Hepatitis C and pregnancy.

2013Oct
World J. Gastroenterol.
World J Gastroenterol 2013 Oct;19(40):6714-20
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Acute hepatitis C is a rare event in pregnancy. The most common scenario is chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in pregnancy. During pregnancy in women with chronic HCV infection a significant reduction in mean alanine aminotransferase levels has been reported, with a rebound during the postpartum period. In few cases exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C has been reported in pregnancy. A cofactor that might play a role in the reduction of liver damage is the release of endogenous interferon from the placenta. Observations regarding serum HCV-RNA concentration have been variable. In some women HCV-RNA levels rise toward the end of pregnancy. In general, pregnancy does not have a negative effect on HCV infection. Conversely, chronic hepatitis does not appear to have an adverse effect on the course of pregnancy, or the birth weight of the newborn infant. The role of spontaneous abortion is approximately the same as in the general population. The overall rate of mother-to-child transmission for HCV is 3%-5% if the mother is known to be anti-HCV positive. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the rate of mother-to-child transmission up to 19.4%. Numerous risk factors for vertical transmission have been studied. In general, high viral load defined as at least 2.5 × 10(6) viral RNA copies/mL, HIV co-infection, and invasive procedures are the most important factors. Both interferon and ribavirin are contraindicated during pregnancy. Viral clearance prior to pregnancy increases the likelihood that a woman remains non-viremic in pregnancy with a consequent reduced risk of vertical transmission.

Affiliation

Annarosa Floreani, Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy.

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2013Oct
World J. Gastroenterol.
World J Gastroenterol 2013 Oct;19(40):6714-20

Acute hepatitis C is a rare event in pregnancy. The most common scenario is chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in pregnancy. During pregnancy in women with chronic HCV infection a significant reduction in mean alanine aminotransferase levels has been reported, with a rebound during the postpartum period. In few cases exacerbation of chronic hepatitis C has been reported in pregnancy. A cofactor that might play a role in the reduction of liver damage is the release of endogenous interferon from the placenta. Observations regarding serum HCV-RNA concentration have been variable. In some women HCV-RNA levels rise toward the end of pregnancy. In general, pregnancy does not have a negative effect on HCV infection. Conversely, chronic hepatitis does not appear to have an adverse effect on the course of pregnancy, or the birth weight of the newborn infant. The role of spontaneous abortion is approximately the same as in the general population. The overall rate of mother-to-child transmission for HCV is 3%-5% if the mother is known to be anti-HCV positive. Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the rate of mother-to-child transmission up to 19.4%. Numerous risk factors for vertical transmission have been studied. In general, high viral load defined as at least 2.5 × 10(6) viral RNA copies/mL, HIV co-infection, and invasive procedures are the most important factors. Both interferon and ribavirin are contraindicated during pregnancy. Viral clearance prior to pregnancy increases the likelihood that a woman remains non-viremic in pregnancy with a consequent reduced risk of vertical transmission.

2015Oct

The objective of this systematic review was to summarize evidence regarding hepatitis C in hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus (HCV/HIV)-co-infected children focusing on mother-to-child transmission, clinical and laboratory features, outcome, and therapies.
A literature search was performed using multiple keywords and standardized terminology in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases dating back to their inception up to April 1, 2015, using the following terms hepatitis C virus, HIV, and child.
Fifty-five of 367 publications were selected for inclusion. In co-infected children, HIV impacted all the different aspects of HCV infection. Maternal HIV infection increased the risk of vertical transmission of hepatitis C. Children with HCV/HIV co-infection presented a lower rate of spontaneous clearance of HCV, were more commonly HCV viraemic, and had higher values of alanine aminotransferase when compared with HCV-monoinfected children. No relevant difference was reported between monoinfection and co-infection with regard to clinical findings. Although the data on the outcome of hepatitis C in the context of co-infection were limited, they were highly suggestive of a more severe outcome in terms of fibrosis in co-infected children. No pediatric data were available on the role of antiretroviral therapy as a cofactor of liver injury in HCV/HIV co-infection. The efficacy of pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin in children with HCV/HIV co-infection was lower than in monoinfected children.
The effect of HIV co-infection on HCV-related disease was clear with most studies indicating that HIV accelerates HCV progression and reduces the efficacy of the available anti-HCV therapies.

2006Oct
Obstet Gynecol Surv
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2006 Oct;61(10):666-72

Hepatitis C is the most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States. The diagnosis of vertical transmission is reliably established by a positive serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA on 2 occasions 3 to 4 months apart after the infant is at least 2 months old and/or by the detection of anti-HCV antibodies after the infant is 18 months old. Vertical transmission in HCV RNA-negative pregnant women is approximately 1% to 3% versus approximately 4% to 6% in HCV RNA-positive women. From the standpoint of vertical transmission, no critical HCV RNA titer has been established. Coinfection with HIV has been shown to increase the risk of vertical transmission of HCV, but highly active antiretroviral therapy may decrease the risk significantly. In HIV-negative women, route of delivery does not influence vertical transmission. In HCV/HIV-coinfected women, decisions regarding mode of delivery should be based on HIV status. There is no association between vertical transmission of HCV and gestational age at delivery or the presence of chorioamnionitis. The use of a scalp electrode has been associated with vertical transmission and this practice is discouraged. Data are conflicting regarding duration of ruptured membranes and the risk of vertical transmission of hepatitis C. When the duration of membrane rupture exceeds 6 hours, the risk may be increased. There is no evidence demonstrating an increased risk of HCV transmission in HIV-negative women who breast feed. In HCV/HIV-coinfected women, breast feeding is discouraged in women who have consistent access to safe infant formula.
Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians.
After completion of this article, the reader should be able to recall that vertical transmission of hepatitis C (HCV) does occur, state that coinfection with HIV increases the transmission rate, and summarize that there is no association between gestational age or presence of chorioamnionitis and no evidence that a cesarean delivery prevents transmission.

2001Sep
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
Am J Gastroenterol 2001 Sep;96(9):2751-4

The risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the newborn is estimated to be around 5%, but becomes very high in the case of coinfection with HIV. One of the main factors associated with the vertical transmission of HCV is the viral load. Our objective was to investigate the behavior of HCV viral load during pregnancy in relation to HIV coinfection, liver enzymes, and vertical transmission.
Three thousand seven hundred forty-eight women seen consecutively in their first trimester of pregnancy were screened for HCV infection. Sixty-five were found to be anti-HCV+/HCV RNA+ and were followed up with clinical and serological assessment (i.e., transaminases and quantitative polymerase chain reaction [PCR] for viral load) in their second and third trimesters and 6 months after delivery. All were anti-HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen negative. HCV RNA was 12.0+/-19.9 x 10(6) copies/ml in the first trimester and 10.9+/-13.3 x 10(6) in the second, but increased to 19.5+/-25.1 x 10(6) in the third trimester. Six months after delivery the viral load returned to the baseline levels; the changes in viral load did not reach any statistical significance, however. Transaminases tended toward a reduction from the baseline during the second and third trimesters, and then an increase in both AST and ALT was recorded 6 months after delivery. However, when the group whose AST/ALT were found abnormal at the first test was considered, no significant changes were recorded during the follow-up. The overall rate of vertical transmission was 4.6
With HCV+ mothers monitoring transaminases during pregnancy is unnecessary, and testing liver enzymes at the beginning of pregnancy is sufficient. Qualitative PCR should be done once during the pregnancy, but any staging of the liver disease should be taken after delivery. Quantitative PCR testing is expensive and pointless. Any decision for elective cesarean section in HCV RNA+ mothers should be confirmed by other studies.

1997Dec
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1997 Dec;75(2):177-82

In this study, we sought to determine (1) the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, or its antibodies, in a healthy parturient Egyptian population and (2) the risk of mother-to-infant transmission in this population.
The serum of 499 pregnant Egyptian women was tested for anti-HCV with ELISA-3 and for HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Neonatal cord blood and infant blood were similarly tested for anti-HCV and HCV RNA.
Recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) detected anti-HCV in 65/499 (13%) women; of these, 20/65 (31%) were PCR-positive. The total number of babies born was 499. Of the original group, 97 mothers and infants (HCV-negative) were lost to follow up and were excluded. Sixty-five anti-HCV-positive infants were born vaginally to the 65 anti-HCV-positive mothers, of which twenty (31%) corresponding mothers and babies were also positive for HCV RNA. Of these twenty babies, three died of hepatocellular disease by six months of age; sixteen developed chronic liver disease; the remaining nine remained asymptomatic but were serologically and PCR-positive. The mother-to-infant transmission rate was significantly increased (5%; P < 0.0001). Of the seropositive children, 45/65 (69%; P < 0.0001) seroreverted by eighteen months of age.
There is a high prevalence of anti-HCV in healthy pregnant Egyptian women and vertical transmission is a major risk for chronic HCV carriers.

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Affiliation Details

  • Annarosa Floreani, Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy.
  • Annarosa Floreani
Affiliation Annarosa Floreani, Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy.