Takehiro Sugiyama - the University of Tokyo

Takehiro Sugiyama
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Takehiro Sugiyama
the University of Tokyo

Publications Authored By Takehiro Sugiyama

Both dietary modification and use of statins can lower blood cholesterol. The increase in caloric intake among the general population is reported to have plateaued in the last decade, but no study has examined the relationship between the time trends of caloric intake and statin use.
To examine the difference in the temporal trends of caloric and fat intake between statin users and nonusers among US adults.Read More

A repeated cross-sectional study in a nationally representative sample of 27,886 US adults, 20 years or older, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 through 2010.
Statin use.
Caloric and fat intake measured through 24-hour dietary recall. Generalized linear models with interaction term between survey cycle and statin use were constructed to investigate the time trends of dietary intake for statin users and nonusers after adjustment for possible confounders. We calculated model-adjusted caloric and fat intake using these models and examined if the time trends differed by statin use. Body mass index (BMI) changes were also compared between statin users and nonusers.
In the 1999-2000 period, the caloric intake was significantly less for statin users compared with nonusers (2000 vs 2179 kcal/d; P = .007). The difference between the groups became smaller as time went by, and there was no statistical difference after the 2005-2006 period. Among statin users, caloric intake in the 2009-2010 period was 9.6% higher (95% CI, 1.8-18.1; P = .02) than that in the 1999-2000 period. In contrast, no significant change was observed among nonusers during the same study period. Statin users also consumed significantly less fat in the 1999-2000 period (71.7 vs 81.2 g/d; P = .003). Fat intake increased 14.4% among statin users (95% CI, 3.8-26.1; P = .007) while not changing significantly among nonusers. Also, BMI increased more among statin users (+1.3) than among nonusers (+0.4) in the adjusted model (P = .02).
Caloric and fat intake have increased among statin users over time, which was not true for nonusers. The increase in BMI was faster for statin users than for nonusers. Efforts aimed at dietary control among statin users may be becoming less intensive. The importance of dietary composition may need to be reemphasized for statin users.

Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) is a tool to document and ensure continuity of end-of-life treatment decisions across healthcare settings that became a legal document in California in January 2009. Hospitals were surveyed to evaluate factors associated with uptake of this intervention and whether a grassroots community coalition intervention facilitated dissemination. A mail and telephone survey of all acute care hospitals in California was conducted between August 2011 and January 2012, and community coalition reports of interaction with hospitals and hospital characteristics from the California Office of Statewide Planning and Development and Census ZIP Code Tabulation Areas were analyzed.Read More

Of 349 hospitals, 286 (81.9%) responded to the survey. Sixty-five percent of hospitals had a policy about POLST, 87% had available blank POLST forms, 84% had educated staff, and 94% reported handling POLST properly in the emergency department and on admission. In multivariable analyses, hospitals in poor areas and for-profit (vs nonprofit) hospitals were less likely to stock blank POLST forms and to have educated staff, and hospitals with community coalition interaction and in wealthier areas were more likely to handle POLST forms correctly. Although POLST is widely used in California, a significant minority of hospitals remain unprepared 3 years after implementation. Efforts to improve implementation should emphasize dissemination in poorer areas and in for-profit hospitals.

Somatostatin-producing tumors are a rare type of neuroendocrine tumor. Their effects on blood glucose levels have been variously reported, and detailed reports have been scarce.
The aim of this study was to identify the reasons for the extraordinary blood glucose fluctuations in a case with no previous history of diabetes.Read More

A 68-yr-old nondiabetic woman with an ovarian tumor was suffering from hyper- and hypoglycemia. Based on the results of an oral glucose tolerance test and continuous glucose monitoring, we speculated that the fluctuating blood glucose level was accompanied not only by a low insulin level but also by low counter-regulatory hormones levels, and that those broad hormonal suppressions were caused by a high somatostatin level produced in the ovarian tumor. We performed an oophorectomy and assessed the pathology of the tumor and changes in the blood glucose profile as well as hormonal levels postoperatively.
The blood glucose level was completely normalized after the oophorectomy. Insulin secretion was also normalized. Histological examination showed that the tumor comprised a mature cystic teratoma and a stromal carcinoid. Immunohistochemically, the stromal carcinoid component was positive for somatostatin. The somatostatin level was 8505 pmol/liter preoperatively, which dropped down to 71.5 pmol/liter postoperatively. We found two previous reports of somatostatin-producing ovarian neuroendocrine tumors. Somatostatin levels among cases of ovarian origin were much higher than those among cases of gastrointestinal origins, and cases of ovarian origin all experienced blood glucose fluctuations.
Extremely high somatostatin levels and blood glucose fluctuations may be characteristics of somatostatin-producing ovarian neuroendocrine tumors.

Ezetimibe selectively inhibits dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption and reduces serum cholesterol levels when administered alone (monotherapy) and along with common lipid-regulating agents (combination therapy). To evaluate the effect of ezetimibe therapy on the lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and levels of cholesterol absorption and synthesis markers, we administered 10 mg ezetimibe to 50 hypercholesterolemic patients with or without diabetes. The serum levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly reduced at 4 and 12 weeks of ezetimibe therapy in diabetic patients of both the monotherapy and combination-therapy groups and in nondiabetic patients of the combination-therapy group.Read More

The serum levels of the cholesterol absorption markers were significantly reduced, while those of the cholesterol synthesis markers were significantly increased at 12 weeks of ezetimibe therapy. No significant differences were noted in the values of the parameters of glucose metabolism in all patients. We also investigated the clinical characteristics of patients who exhibited a good response to ezetimibe (ezetimibe responders); however, multivariate regression analysis did not reveal a correlation between ezetimibe efficacy and patient characteristics such as gender, age, BMI, diabetic condition, method of ezetimibe administration, and the initial absolute values of cholesterol absorption/synthesis markers levels. In conclusion, ezetimibe therapy significantly improved the lipid profile without disturbing glucose metabolism. We were unable to identify the specific characteristics of ezetimibe responders among our subjects. However, we may interpret this result as suggesting that ezetimibe can be used in any population to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

To identify modifiable lifestyle factors associated with blood pressure among U.S. adolescents.Read More

A cross-sectional study was conducted of 4508 12-19-year-old respondents of the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured and adjusted for gender, age, and height using z-scores (SBPZ and DBPZ). Body mass index (BMI) was adjusted for gender and age (BMIZ). Questionnaires were used to measure nutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, saturated and unsaturated fat, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, fiber, and caffeine) and activities (physical activities and sedentary activities, including television watching).
In the adjusted model (R2 = .115), SBPZ was higher by .022 standard deviation (SD) (95% confidence interval [CI]: .007-.038, equivalent to approximately .2 mmHg) per 1-hour increments in sedentary activities; higher by .244 SD (.198-.289, approximately 2.6 mmHg) per 1 SD of BMIZ; and lower by .099 SD (-.192 to -.006, approximately 1.1 mmHg) per 100 g of carbohydrate intake. Unexpectedly, BMIZ was negatively associated with DBPZ (-.078 per 1 SD, -.114 to -.043, approximately .9 mmHg).
Among U.S. adolescents, sedentary activities and BMI are positively associated with SBP after adjustment for confounding factors and mediators, while BMI is negatively associated with DBP. If confirmed by further studies, population-based interventions aimed at sedentary activities may be practical approaches to decrease SBP and the risk of obesity among adolescents.