Ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis (AS-1) inhibits IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL-2H3 cells.

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The present study was designed to investigate the anti-allergic effects of ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis (AS-1) in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. It significantly reduced the β-hexosaminidase release from anti-DNP-IgE sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. AS-1also inhibited the IgE antibody-induced increase in Interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-α, IL-13 and IL-4 production in these cells. The inhibitory effect of AS-1 on these cytokine was found to be nuclear factor-KB (NF-kB) dependent, as it attenuated the degradation of IKBa and nuclear translocation of NFkB. In addition, AS-1 significantly attenuated the DNP HAS-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release from these cells, which makes us speculate strongly that the decreased intracellular Ca(2+) is involved in the inhibitory effect of AS-1 on β-hexoaminidase release. Taken together, anti-allergic effects of AS-1 suggest possible therapeutic application of this extract in allergic diseases.

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Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine C.S.I.R., Jammu, India.

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The present study was designed to investigate the anti-allergic effects of ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis (AS-1) in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. It significantly reduced the β-hexosaminidase release from anti-DNP-IgE sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. AS-1also inhibited the IgE antibody-induced increase in Interleukin-6 (IL-6), TNF-α, IL-13 and IL-4 production in these cells. The inhibitory effect of AS-1 on these cytokine was found to be nuclear factor-KB (NF-kB) dependent, as it attenuated the degradation of IKBa and nuclear translocation of NFkB. In addition, AS-1 significantly attenuated the DNP HAS-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release from these cells, which makes us speculate strongly that the decreased intracellular Ca(2+) is involved in the inhibitory effect of AS-1 on β-hexoaminidase release. Taken together, anti-allergic effects of AS-1 suggest possible therapeutic application of this extract in allergic diseases.

Acorus calamus Linn. (Araceae) is a traditional herbal plant used for centuries to treat various allergic symptoms including asthma and bronchitis.
The present study was focused to provide a pharmacological basis for the traditional use of Acorus calamus in allergic symptoms using the mast cell-dependent anaphylactic reactions in in vitro and in vivo models.
Cell viabilities were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Dinitrophenyl-human serum albumin (DNP-HSA) induced β-hexosaminidase and interleukin (IL)-4 productions in IgE-sensitized rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells were measured by enzymatic assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction mouse model was implemented for in vivo studies.
Hot water (HW), butylene glycol (BG), hexane (HE) and steam distilled (SD) extracts of Acorus calamus showed different cytoxicity levels evaluated in RBL-2H3 cells. Sub-toxic doses of HW extract suppressed the β-hexosaminidase secretion and IL-4 production significantly and dose dependently in DNP-HSA induced IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells compared to other extracts of Acorus calamus. Further, in vivo studies also revealed that the HW extract significantly inhibited the PCA reaction in mouse compared to the normal control group.
HW extract of Acorus calamus most effectively inhibited degranulation and IL-4 secretion in DNP-HSA-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells and also reduced the mast cell-mediated PCA reaction in mouse, providing a therapeutic evidence for its traditional use in ameliorating allergic reactions.

Adlay (Job's tears, Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) has long been used in China to treat rheumatism.
We investigated the anti-allergic effects of adlay bran on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells.
To evaluate the anti-allergic effects of adlay bran, the release of histamines and cytokines were measured using ELISA. To explore the mechanism of these effects, the protein expression levels were determined using western blotting.
A 40.8μg/mL concentration of the ethyl acetate fraction of the ethanolic extracts of adlay bran (ABE-EtOAc) effectively inhibited mast cell degranulation. The 40-100% EtOAc/Hex subfractions of ABE-EtOAc inhibited histamine release with an IC(50) of 71-87μg/mL. Moreover, the ABE-EtOAc subfractions suppressed the secretion of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in the RBL-2H3 cells, indicating that adlay bran can inhibit cytokine secretion in the late phase of the allergic reaction. In addition, adlay bran reduced the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species, inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and decreased the expression of protein kinase C. Furthermore, six phenolic acids and one flavone were isolated. Of these compounds, luteolin showed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC(50)=1.5μg/mL).
Adlay bran extract reduced the release of histamines and cytokines and suppressed the production of Akt. These combined effects influenced the signal transduction in RBL-2H3 cells, thereby revealing the mechanisms of the anti-allergic effects of adlay.

Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) has been used for folk medicines in the Mediterranean area and Europe to treat various disorders including skin inflammation (dermatitis) and asthma.
Our aim was to investigate the scientific evaluation of the compounds from Laurus nobilis L. on immuniglobulin E (IgE)-mediated type I hypersensitivity responses in vitro such as atopic dermatitis and asthma.
Seven compounds were isolated and examined for the mast cell stabilizing effect on IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 mast cells by measuring the β-hexosaminidase activity. In addition, the effects on interleukin (IL)-4 production and IL-5-dependent Y16 early B cell proliferation were investigated as well as their cytotoxic effects on RBL-2H3 cells.
Among the seven isolated compounds, magnolialide attenuated the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells with an IC50 value of 20.2 μM, while the other compounds revealed no significant effects at concentrations tested. Furthermore, magnolialide significantly inhibited the IL-4 release with an IC50 value of 18.1 μM and IL-4 mRNA expression with an IC50 value of 15.7 μM in IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. In addition, the inhibition of IL-5-dependent proliferation of early B cells (Y16 cells) by magnolialide was demonstrated with an IC50 value of 18.4 μM.
These results suggest that the magnolialide might be a candidate for the treatment of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity responses such as atopic dermatitis and asthma by inhibiting mast cell degranulation, the IL-4 production, and IL-5-dependent early B cell proliferation, key factors in the development and amplification of type I hypersensitivity reactions.

EMODIN (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is a Chinese herbal anthraquinone derivative from the rhizome of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.) that exhibits numerous biological activities, such as antitumor, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, and immunosuppressive. In the present studies, the anti-allergic activities of emodin were investigated to elucidate the underlying active mechanisms.
The inhibitory effects of emodin on the IgE-mediated allergic response in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells were evaluated by measuring the release of granules and cytokines. The Ca2+ mobilization in RBL-2H3 cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-reactive fluorescent probe Fluo-4 AM was also measured by laser scanning confocal microscope.
Emodin inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX; IC50 = 5.5 μM) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (IC50 = 11.5 μM) from RBL-2H3 cells induced by 2,4-dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA) and displayed stronger inhibition of β-HEX release than ketotifen fumarate salt (IC50 = 63.8 μM). Emodin at a concentration of 12.5 μM also inhibited the DNP-BSA-induced influx of extracellular Ca2+ in RBL-2H3 cells.
These results suggested that emodin likely exhibits anti-allergic activities via increasing the stability of the cell membrane and inhibiting extracellular Ca2+ influx.

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Affiliation Details

  • Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine C.S.I.R., Jammu, India.
  • Pharmacology Division
Affiliation Pharmacology Division, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine C.S.I.R., Jammu, India.