels, the principal cause of which is the obstructive nature of the recto-anal angle and its association with the sitting posture normally used in defecation. The only natural defecation posture for a human being is squatting. The alignment of the recto-anal angle associated with squatting permits smooth bowel elimination. This prevents excessive straining with the potential for resultant damage to the recto-anal region and, possibly, to the colon and other organs. There is no evidence that habitual bowel elimination at a given time each day contributes considerably to the final act of rectal emptying. The natural behavior to empty the bowels in response to a strong defecation reflex alleviates bowel emptying by means of the recto anal inhibitory reflex.

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1989Feb
Med. Hypotheses
Med Hypotheses 1989 Feb;28(2):71-3

Primary (simple) constipation is a consequence of habitual bowel elimination on common toilet seats. A considerable proportion of the population with normal bowel movement frequency has difficulty emptying their bowels, the principal cause of which is the obstructive nature of the recto-anal angle and its association with the sitting posture normally used in defecation. The only natural defecation posture for a human being is squatting. The alignment of the recto-anal angle associated with squatting permits smooth bowel elimination. This prevents excessive straining with the potential for resultant damage to the recto-anal region and, possibly, to the colon and other organs. There is no evidence that habitual bowel elimination at a given time each day contributes considerably to the final act of rectal emptying. The natural behavior to empty the bowels in response to a strong defecation reflex alleviates bowel emptying by means of the recto anal inhibitory reflex.

1988May
Med. Hypotheses
Med Hypotheses 1988 May;26(1):17-20

The paper describes a hypothesis as to the etiology and pathogenesis of diverticulosis coli. Colonic diverticulosis develops as a result of excessive straining at defecation due to habitual bowel emptying in a sitting posture, which is typical of Western man. The magnitude of straining during habitual bowel emptying in a sitting posture is at least three-fold more than in a squatting posture and upon urge. The latter defecation posture is typical of latrine pit users in underdeveloped nations. The bowels of Western man are subjected to lifelong excessive pressures which result in protrusions of mucosa through the bowel wall at points of least resistance. This hypothesis is consistent with recent findings of elastosis of the bowel wall muscles, the distribution of diverticula along the colon, as well as with epidemiological data on the emergence of diverticulosis coli as a medical problem and its geographic prevalence.

The aim of the study was to compare the straining forces applied when sitting or squatting during defecation. Twenty-eight apparently healthy volunteers (ages 17-66 years) with normal bowel function were asked to use a digital timer to record the net time needed for sensation of satisfactory emptying while defecating in three alternative positions: sitting on a standard-sized toilet seat (41-42 cm high), sitting on a lower toilet seat (31-32 cm high), and squatting. They were also asked to note their subjective impression of the intensity of the defecation effort. Six consecutive bowel movements were recorded in each position. Both the time needed for sensation of satisfactory bowel emptying and the degree of subjectively assessed straining in the squatting position were reduced sharply in all volunteers compared with both sitting positions (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the present study confirmed that sensation of satisfactory bowel emptying in sitting defecation posture necessitates excessive expulsive effort compared to the squatting posture.

1990Jul
Med. Hypotheses
Med Hypotheses 1990 Jul;32(3):231-3

Cardio-vascular events at defecation are to a considerable degree the consequence of an unnatural (for a human being) seating defecation posture on a common toilet bowl or bed pan. The excessive straining expressed in intensively repeated Valsalva Maneuvers is needed for emptying the bowels in sitting position. The Valsalva Maneuver adversely affecting the cardio-vascular system is the causative factor of defecation syncope and death. The cardio-vascular system of a healthy man withstands the intensive and repeated straining at defecation, while the compromised cardio-vascular system may fail resulting in syncope or even death. The squatting defecation posture is associated with reduced amounts of straining and may prevent many of these tragic cases.

Previous studies have shown that anal distension caused rectal contraction, an action mediated through the anorectal excitatory reflex. Anal anesthetization aborted rectal contraction and rectal evacuation was induced by excessive straining. We investigated the hypothesis that inhibition or absence of the anorectal excitatory reflex could lead to constipation.
We studied 18 patients (mean age +/- SD: 40.6 +/- 5.8 years, 14 women) with rectal inertia, 14 (41.7 +/- 6.6 years, 12 women) with puborectalis paradoxical syndrome, and 10 healthy volunteers (37.9 +/- 4.8 years, 8 women). The rectum was filled with normal saline until urge and then evacuated; residual fluid was calculated. The anal and rectal pressure response to anal balloon distension in increments of 2 mL of saline was recorded by a two-channel microtip catheter.
In the healthy volunteers, saline was evacuated as a continuous stream without straining except occasionally at the start of evacuation; no residual fluid was encountered. Anal balloon distension effected notable rectal pressure increase. In rectal inertia patients, evacuation occurred in small fluid gushes produced with excessive straining; residual fluid of large volume was collected. Anal balloon distension up to 10 mL produced no notable rectal pressure changes. The patients with PPS failed to evacuate more than a few mL of fluid despite excessive straining; the volume of residual fluid was considerable. Anal balloon distension caused a notable rectal pressure rise. The results were reproducible.
These results suggest that the defecation reflexes (rectoanal and anorectal) are absent in rectal inertia patients and this presumably denotes a neurogenic disorder. The anorectal reflex is active in puborectalis paradoxical syndrome, but the rectoanal reflex is not, indicating a possible myogenic defect in the puborectalis muscle.

Primary constipation: an underlying mechanism.
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