Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

2015Oct
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The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

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Biochemistry and Nanosciences Discipline Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL), Siddhartanagar, Mysore- 11, India.

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2015Oct

The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

Cereals are an important part of diets for hypercholesterolemic patients. However, some of these patients are allergic to these natural products. The purpose of the current study was to compare oatmeal with equal in nutritional values two allergy-free amaranth meals to determine whether this pseudocereal can be a substitute for allergic to cereals individuals. The total phenols of the samples were determined with the Folin-Chocalteu reagent, anthocyanins, and flavonoids spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activities were estimated with nitric oxide scavenging radical (NO) and by beta-carotene bleaching (beta-carotene). It was found that the contents of different protein fractions, antioxidant compounds, and the antioxidant activities of oatmeal were significantly higher than those of the two amaranth samples. The results of kinetic reactions showed that samples differed in their capacities to quench these radicals, and oats have shown more antioxidant activity than amaranth. High correlation was observed between antioxidant activities and phenols (R(2) = 0.99). In the in vivo part of the investigation, 60 male Wistar rats were divided into five diet groups of 12 animals each; these groups were designated as Control, Chol, Chol/Oat, Chol/AmarI, and Chol/AmarII. The rats of the Control group were fed basal diet (BD) only. To the BD of the four other groups were added the following: 1% of cholesterol (Chol), 10% of oat meal and 1% of cholesterol (Chol/Oat), 10% of amaranth I meal, and 1% of cholesterol (Chol/AmarI) and 10% of amaranth II meal and 1% of cholesterol (Chol/AmarII). After 32 days of different feeding, diets supplemented with oat meal and, to lesser degree, with amaranth I and amaranth II hindered the rise in the plasma lipids: a) TC: 3.14 vs. 4.57 mmol/L, - 31.3%; 3.31 vs. 4.57 mmol/L - 27.6%; and 3.40 vs. 4.57, - 25.6%, respectively b) LDL-C: 1.69 vs. 3.31 mmol/L, - 49.9%; 2.05 vs. 3.31 mmol/L, - 38.1%; and 2.16 vs. 3.31 mmol/L, - 34.8%, respectively; c) TG: 0.73 vs. 0.88 mmol/L, - 17.1%; 0.75 vs. 0.88 mmol/L, - 14.8%; and 0.79 vs. 0.88 mmol/L, -10.2%, respectively. The HDL-PH was increased as follows: 0.79 vs. 0.63 mmol/L, -25.3%; 0.75 vs. 0.63 mmol/L, -23.0%; and 0.71 vs. 0.63 mmol/L, -12.7% for the Chol/Oat, Chol/AmarI and Chol/AmarII, respectively. No significant changes in the concentrations of HDL-C and TPH were found; however the HDL-C in the Chol/Oat group was slightly higher than in other groups. No changes in the Control group were registered. In conclusion, oat and amaranth meals positively affect plasma lipid profile in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets. The degree of this positive influence is directly connected to the contents of the bioactive components and the antioxidant activities of the studied samples. It is suggested that amaranth could be a valuable substitute for hypercholesterolemic patients allergic to cereals.

The present study aims at exploring the effects of sardine protein on insulin resistance, plasma lipid profile, as well as oxidative and inflammatory status in rats with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed sardine protein (S) or casein (C) diets supplemented or not with high-fructose (HF) for 2 months. Rats fed the HF diets had greater body weight and adiposity and lower food intake as compared to control rats. Increased plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1C, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was observed in HF-fed rats. Moreover, a decline in adipose tissues antioxidant status and a rise in lipid peroxidation and plasma TNF-α and fibrinogen were noted. Rats fed sardine protein diets exhibited lower food intake and fat mass than those fed casein diets. Sardine protein diets diminished plasma insulin and insulin resistance. Plasma triacylglycerol and free fatty acids were also lower, while those of α-tocopherol, taurine and calcium were enhanced as compared to casein diets. Moreover, S-HF diet significantly decreased plasma glucose and HbA1C. Sardine protein consumption lowered hydroperoxide levels in perirenal and brown adipose tissues. The S-HF diet, as compared to C-HF diet decreased epididymal hydroperoxides. Feeding sardine protein diets decreased brown adipose tissue carbonyls and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Perirenal and epididymal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and brown catalase activity were significantly greater in S-HF group than in C-HF group. Sardine protein diets also prevented hyperleptinemia and reduced inflammatory status in comparison with rats fed casein diets. Taken together, these results support the beneficial effect of sardine protein in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on such variables as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative and inflammatory status, suggesting the possible use of sardine protein as a protective strategy against insulin resistance and related situations.

1994Apr

In this study, fortified and unfortified grain amaranth seed flour diets and a FeSO4-fortified casein diet (used as a control) were evaluated for their iron (Fe) bioavailability. NaFeEDTA, ferrous fumarate, and FeSO4-fortified grain amaranth were fed to growing Sprague-Dawley weaning male rats. Iron intake, hemoglobin iron (HbFe) gain, Fe availability, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), serum iron, non-haem liver iron and red bloodcell volume (RBV) were determined, and the values were compared with those of the FeSO4-fortified casein diet control. Ferrous fumarate fortified diets gave consistently high values for all these parameters, compared with consistently low values for the amaranth diet without iron fortification. Relative biological values (RBVs) were 0.40, 1.55, 1.75, 1.67 and 1.00 for animals fed on an unfortified amaranth diet, and diets fortified with NaFeEDTA, ferrous fumarate, FeSO4 and casein fortified with FeSO4, respectively. Using FeSO4-fortified casein as control, ferrous fumarate gave a superior RBVs (1.75 vs. 1.00). The RBVs, of the unfortified cereal diets were 40% that of the control, perhaps suggesting low iron absorption from the amaranth cereal. Based on the results of this study, amaranth cereal can be considered an idea food vehicle for iron fortification. The iron fortification of choice is ferrous fumarate.

Amaranthus caudatus L. toasted flour, popped grain and flakes were each fed to nine young children as the source of all diet protein and fat and 50% of diet energy, preceded and followed by casein control diets. All provided 6.4-6.7% of energy as protein and 9.3-10.1% as fat. Balances were carried out during the last 6 d of the three 9-d amaranth periods and during the four control periods. Fecal wet and dry weights during amaranth diets were 129-157% of those during casein control diets; fecal energy, fat and carbohydrate from the toasted flour periods were 193, 268 and 256%; from the popped grain 253, 586 and 195%; and from the flakes 225, 356 and 255% of those during casein diets. Apparent N absorptions were 84.1-84.6% of the casein values (P less than 0.001); apparent retentions from toasted, popped and flaked amaranth were 70.9, 65.9 and 59.0% of casein (P less than 0.001). The last of these was significantly lower than the first (P less than 0.05). Fecal fat was much higher (P less than 0.001) from the popped than from the flaked grain and the toasted flour. Toasted flour was then added to maize meal so that amaranth provided 20 or 30% of the protein. Seven young children received diets in which 6.4% of total energy came from one of the above mixes, or from casein, as protein. Soya-cottonseed oils completed 25% lipid energy in all three diets; balance of energy was from sucrose in the experimental diets and from sucrose, corn syrup solids and cornstarch in the casein diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Affiliation Details

  • Biochemistry and Nanosciences Discipline Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL), Siddhartanagar, Mysore- 11, India.
  • Biochemistry and Nanosciences Discipline Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL)
Affiliation Biochemistry and Nanosciences Discipline Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL), Siddhartanagar, Mysore- 11, India.