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Fang Li
Capital Medical University

Publications Authored By Fang Li

Ann. Surg. Oncol.
Ann Surg Oncol 2015 Apr 8;22(4):1301-7. Epub 2014 Oct 8.
Department of Liver Surgery, Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and PUMC, Beijing, China,

Available tools in liver surgery planning rely on the future remnant liver (FRL) volume. Inappropriate decision might be made since the same FRL volume might represent different liver functions depending on the severity of underlying liver damage. This study developed an alternative system to estimate FRL function and to predict the risk of postoperative liver failure.Read More

Current study recruited 71 prehepatectomy patients and 71 healthy volunteers. A technetium-99-labelled asialoglycoproteins was given to participants and SPECT was used to capture the intensity of the signal, represented by uptake index (UI). The agreement between preoperative UI values, liver function tests, and Child scores were evaluated. Linear regression was used to evaluate the agreement between predicted UI for FRL and postoperative UI values. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve was used to evaluate the discriminative performance of UI in differentiating patient with high risk of liver failure.
Preoperative UIs are highly correlated with Child score (P < 0.0001), especially to identify patients with ascites and elevated bilirubin. The predicted UIs were in close agreement with the actual postoperative UI values (r = 0.95 P < 0.001). The AUC analysis indicated that UI values had a high accuracy in predicting the risk of liver failure (AUC = 0.95, P < 0.0001). The best cut-off point was 0.9 and the corresponding sensitivity was 100 % and specificity was 92 %.
The new methodology reliably estimates FRL function and predicts the risk of liver failure. It provides a visual aid for liver surgeon in surgery planning and risk assessment.

Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2015 Mar 15;42(3):531-2. Epub 2014 Nov 15.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China.
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
Fish Shellfish Immunol 2015 Mar 23;43(1):67-74. Epub 2014 Dec 23.
State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources, State Oceanic Administration, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen 361005, China. Electronic address:

Hemocytes are the major immune cells of crustaceans which are believed to be essential for the pathogenesis of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Crayfish hemocytes and hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cells have been found to be susceptible to WSSV infection, but the procedure of WSSV infection to both cell types has not yet been carefully investigated. In this study, we analyzed the infection and proliferation of WSSV in crayfish hemocytes as well as HPT cells in detail through transmission electronic microscopy (TEM).Read More

The results showed that WSSV could enter both hemocytes and HPT cells through endocytosis, but the production of progeny virus was only achieved in HPT cells. Further investigation demonstrated that although WSSV could transcribe its genes in both cell types, viral genome replication and structural protein expression were unsuccessful in hemocytes, which may be responsible for the failure of progeny production. Therefore, we propose that both hemocytes and HPT cells are susceptible to WSSV infection but only HPT cells are permissive to WSSV replication. These findings will extend our knowledge of the interaction between WSSV and the host immune system.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2015 Mar;40(3):278-81
From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine and †Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

A 69-year-old woman complaining of abdominal bloating underwent ultrasonography, which revealed a small lesion in the left lobe of the liver. The lesion had elevated activity of both F-FDG and C-acetate on PET/CT scan and was suspected of being malignant. Postresection pathological examination demonstrated that this lesion was a focal intrahepatic lymphoid hyperplasia.Read More

Dent Mater
Dent Mater 2015 Mar 13;31(3):284-92. Epub 2015 Jan 13.
Department of Endodontics, Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address:

Dentin-composite bond failure is caused by factors including hybrid layer degradation, which in turn can be caused by hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation of the exposed collagen in the dentin. The objectives of this study were to investigate a new antibacterial monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) as an inhibitor for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and to determine the effects of DMADDM on both soluble recombinant human MMPs (rhMMPs) and dentin matrix-bound endogenous MMPs.
Inhibitory effects of DMADDM at six mass% (0.Read More

1% to 10%) on soluble rhMMP-8 and rhMMP-9 were measured using a colorimetic assay. Matrix-bound endogenous MMP activity was evaluated in demineralized human dentin. Dentin beams were divided into four groups (n=10) and incubated in calcium- and zinc-containing media (control medium); or control medium+0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX); 5% 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB); or 5% DMADDM. Dissolution of dentin collagen peptides was evaluated by mechanical testing in three-point flexure, loss of dentin mass, and a hydroxyproline assay.
Use of 0.1% to 10% DMADDM exhibited a strong concentration-dependent anti-MMP effect, reaching 90% of inhibition on rhMMP-8 and rhMMP-9 at 5% DMADDM concentration. Dentin beams in medium with 5% DMADDM showed 34% decrease in elastic modulus (vs. 73% decrease for control), 3% loss of dry dentin mass (vs. 28% loss for control), and significantly less solubilized hydroxyproline when compared with control (p<0.05).
The new antibacterial monomer DMADDM was effective in inhibiting both soluble rhMMPs and matrix-bound human dentin MMPs. These results, together with previous studies showing that adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited biofilms without compromising dentin bond strength, suggest that DMADDM is promising for use in adhesives to prevent collagen degradation in hybrid layer and protect the resin-dentin bond.

Anal. Biochem.
Anal Biochem 2015 Feb 5;471:38-43. Epub 2014 Oct 5.
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde, Hunan 415000, China.

A novel immunosensor for α-1-fetoprotein based on dialdehyde cellulose/ionic liquid composite film as a matrix has been developed. Microcrystalline cellulose was activated by sodium metaperiodate to produce dialdehyde cellulose. Antibodies can be immobilized on the electrode by a one-step method through covalent bonding of the aldehyde groups of dialdehyde cellulose with the amino groups of antibodies, in which no additional chemical cross-linking step is required.Read More

Moreover, ionic liquid added can improve the conductivity of the sensing interface and, therefore, can enhance the electrochemical signal. In this work, α-1-fetoprotein was detected within the range from 0.1 to 60ngml(-1) with a detection limit of 0.07ngml(-1) (signal/noise=3). The proposed immunosensor had good specificity and reproducibility. It was used to determine real samples with satisfactory results.

Mycopathologia 2015 Feb;179(1-2):167
Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100020, China.
J. Virol.
J Virol 2015 Feb 26;89(4):1954-1964. Epub 2014 Nov 26.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Receptor recognition by viruses is the first and essential step of viral infections of host cells. It is an important determinant of viral host range and cross-species infection and a primary target for antiviral intervention. Coronaviruses recognize a variety of host receptors, infect many hosts, and are health threats to humans and animals.Read More

The receptor-binding S1 subunit of coronavirus spike proteins contains two distinctive domains, the N-terminal domain (S1-NTD) and the C-terminal domain (S1-CTD), both of which can function as receptor-binding domains (RBDs). S1-NTDs and S1-CTDs from three major coronavirus genera recognize at least four protein receptors and three sugar receptors and demonstrate a complex receptor recognition pattern. For example, highly similar coronavirus S1-CTDs within the same genus can recognize different receptors, whereas very different coronavirus S1-CTDs from different genera can recognize the same receptor. Moreover, coronavirus S1-NTDs can recognize either protein or sugar receptors. Structural studies in the past decade have elucidated many of the puzzles associated with coronavirus-receptor interactions. This article reviews the latest knowledge on the receptor recognition mechanisms of coronaviruses and discusses how coronaviruses have evolved their complex receptor recognition pattern. It also summarizes important principles that govern receptor recognition by viruses in general.

Neuropharmacology 2015 Feb;89:318-24
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, 410013, China.

Depression is a common psychiatric disorder associated with chronic stress. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a growth factor that serves important roles in the brain during development and at adulthood. Here, the role of IGF2 expression in the hippocampus was investigated in a rat model of depression.Read More

A chronic restraint stress (CRS) model of depression was established in rats, exhibiting depression-like behavior as assessed with the sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swimming test (FST), and with evaluation of the corticosterone levels. Hippocampal IGF2 levels were significantly lower in rats suffering CRS than in controls, as were levels of pERK1/2 and GluR1. Lentivirus-mediated hippocampal IGF2 overexpression alleviated depressive behavior in restrained rats, elevated the levels of pERK1/2 and GluR1 proteins, but it did not affect the expression of pGSK3β, GluR2, NMDAR1, and NMDAR2A. These results suggest the chronic restraint stress induces depressive behavior, which may be mediated by ERK-dependent IGF2 signaling, pointing to an antidepressant role for this molecular pathway.

Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2015 Feb 9;24(2):459-65. Epub 2014 Dec 9.
Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

C-reactive protein (CRP) has been associated with cancer risk in some prospective studies. However, the associations have not been entirely consistent and have not been evaluated in Chinese females. We conducted a large population-based cohort study to investigate whether elevated levels of CRP at baseline are associated with an increased risk of cancer among Chinese females.Read More

A total of 19,437 women from the Chinese Kailuan Female Cohort were enrolled in the study in July 2006. Levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) were tested at baseline for all subjects. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association between levels of hsCRP and risk of all cancers, including breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and other cancers.
By December 31, 2011, a total of 322 incident cancer cases accrued. Compared with women with lower hsCRP levels (<1 mg/L), women with higher hsCRP (>3 mg/L) had a significantly increased risk of all incident cancers [HR, 1.62; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.23-2.14; Ptrend = 0.001] and breast cancer (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.01-2.97; Ptrend = 0.047). The significant association between hsCRP levels and breast cancer risk was apparent among younger women (<50 years; HR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.18-6.48).
Elevated levels of hsCRP at baseline may be associated with an increased risk of cancer, especially breast cancer, and particularly in younger Chinese women.
Our findings provide additional evidence for a role of inflammation in carcinogenesis and suggest that CRP may be a potentially useful biomarker of cancer risk in this population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(2); 459-65. ©2014 AACR.

Mol. Pharm.
Mol Pharm 2015 Feb 26;12(2):444-52. Epub 2014 Dec 26.
NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Centre for Life Sciences (CeLS) , #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456, Singapore.

Controlled release plays an essential role in formulating topical and transdermal drug delivery systems. In this study, we correlated the skin permeation of Sesamin, a lipophilic drug, with the rheological properties of two different organogel carriers, i.e.Read More

, low molecular weight gelling agent N-lauroyl-l-glutamic acid di-n-butylamide (GP-1) and Carbopol polymeric gels. Although these two gels have distinct network structures, they share the same trend: the more rigid the gel network and the higher the gelator concentration, the lower the steady flux of Sesamin through skin. This negative correlation lies in the fact that organogel network hinders the diffusion of drug to the gel-skin interface; as a result, the depletion zone near the interface is non-negligible and contributes to the resistance of the whole diffusion system, and thus, the permeation flux is reduced. More interestingly, the dependence of the steady flux against gel complex modulus at the linear viscoelastic region followed a "universal" power law regardless of the gel types, i.e., 1/J = 1/J0 + a(G*)(ε)/C0 with a = 11.25, ε = 0.21 ± 0.03 for GP-1 gels, and a = 0.16, ε = 1.05 ± 0.06 for Carbopol gels, J0 is the steady flux without gel (G* = 0), and C0 is the initial concentration of drug in gels. The empirical formulae are crucial in developing transdermal organogel systems with controlled release of drug content through readily obtainable data of their rheological properties. The explanation for the power law dependence of the steady flux on gel complex modulus is discussed.

Oncol. Rep.
Oncol Rep 2015 Feb 8;33(2):751-7. Epub 2014 Dec 8.
Department of Immunology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116044, P.R. China.

Cisplatin (DDP), a cytotoxic antitumor drug, functions in a dose-dependent manner. However, the pursuit for high‑dose therapeutic effects leads to more serious side effects including kidney toxicity. Nephrotoxicity caused due to endothelial cell dysfunction and neutrophils infiltration in kidneys.Read More

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is an ELR+ chemokine binds with CXCR1/2 receptors and its role is primarily in neutrophils recruitment and also involved in invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of different solid tumors including liver cancer. G31P, a CXCR1/2 antagonist, binds with CXCR1/2 with high affinity, and acts as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor agent. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of G31P and DDP on mouse liver cancer cells, and the effects exerted by G31P on cisplatin-induced renal injury. In vitro, effects of the G31P and DDP regimen on H22 cell proliferation were investigated by MTT assay. In vivo BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with 1x106 H22 cells and treated after one week with a high single dose of DDP with and without G31P on alternative days until the experiment was terminated. On the 15th day the mice were sacrificed, dissected and kidney tissues were analyzed using H&E staining. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was assessed and RT-PCR was performed to detect inflammatory cytokines. Solid tumors were weighed for tumor growth and performed pathological examination, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to detect tissue-related protein expressions in tumor tissue. The tumor inhibitory rate of DDP, G31P and DDP+G31P groups was 38.40, 40.74 and 74.80%, respectively, and the general state of mice in the DDP+G31P group was significantly improved as compared to the DDP group. The results indicated that G31P with DDP significantly inhibited the proliferation while the growth of H22 cell carnimona in vitro and in vivo enhanced the efficacy of cisplatin in cancer treatment with reduced side effects on acute renal failure.

Chemphyschem 2015 Feb 15;16(3):572-8. Epub 2014 Dec 15.
Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (USA).

(3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα couplings are related to the intervening backbone torsion angle ${\varphi }$ by standard Karplus equations. Although these couplings are known to be affected by parameters other than ${\varphi }$, including H-bonding, valence angles and residue type, experimental results and quantum calculations indicate that the impact of these latter parameters is typically very small. The solution NMR structure of protein GB3, newly refined by using extensive sets of residual dipolar couplings, yields 50-60 % better Karplus equation agreement between ${\varphi }$ angles and experimental (3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα values than does the high-resolution X-ray structure.Read More

In intrinsically disordered proteins, (3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα couplings can be measured at even higher accuracy, and the impact of factors other than the intervening torsion angle on (3) J will be smaller than in folded proteins, making these couplings exceptionally valuable reporters on the ensemble of ${\varphi }$ angles sampled by each residue.

J. Hum. Genet.
J Hum Genet 2015 Feb 18;60(2):85-90. Epub 2014 Dec 18.
1] Centre for Stem cells and Regenerative Medicine, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital/Liaocheng People's Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, China [2] Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital/Liaocheng People's Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, China.

Pathological mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) have been suggested to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) in various ethnic populations. Most studies on Chinese PD patients have only screened the N370S and L444P mutations in the GBA gene. To investigate the GBA mutations in Chinese population, we performed complete sequencing of the GBA gene in 184 Chinese PD patients and 130 Chinese control individuals.Read More

As a result, we identified three novel and nine reported GBA mutations. The novel mutations include 5-bp deletion (c.334_338delCAGAA), L264I and L314V and the nine reported GBA mutations are R163Q, F213I, E326K, S364S, F347L, V375L, L444P, RecNciI and Q497R. The novel 5-bp deletion (CAGAA) produces a short truncated GBA protein of 142 amino acids, which loses major function domains of the 536 amino acids. Our data also reveals that the frequency of GBA mutations within this Chinese PD cohort was 8.7%, which is significantly higher than 1.54% observed in the Chinese control cohort (χ(2)=7.22, P=0.0072; odds ratio (OR)=6.095, 95% confidence interval of OR=1.546-24.030). The most common L444P mutation accounts 2.74%, which confer more genetic risk for PD in this Chinese population. In conclusion, novel and known GBA mutations were identified and were found to be associated to PD in this Chinese population.

Neurosci. Lett.
Neurosci Lett 2015 Feb 27;588:12-7. Epub 2014 Dec 27.
Department of Ophthalmology at Eye and ENT hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China; Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China; Institute of Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China; State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:

Müller cell gliosis is a general response in a variety of pathological alternations of the retina, which is characterized by the upregulated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the downregulation of membrane K(+) conductance. We have demonstrated that downregulation of Kir K(+) currents in Müller cells in an experimental glaucoma model is due to activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR I) by glutamate, which contributes to Müller cell gliosis. Here, whether and how activation of mGluR I modulate membrane Kir4.Read More

1 protein internalization and Kir4.1 mRNA expression were investigated in purified cultured rat retinal Müller cells using immunocytochemistry, Western blot and real-time PCR techniques. DHPG (10μM, a selective mGluR I agonist) treatment induced Müller cell gliosis, as evidenced by enhanced GFAP expression. Although total Kir4.1 proteins extracted from the DHPG-treated cells kept unchanged, Kir4.1 proteins in the cell membrane compartment were significantly decreased, which was prior to the change of GFAP in time course. In addition, DHPG (10 and 100μM) treatment induced a transient decrease in Kir4.1 mRNA expression in the cells. All these results suggest that activation of mGluR I by DHPG may decrease the number of functional Kir4.1 channels in purified cultured rat retinal Müller cells through modulating Kir4.1 protein and mRNA, thus contributing to Müller cell gliosis.

Neurosci. Lett.
Neurosci Lett 2015 Feb 31;588:88-94. Epub 2014 Dec 31.
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University, 23 Meishuguanhou Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100010, China. Electronic address:

Stroke is the major cause of long-term disability among adults. Recent studies have found that GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission plays a vital role in ameliorate locomotor damage after ischemic injury. Acupuncture has been widely used to improve locomotor function.Read More

However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study is designed to investigate whether GABA and GABA receptors are involved in the mechanism underlying acupuncture treatment in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). One week after acupuncture at JiaJi acupoint, the locomotor function and infarct volumes were tested. Then level of GABA and the expressions of GABAAγ2 and GABABR2 were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Compared with normal group, GABAAγ2 and GABABR2 expressions were decreased in striatum and spinal cord of the MCAO group. After acupuncture, the expressions of the two receptors were increased, but levels of GABA and trafficking protein, kinesin binding 1 (TRAK1), which plays a role in the intracellular transport of GABA receptors, were unchanged. The present study suggests that acupuncture could reverse locomotor function by modulating the expressions of GABA receptors in MCAO rats.

J. Am. Chem. Soc.
J Am Chem Soc 2015 Feb 23;137(4):1432-5. Epub 2015 Jan 23.
Laboratory of Chemical Physics, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520, United States.

Three-bond (3)JC'C' and (3)JHNHα couplings in peptides and proteins are functions of the intervening backbone torsion angle ϕ. In well-ordered regions, (3)JHNHα is tightly correlated with (3)JC'C', but the presence of large ϕ angle fluctuations differentially affects the two types of couplings. Assuming the ϕ angles follow a Gaussian distribution, the width of this distribution can be extracted from (3)JC'C' and (3)JHNHα, as demonstrated for the folded proteins ubiquitin and GB3.Read More

In intrinsically disordered proteins, slow transverse relaxation permits measurement of (3)JC'C' and (3)JHNH couplings at very high precision, and impact of factors other than the intervening torsion angle on (3)J will be minimal, making these couplings exceptionally valuable structural reporters. Analysis of α-synuclein yields rather homogeneous widths of 69 ± 6° for the ϕ angle distributions and (3)JC'C' values that agree well with those of a recent maximum entropy analysis of chemical shifts, J couplings, and (1)H-(1)H NOEs. Data are consistent with a modest (≤30%) population of the polyproline II region.

Chem. Res. Toxicol.
Chem Res Toxicol 2015 Feb 2. Epub 2015 Feb 2.
Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Trans-boundary Eco-Security, and ‡College of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University , Kunming, 650091, People's Republic of China.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly being used as antimicrobial agents and drug carriers in biomedical fields. However, toxicological information on their effects on red blood cells (RBCs) and the mechanisms involved remain sparse. In this article, we examined the size dependent nanotoxicity of AgNPs using three different characteristic sizes of 15 nm (AgNPs15), 50 nm (AgNPs50), and 100 nm (AgNPs100) against fish RBCs.Read More

Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that AgNPs exhibited a size effect on their adsorption and uptake by RBCs. The middle sized AgNPs50, compared with the smaller or bigger ones, showed the highest level of adsorption and uptake by the RBCs, suggesting an optimal size of ∼50 nm for passive uptake by RBCs. The toxic effects determined based on the hemolysis, membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme production were fairly size and dose dependent. In particular, the smallest sized AgNPs15 displayed a greater ability to induce hemolysis and membrane damage than AgNPs50 and AgNPs100. Such cytotoxicity induced by AgNPs should be attributed to the direct interaction of the nanoparticle with the RBCs, resulting in the production of oxidative stress, membrane injury, and subsequently hemolysis. Overall, the results suggest that particle size is a critical factor influencing the interaction between AgNPs and the RBCs.

Ann Diagn Pathol
Ann Diagn Pathol 2015 Feb 29;19(1):33-6. Epub 2014 Dec 29.
Department of Pathology, Institute of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No. 12, Jiankangt Road, Shijiazhuang, 050011, PR China. Electronic address:

To investigate the significance between the expression of P27, Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT), phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), and P73 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 200 cases were obtained from the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. The sections were used for (HE) and immunohistochemical staining streptavidin-perosidase (SP). The immunologic reagents used included antibodies against P27, FHIT, PTEN, and P73.Read More

From I- to II- and III-graded ESCC, the positive expression of P27 was decreased, but the P73 was increased, showing a ladded change (P < .05). The oncogene and tumor suppressor gene protein expression were related to the differentiation and can be one of the factors of influencing prognosis. The oncogene and tumor suppressor gene protein expression was related to the prognostic factor, and thus, it is valuable for clinical treatment and judging prognosis to detect the expression of P27, FHIT, PTEN, and P73 in ESCC.

Biopolymers 2015 Feb 6. Epub 2015 Feb 6.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721; BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721.

Influenza viruses are the causative agents for seasonal influenza, which results in thousands of deaths and millions of hospitalizations each year. Moreover, sporadic transmission of avian or swan influenza viruses to humans often leads to an influenza pandemic, as there is no preimmunity in the human body to fight against such novel strains. The metastable genome of the influenza viruses, coupled with the reassortment of different strains from a wide range of host origins, leads to the continuous evolution of the influenza virus diversity.Read More

Such characteristics of influenza viruses present a grand challenge in devising therapeutic strategies to combat influenza virus infection. This review summarizes recent progress in designing small molecule inhibitors that target the drug-resistant influenza A virus M2 proton channels and highlights the contribution of mechanistic studies of proton conductance to drug discovery. The lessons learned throughout the course of M2 drug discovery might provide insights for designing inhibitors that target other therapeutically important ion channels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Activating mutations in either KIT or PDGFRA are present in approximately 90% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Although treatment with the KIT and PDGFR inhibitor imatinib can control advanced disease in about 80% of GIST patients, the beneficial effect is not durable. Here, we report that ligands from the FGF family reduced the effectiveness of imatinib in GIST cells, and FGF2 and FGFR1 are highly expressed in all primary GIST samples examined.Read More

The combination of KIT and FGFR inhibition showed increased growth inhibition in imatinib-sensitive GIST cell lines and improved efficacy in patient-derived GIST xenografts. In addition, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by imatinib was not sustained in GIST cells. An extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) rebound occurred through activation of FGF signaling, and was repressed by FGFR1 inhibition. Downregultation of Sprouty proteins played a role in the imatinib-induced feedback activation of FGF signaling in GIST cells. SIGNIFICANCE We here show that FGFR-mediated reactivation of MAPK pathway attenuates the anti-proliferation effects of imatinib in GISTs. The imatinib-induced ERK rebound can be repressed by the FGFR inhibitor BGJ398, and combined KIT and FGFR inhibition leads to increased efficacy in vitro and in patient-derived xenografts.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2015 Feb 11. Epub 2015 Feb 11.
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, PR China.

Diffuse increased F-FDG activity is commonly caused by malignant involvement. We describe here cases of diffuse, uniformly increased F-FDG activity due to nonmalignant illnesses in 2 patients: one had parvovirus B19 infection, whereas the other had porphyria, a heme synthesis disorder.Read More

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2015 Feb;37(1):61-5
Department of Nuclear Medicine, PUMC Hospital, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing 100730, China.

Objective To investigate the changes in thyroglobulin antibodies(TgAb)and its influencing factors in differentiated thyroid cancer(DTC)patients with positive TgAb(>115 U/ml)after total thyroidectomy and radioiodine((131)I)therapy. Methods We collected the clinical data of 118 DTC patients with positive TgAb and analyzed their TgAb levels before surgery,before (131)I therapy,and after (131)I therapy with a median follow-up of 2.3 months and 5.Read More

2 months. Multiple linear regression(MLR)was applied to analyze the time of TgAb concentration decreased by more than 50%(T50)and its influencing factors. Results Compared with the previous TgAb levels,TgAb decreased significantly 2.3 months and 5.2 months after surgery or after (131)I therapy,respectively(both P=0.000). The proportions of patients with TgAb decreased by more than 50% in each stage were 28.6%,33.3%,and 37.2%,respectively. The negative conversion ratios were 23.4%,48.9%,and 62.8%,respectively. MLR showed that only the interval between surgery and (131)I therapy was correlated with T50(B=1.125,P=0.000). Conclusions The TgAb levels in DTC patients remarkably decrease after surgery and after (131)I therapy. The interval between surgery and (131)I therapy remarkably influences the lowering speed of TgAb levels. Prompt application of (131)I therapy after surgery helps to lower TgAb levels.

Chem. Biodivers.
Chem Biodivers 2015 Feb;12(2):194-220
Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 639 Longmian Road, Nanjing 211198, P. R. China, (phone: +86-25-83271423).
Biomed Res Int
Biomed Res Int 2015 22;2015:725913. Epub 2015 Jan 22.
Department of Stomatology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, No. 301, Middle Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072, China.

This study aimed to assess generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain intensity, and anxiety levels and the relationship between the three aspects in healthy young Chinese orthodontic patients in the early stage of orthodontic treatment. We enrolled 252 eligible participants (10-29 years old) to complete validated Chinese versions of questionnaires, including the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (S-AI), the visual analogue scale (VAS), and the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 30 after initial archwire placement (SF-36 only at baseline and day 30). The response rate was 96% (243 of 252).Read More

SF-36 had moderate reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient exceeding 0.7, good fit on day 30). Statistical significant changes were observed in physical function (P < 0.01), body pain (P = 0.01), and general health (P < 0.01) domains. Spearman correlation coefficients for SF-36 with S-AI were -0.131~-0.515 (P < 0.05); SF-36 with VAS were -0.141~-0.273 (P < 0.05), indicating significant but moderate negative correlations between HRQoL and pain/anxiety. Overall, the application of SF-36 in assessing HRQoL is reluctantly suitable for young Chinese orthodontic patients in the early stage of orthodontic treatment. Early treatment-related pain and anxiety are important factors in HRQoL.

Theranostics 2015 21;5(4):371-7. Epub 2015 Jan 21.
2. Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health (NIBIB), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The kinetic analysis of (11)C-acetate PET provides more information than routine one time-point static imaging. This study aims to investigate the potential of dynamic (11)C-acetate hepatic PET imaging to improve the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and benign liver lesions by using compartmental kinetic modeling and discriminant analysis.
Twenty-two patients were enrolled in this study, 6 cases were with well-differentiated HCCs, 7 with poorly-differentiated HCCs and 9 with benign pathologies.Read More

Following the CT scan, all patients underwent (11)C-acetate dynamic PET imaging. A three-compartment irreversible dual-input model was applied to the lesion time activity curves (TACs) to estimate the kinetic rate constants K1-k3, vascular fraction (VB) and the coefficient α representing the relative hepatic artery (HA) contribution to the hepatic blood supply on lesions and non-lesion liver tissue. The parameter Ki (=K1×k3/(k2 + k3)) was calculated to evaluate the local hepatic metabolic rate of acetate (LHMAct). The lesions were further classified by discriminant analysis with all the above parameters.
K1 and lesion to non-lesion standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (T/L) were found to be the parameters best characterizing the differences among well-differentiated HCC, poorly-differentiated HCC and benign lesions in stepwise discriminant analysis. With discriminant functions consisting of these two parameters, the accuracy of lesion prediction was 87.5% for well-differentiated HCC, 50% for poorly-differentiated HCC and 66.7% for benign lesions. The classification was much better than that with SUV and T/L, where the corresponding classification accuracy of the three kinds of lesions was 57.1%, 33.3% and 44.4%.
(11)C-acetate kinetic parameter K1 could improve the identification of HCC from benign lesions in combination with T/L in discriminant analysis. The discriminant analysis using static and kinetic parameters appears to be a very helpful method for clinical liver masses diagnosis and staging.

Annu Rev Food Sci Technol
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 2015 Feb 20. Epub 2015 Feb 20.
Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 and Department of Biochemistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia; email:

The oral bioavailability of a health-promoting dietary component (nutraceutical) may be limited by various physicochemical and physiological phenomena: liberation from food matrices, solubility in gastrointestinal fluids, interaction with gastrointestinal components, chemical degradation or metabolism, and epithelium cell permeability. Nutraceutical bioavailability can therefore be improved by designing food matrices that control their bioaccessibility (B(*)), absorption (A(*)), and transformation (T(*)) within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This article reviews the major factors influencing the gastrointestinal fate of nutraceuticals, and then uses this information to develop a new scheme to classify the major factors limiting nutraceutical bioavailability: the nutraceutical bioavailability classification scheme (NuBACS).Read More

This new scheme is analogous to the biopharmaceutical classification scheme (BCS) used by the pharmaceutical industry to classify drug bioavailability, but it contains additional factors important for understanding nutraceutical bioavailability in foods. The article also highlights potential strategies for increasing the oral bioavailability of nutraceuticals based on their NuBACS designation (B(*)A(*)T(*)). Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Food Science and Technology Volume 6 is February 28, 2015. Please see for revised estimates.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2015 Feb 20. Epub 2015 Feb 20.
From the Peking Union Medical College Hospital Beijing, Beijing, China.

The aim of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of the findings and the diagnoses of Tc-hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide scan (Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging) in patients with pancreatic masses which were potential neuroendocrine tumors.
Records of total 20 patients with pancreatic masses were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had been revealed by abdominal contrast CT and possibility of neuroendocrine tumors could not be excluded by CT imaging before Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging.Read More

Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging was performed at 1 and 4 hours post-tracer injection, and SPECT/CT images of the abdomen were also acquired. The image findings were compared to final diagnoses which were made from pathological examination.
Among all 20 pancreatic masses evaluated, there were 16 malignant lesions which included 1 ductal adenocarcinoma and 15 neuroendocrine tumors. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging identified 14 of 15 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and excluded 4 of 5 lesions which were not neuroendocrine tumors. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was therefore 93.3% (14 of 15), 80% (4 of 5), and 90.0% (18 of 20), respectively, in our patient population.
Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging provides reasonable accuracy in the evaluation pancreatic mass suspected to be neuroendocrine tumors.

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2015 Feb 20:ajpheart.00601.2014. Epub 2015 Feb 20.
Cardiovascular Research Institute of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China

Cathepsin B (CTSB), a member of the lysosomal cathepsin family that is expressed in both murine and human hearts, was previously shown to participate in apoptosis, autophagy, and the progression of certain types of cancers. Recently, CTSB has been linked to myocardial infarction (MI). Given that cathepsin L, another member of the lysosomal cathepsin family, ameliorates pathological cardiac hypertrophy.Read More

We hypothesized that CTSB plays a role in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling. Here we report that CTSB was upregulated in cardiomyocytes in response to hypertrophic stimuli both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, knockout of CTSB attenuated pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, dysfunction, and apoptosis. Furthermore, the aortic banding-induced activation of TNFα, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), c-Jun NH-terminal kinases (JNK), c-Jun, and release of cytochrome c was blunted by CTSB deficiency, which was further confirmed in in vitro studies induced by angiotensin II. In cardiomyocytes pretreatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, suppressed the cardiomyocytes hypertrophy by inhibiting the ASK1/JNK pathway. Altogether, these data indicate that the CTSB protein functions as a necessary modulator of hypertrophic response by regulating TNFα/ASK1/JNK signaling pathway involved in cardiac remodeling.

Biomed. Environ. Sci.
Biomed Environ Sci 2015 Feb;28(2):152-6
Science and Technology Department, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

This study aimed to learn the recurrence rate in the retreatment TB patients with sputum smear and/or culture positive (ss+ and/or c+) two years after they were declared cured, and to explore causes of recurrence in order to improve long-time treatment outcome. 5 cities were selected as research locations. Recurrence of TB was judged by chest X-ray examination together with sputum smear and culture examination.Read More

Questionnaire was carried out to collect data on treatment history, demographics and possible risk factors. Chi-square test and logistic regression were conducted using SPSS in this study. As the result, 99 active TB patients were identified and the recurrence rate was 16.67% and irregular medicine and smoking were the causes of the recurrence. The retreatment TB patients with sputum smear and/or culture positive in this study had higher recurrence rate and health education work on regular medication and smoking should be strengthened.

World J. Gastroenterol.
World J Gastroenterol 2015 Feb;21(7):2058-66
Qin He, Jin-Ke Li, Fang Li, Ru-Gui Li, Guo-Qing Zhan, Gang Li, Wei-Xing Du, Hua-Bing Tan, Department of Infectious Diseases and Lab of Liver Disease, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, Hubei Province, China.

To explore the mechanism of action of gypenosides (GPs) on type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (T2DM-NAFLD) in rats.
Sixty rats were randomly divided into a healthy group, an untreated disease model group and GP-treatment groups. The study involved the evaluation of biochemical parameters, including serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), blood glucose (BG), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC).Read More

Additionally, the protective effect of the treatments were confirmed histopathologically and the expression of TNF-α and NF-κB in the rat liver was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1A1 mRNA was determined by quantitative RT-PCR.
GP treatments at oral doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg per day significantly decreased the levels of serum AST and ALT (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), especially at the dose of 800 mg/kg per day. To a similar extent, GP at 800 mg/kg per day reduced the levels of BG (4.19 ± 0.47, P < 0.01), TG (80.08 ± 10.05, P < 0.01), TC (134.38 ± 16.39, P < 0.01) and serum insulin (42.01 ± 5.04, P < 0.01). The expression of TNF-α and NF-κB measured by immunohistochemistry was significantly reduced by GPs in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression of PPARγ and CYP4501A1 mRNA, as measured using quantitative real-time PCR, were significantly down-regulated by GPs. Moreover, GPs decreased the infiltration of liver fats and reversed the histopathological changes in a dose-dependent manner.
This study suggests that GPs have a protective effect against T2DM-NAFLD by down-regulating the expression of TNF-α and NF-κB proteins, and PPARγ and CYP4501A1 mRNAs.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2015 Feb 25. Epub 2015 Feb 25.
Institute of Developmental Biology, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Stress, either physical or psychological, can have a dramatic impact on our immune system. There has been little progress, however, in understanding chronic stress-induced immunosuppression. Naive CD4+ T cells could modulate immune responses via differentiation to T helper (Th) cells.Read More

In this study, we showed that stress promotes the release of the Th1 cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 and the Th17 cytokine IL-17 of splenic naive CD4+ T cells. This suggests that stress promotes the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells to Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells. Knockout strategies verified that TLR2 might modulate the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, our data suggest that chronic stress induces immune suppression by targeting TLR2 and p38 MAPK in naive CD4+ T cells. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Curr. Med. Chem.
Curr Med Chem 2015 Feb 27. Epub 2015 Feb 27.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, 1703 E. Mabel St. The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721 USA; 2BIO5 Institute, 1657 E. Helen St., The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721 USA.

The annual flu season causes thousands of deaths and millions of hospitalizations, which pose a great burden to global health and economy. Moreover, a flu pandemic arising from re-assortment viruses, such as H5N1 and H1N1, raises even greater concern due to the lack of effective vaccines at the initial stage of flu outbreak. The influenza virus is the causative agent of flu infection.Read More

Currently there are four drugs in use to combat influenza infection. Amantadine and rimantadine are M2 proton channel blockers that inhibit virus un-coating; oseltamivir and zanamivir are neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors that inhibit virus release. However, recent years have witnessed a drastic increase in instances of drug resistance, and flu strains that are resistant to both classes of drugs have been reported. Thus, there is a pressing need to Develop the next generation of anti-influenza drugs. Among a handful of anti-influenza drug targets, the viral fusion protein hemagglutinin (HA) is one of the most advanced. This review discusses the biological roles of HA during viral replication and highlights peptide- and small molecule-based HA inhibitors, including recent computationally designed HA binders. The text is organized into four sections based on the maturation stages of HA: inhibitors targeting the glycosylation of HA, the proteolytic activation of HA, the attachment of HA to host cell receptors, and peptide- and small molecule-based inhibitors targeting HA-mediated membrane fusion. Of particular interest are advances in the areas of developing dual inhibitors targeting both HA and NA and broad-spectrum HA inhibitors targeting both groups of HAs.

Acta Biomater
Acta Biomater 2015 Jan 2;12:139-45. Epub 2014 Oct 2.
Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Research, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Silks spun by silkworms and spiders feature outstanding mechanical properties despite being spun under benign conditions. The superior physical properties of silk are closely related to its complicated hierarchical structures constructed from nanoscale building blocks, such as nanocrystals and nanofibrils. Here, we report a novel silk dissolution behavior, which preserved nanofibrils in CaCl2-formic acid solution, that enables spinning of high-quality fibers with a hierarchical structure.Read More

This process is characterized by simplicity, high efficiency, low cost, environmental compatibility and large-scale industrialization potential, as well as having utility and potential for the recycling of silk waste and the production of silk-based functional materials.

Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2015 Jan 17;99(2):827-40. Epub 2014 Oct 17.
Institute of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, People's Republic of China.

The eukaryotic calcineurin (CN) pathway comprising catalytic A (CnA) and regulatory B subunits (CnB) is crucial for many biological processes but functionally unexplored in entomopathogenic fungi. Here, we characterise three CN subunits (CnA1, CnA2 and CnB) and a downstream CN-responsive zinc finger transcription factor (Crz1) in Beauveria bassiana. CN-mediated phosphatase activity decreased by 16-38 % in all deletion mutants compared with wild type.Read More

Growth and conidiation were most defective in ΔcnB, which showed a large proportion of abnormally branched germlings but were less defective in ΔcnA1 and ΔcnA2. Conidiation defects also occurred in Δcrz1, uniquely accompanied with slower germination. Compared with wild type, the four deletion mutants became, to varying degrees, more sensitive to Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Mg(2+), two oxidants, three cell wall stressors, carbendazim, heat shock and ultraviolet (UV)-B irradiation. They were also less virulent to Spodoptera litura larvae. Only ΔcnB and Δcrz1 were less tolerant to high osmolarity. The altered phenotypes of the deletion mutants were associated with lower intracellular mannitol and trehalose levels, reduced overall activity of superoxide dismutases and catalases, altered cell wall composition and down-regulation of numerous phenotype-influencing genes. Additionally, the transcription of six cascaded genes in two stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and the phosphorylation of hallmarking Hog1 and Slt2 were largely down-regulated in all the deletion mutants under osmotic and cell wall stresses, respectively. All the changes were restored by gene complementation. Taken together, three calcineurin subunits and Crz1 play vital, but variable, roles in B. bassiana responses to environmental stresses during development and host signals during infection.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015 Jan 18;56(1):207-15. Epub 2014 Dec 18.
Department of Pediatrics, Penn State Hershey Eye Center, Penn State Hershey College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States Department of Pediatrics, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts, United States.

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 is a potent endothelial cell mitogen and survival factor that is postulated to participate in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The purpose of the current study was to determine the transcriptional and translational regulation of FGF2 expression in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), the animal model of ROP.
We examined FGF2 protein and mRNA expression and optokinetic visual responses in transgenic mice possessing a dual-luciferase bicistronic transgene containing a 5'-internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of FGF2.Read More

We found that retinal FGF2 protein isoform expression varies with age but not in response to OIR. Analysis of luciferase, protein, and mRNA data indicate that FGF2 protein expression is translationally repressed during the vaso-obliterative phase of OIR, possibly by inhibiting elongation. At the transition from vaso-obliteration to neovascularization, heightened FGF2 protein expression corresponds to maintenance of IRES activity and diminished cap-dependent translational activity. During neovascularization, FGF2 expression is primarily regulated by transcription. Mice recovering from OIR display alterations in visual optokinetic responses and increased FGF2 protein expression at 6 weeks of age.
In total, these findings illustrate the complexity of translational and transcriptional regulation of FGF2 protein expression in OIR. The augmentation of FGF2 expression and reduced optokinetic responses during the resolution of surface vasculopathy may indicate a role for FGF2 in the maintenance of neuroretinal function in OIR/ROP.

Pediatr Cardiol
Pediatr Cardiol 2015 Jan 11. Epub 2015 Jan 11.
Department of Pediatric Cardiovasology, Children's Medical Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University/Institute of Pediatrics of Central South University, No. 139 Ren-min Middle Road, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

To explore whether oral rehydration salts (ORS) is effective in the treatment of children with vasovagal syncope (VVS). One hundred and sixty-six consecutive patients with recurrent syncope and positive head-up tilt testing (HUTT) were recruited, randomly divided to conventional therapy (health education and tilt training) plus ORS (with 500 ml of water) group (Group I, 87 patients) and conventional therapy group (Group II, 79 patients). Therapeutic effect was evaluated by changes of syncopal episode and reperformed HUTT response.Read More

At the end of 6-month follow-up, syncopal episode did not reoccur in 49 (56.3 %) patients, decreased in 34 (39.1 %) patients, and had no obvious change or increased in four (4.6 %) patients in Group I, and the results were 31 (39.2 %), 37 (46.8 %), and 11 (14 %) in Group II, respectively. The difference was significant (χ (2) = 7.074, P < 0.05). When HUTT was reperformed, 57 (65.5 %) and 28 (35.4 %) patients had negative response and 30 (34.5 %) and 51 (64.6 %) patients had positive response, respectively, in Group I and Group II. The difference was also significant (χ (2) = 13.808, P < 0.01). In Group I, the two aspects had no difference between vasodepressor type and mixed type; however, syncopal episode had a significant difference between children aged ≤12 and >12 years (χ (2) = 6.371, P < 0.05); there was no difference in reperformed HUTT response. ORS with 500 ml of water is an effective therapy for VVS. It can be recommended as one of non- pharmacological treatment measures in children with VVS.

J Food Sci Technol
J Food Sci Technol 2015 Jan 8;52(1):267-75. Epub 2013 May 8.
College of Life Science, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, 712100 Shaanxi China.

The effect of the ethylene receptor competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and the legally approved disinfectant chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on preservation of the green walnut fruit during storage was investigated. Green Chinese walnut fruit cv. Xilin No.Read More

2 was harvested on commercial maturity and stored at 0-1 °C after the fruit was treated by water (control), 80 mg L(-1)ClO2 (ClO2), 0.5 μL L(-1)1-MCP (1-MCP), or combination treatment of 80 mg L(-1) ClO2 with either 0.1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP (0.1 1-MCP+ ClO2) or 0.5 μL L(-1) 1-MCP (0.5 1-MCP+ ClO2). During storage, respiration, ethylene production, phenolics content, antioxidative activity, weight changes, decay of the fruit and kernel traits of acid value, peroxide value,free fatty were measured. All treatments decreased postharvest respiration intensity in different degrees and inhibited ethylene production peak. ClO2 increased the total phenol and flavonoid content of the green fruit compared with other treatments and the control (P < 0.05), but not did the total antioxidant activity for this treatment. After 42-day storage, ClO2 remained higher fresh weight and lower decay index than control, while 1-MCP increased the fruit decay index. Final acid values of kernel from ClO2, control and 0.1 1-MCP+ ClO2 were not different from their initial values, which from 0.5 1-MCP increased. Final peroxide value for kernel from ClO2 showed no change during storage but increased at least 1.0-fold for other treatments. ClO2 preserved 99.9 % of initial free fatty acid, similar to that for the control (99.8 %), whereas 0.5 1-MCP preserved only 95.7 %. ClO2 is of potential in decay retardation and kernel traits maintenance of green walnut fruit, whereas the 1-MCP has a negative effect for decay control on walnut.

J. Plant Res.
J Plant Res 2015 Jan 23. Epub 2015 Jan 23.
Linze Inland River Basin Research Station, Key Laboratory of Inland River Basin Ecohydrology, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Dong-gang West Road, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

The influences of previous-year precipitation and episodic rainfall events on dryland plants and communities are poorly quantified in the temperate desert region of Northwest China. To evaluate the thresholds and lags in the response of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) to variability in rainfall pulses and seasonal precipitation along the precipitation-productivity gradient in three desert ecosystems with different precipitation regimes, we collected precipitation data from 2000 to 2012 in Shandan (SD), Linze (LZ) and Jiuquan (JQ) in northwestern China. Further, we extracted the corresponding MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, a proxy for ANPP) datasets at 250 m spatial resolution.Read More

We then evaluated different desert ecosystems responses using statistical analysis, and a threshold-delay model (TDM). TDM is an integrative framework for analysis of plant growth, precipitation thresholds, and plant functional type strategies that capture the nonlinear nature of plant responses to rainfall pulses. Our results showed that: (1) the growing season NDVIINT (INT stands for time-integrated) was largely correlated with the warm season (spring/summer) at our mildly-arid desert ecosystem (SD). The arid ecosystem (LZ) exhibited a different response, and the growing season NDVIINT depended highly on the previous year's fall/winter precipitation and ANPP. At the extremely arid site (JQ), the variability of growing season NDVIINT was equally correlated with the cool- and warm-season precipitation; (2) some parameters of threshold-delay differed among the three sites: while the response of NDVI to rainfall pulses began at about 5 mm for all the sites, the maximum thresholds in SD, LZ, and JQ were about 55, 35 and 30 mm respectively, increasing with an increase in mean annual precipitation. By and large, more previous year's fall/winter precipitation, and large rainfall events, significantly enhanced the growth of desert vegetation, and desert ecosystems should be much more adaptive under likely future scenarios of increasing fall/winter precipitation and large rainfall events. These results highlight the inherent complexity in predicting how desert ecosystems will respond to future fluctuations in precipitation.

Virus Res.
Virus Res 2015 Jan 28;200C:24-29. Epub 2015 Jan 28.
State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources of State Oceanic Administration & Fujian, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen 361005, PR China. Electronic address:

VP28 and VP24 are two major envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The direct interaction between VP28 and VP24 has been described in previous studies. In this study, we confirmed this interaction and mapped the interaction domains of VP28 and VP24 by constructing a series of deletion mutants.Read More

By co-immunoprecipitation, two VP28-binding domains of VP24 were located at amino acid residues 46-61 and 148-160, while VP24-binding domain of VP28 was located at amino acid residues 31-45. These binding domains were further corroborated by peptide blocking assay, in which synthetic peptides spanning the binding domains were able to inhibit VP28-VP24 interaction, whereas same-size control peptides from non-binging regions did not.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2015 Jan;40(1):1-5
Department of Cardiology, First Affi liated Hospital of South China University, Hengyang Hunan 421001, China.

To explore the eff ect of hydrogen sulfi de (H2S) on protein kinase C α (PKCα) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and myocardial fi brosis in diabetic rats.
Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group, diabetes group (STZ group), the H2S intervention group (STZ+H2S group) and the normal rats plus H2S group (the H2S group). Diabetic rats were induced by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ).Read More

The pathological morphological changes in myocardial fiber was analyzed by HE staining. The expression of PKCα, HSP70 and type III collagen were analyzed by Western blot.
Compared with the control group, the expressions of PKCα, HSP70 and type III collagen in diabetic rats were significantly increased (P<0.05), accompanied by the disordered arrangement of myocardial cells, which were dramatically reversed by H2S treatment (P<0.05).
H2S could reduce myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats, which is related to the inhibition of PKCα and HSP70 expression.

Oncotarget 2015 Jan 13. Epub 2015 Jan 13.
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061 Shaanxi, China.

Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common and lethal cancers worldwide, especially in China. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from patients who were diagnosed and treated HCC between 2002 and 2011 in a large hospital in northwest China and compared the data between periods 2002-2006 (P1) and 2007-2011 (P2). Results 2045 patients were included in analysis.Read More

The HCC stages at diagnosis according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer staging system had no significant change. Treatment options of liver transplantation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and other therapy decreased while percutaneous local ablation and supportive care increased from P1 to P2. Options of surgical resection and systematic therapy had no significant change. Patient survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years significantly improved from P1 to P2. The treatments with increasing option trend had a higher magnitude of survival increase and vise versa. Conclusion Over the last 10 years, the patient survival had a significant increase which was mainly a result of the optimal therapeutic selections according to disease stages in this center. However, the proportion of patients diagnosed at early stages of HCC remained low and did not increase, a result calling for implementing surveillance system for at risk patients.

Oncotarget 2015 Jan 31. Epub 2015 Jan 31.
Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Regulatory mechanisms underlying constitutive and inducible NFκB activation in cancer remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether a novel NIK- and IKK2-binding protein (NIBP) is required for maintaining malignancy of cancer cells in an NFκB-dependent manner. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of a human cancer survey tissue-scan cDNA array, immunostaining of a human frozen tumor tissue array and immunoblotting of a high-density reverse-phase cancer protein lysate array showed that NIBP is extensively expressed in most tumor tissues, particularly in breast and colon cancer.Read More

Lentivirus-mediated NIBP shRNA knockdown significantly inhibited the growth/proliferation, invasion/migration, colony formation and xenograft tumorigenesis of breast (MDA-MB-231) or colon (HCT116) cancer cells. NIBP overexpression in HCT116 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. Mechanistically, NIBP knockdown in cancer cells inhibited cytokine-induced activation of NFκB luciferase reporter, thus sensitizing the cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis. Endogenous NIBP bound specifically to the phosphorylated IKK2 in a TNFα-dependent manner. NIBP knockdown transiently attenuated TNFα-stimulated phosphorylation of IKK2/p65 and degradation of IκBα. In contrast, NIBP overexpression enhanced TNFα-induced NFκB activation, thus inhibiting constitutive and TNFα-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our data identified important roles of NIBP in promoting tumorigenesis via NFκΒ signaling, spotlighting NIBP as a promising target in cancer therapeutic intervention.

Arch. Dermatol. Res.
Arch Dermatol Res 2014 Dec 9;306(10):927-32. Epub 2014 Sep 9.
Department of Dermatovenereology, Chengdu Second People's Hospital, No. 165, Caoshi Street, Chengdu, 610017, Sichuan, China.

TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A), a newly identified member of the TNF superfamily, has been proved as an important mediator of inflammation and critically involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and several other autoimmune diseases. The aim of our study was to determine the possible role of TL1A in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this study, serum levels of TL1A in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV) and atopic dermatitis (AD) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Read More

Then, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with PV were isolated, the mRNA expression of TL1A was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The effects of TL1A on the production of T cell cytokines, such as IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in PBMCs were determined. We demonstrated that serum TL1A levels were significantly elevated in patients with PV but not in patients with AD. Besides, the high serum TL1A levels in patients with PV decreased after treatment. PBMCs derived from psoriatic patients showed significantly increased TL1A mRNA levels. Soluble TL1A synergized with IL-23 to stimulate PBMCs from patients with PV to produce IL-17. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that TL1A may play a role in the pathogenesis of PV.

Am J Community Psychol
Am J Community Psychol 2014 Dec;54(3-4):316-27
University of Maryland School of Social Work, 525 W. Redwood St., Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA,

Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with mental illness. Coping with the strain of shifting roles and multiple challenges of caregiving can have a huge impact. Limited information exists regarding race-related differences in families' caregiving experiences, their abilities to cope with the mental illness of a loved one, or their interactions with mental health service systems.Read More

This study examined race-related differences in the experiences of adults seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family Education Program due to mental illness of a loved one. Participants were 293 White and 107 African American family members who completed measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping, knowledge about mental illness, subjective illness burden, psychological distress, and family functioning. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine race-related differences. African American caregivers reported higher levels of negative caregiving experiences, less knowledge of mental illness, and higher levels of both problem-solving coping and emotion-focused coping, than White caregivers. Mental health programs serving African American families should consider targeting specific strategies to address caregiving challenges, support their use of existing coping mechanisms and support networks, and increase their knowledge of mental illness.

Carcinogenesis 2014 Dec 19;35(12):2687-97. Epub 2014 Sep 19.
Department of Genetics, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, San Xiang Road No. 1055, Suzhou 215004, China, Department of Genetics, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94304, USA and The Institute for Chemical Carcinogenesis, The State Key Lab of Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182, China

Gene fusion is among the primary processes that generate new genes and has been well characterized as potent pathway of oncogenesis. Here, by high-throughput RNA sequencing in nine paired human endometrial carcinoma (EC) and matched non-cancerous tissues, we obtained that chimeric translin-associated factor X-disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (TSNAX-DISC1) occurred significantly upregulated in multiple EC samples. Experimental investigation showed that TSNAX-DISC1 appears to be formed by splicing without chromosomal rearrangement.Read More

The chimera expression inversely correlated with the binding of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) to the insulators. Subsequent investigations indicate that long intergenic non-coding RNA lincRNA-NR_034037, separating TSNAX from DISC1, regulates TSNAX -DISC1 production and TSNAX/DISC1 expression levels by extricating CTCF from insulators. Dysregulation of TSNAX influences steroidogenic factor-1-stimulated transcription on the StAR promoter, altering progesterone actions, implying the association with cancer. Together, these results advance our understanding of the mechanism in which lincRNA-NR_034037 regulates TSNAX-DISC1 formation programs that tightly regulate EC development.

Sci China Life Sci
Sci China Life Sci 2014 Dec 24;57(12):1172-6. Epub 2014 Sep 24.
Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China,

The tumor-promoting arm of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor signaling contributes to advanced cancer progression and is considered a master regulator of breast cancer metastasis. In mammals, there are six distinct members in the tumor-necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor (TRAF) family (TRAF1-TRAF6), with the function of TRAF4 not being extensively studied in the past decade. Although numerous studies have suggested that there is elevated TRAF4 expression in human cancer, it is still unknown in which oncogenic pathway TRAF4 is mainly implicated.Read More

This review highlights TGF-β-induced SMAD-dependent signaling and non-SMAD signaling as the major pathways regulated by TRAF4 involved in breast cancer metastasis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2014 Nov-Dec;23(10):2626-34. Epub 2014 Oct 5.
Center of Alzheimer's Disease, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most prevalent type of dementia among the aged, for whom limited pharmacologic options are available so far. SaiLuoTong capsule is a modern traditional Chinese medicine formula, which has been demonstrated to improve cognition of VaD by the reports of animal experiments and preliminary clinical trial. However, evaluation of this therapy in randomized multicenter trials is needed.Read More

In this article, we present the rationale and design of the SaiLuoTong in Vascular Dementia Study.
This phase 2 clinical trial of SaiLuoTong among patients with mild-to-moderate VaD is a 26-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a subsequent 26-week, open-label extension. After a 4-week placebo run-in period, participants are centrally randomized (1:1:1) to 3 groups: group A receives SaiLuoTong 360 mg per day for 52 weeks; group B receives SaiLuoTong 240 mg per day for 52 weeks; group C (the control group) are further randomly assigned to 2 groups in a 1:1 ratio and receives placebo during the double-blind phase, then SaiLuoTong 360 mg per day or SaiLuoTong 240 mg per day during the extension phase. The primary outcome measures include the VaD assessment scale cognitive subscale and the Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-clinical global impression of change. Safety measures include body weight, vital signs, electrocardiography, laboratory tests, and records of adverse events. Assuming an attrition rate of 20%, at least 372 patients are required to obtain a statistical power of 80%.
The first patient was enrolled into the study in April 2012 and the completion of the study is expected in September 2014.
The rigorous methodology of the study will hopefully move forward the scientific evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of VaD. The results of the present study will provide high-quality evidence on the effect of SaiLuoTong in patients with VaD and has the potential to establish a novel therapeutic approach for this disorder.

J. Biol. Chem.
J Biol Chem 2014 Dec 29;289(50):34520-9. Epub 2014 Oct 29.
From the Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455

Tumor cell surface aminopeptidase N (APN or CD13) has two puzzling functions unrelated to its enzymatic activity: mediating tumor cell motility and serving as a receptor for tumor-homing peptides (peptides that bring anti-cancer drugs to tumor cells). To investigate APN-based tumor-homing therapy, we determined the crystal structure of APN complexed with a tumor-homing peptide containing a representative Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif. The tumor-homing peptide binds to the APN enzymatic active site, but it resists APN degradation due to a distorted scissile peptide bond.Read More

To explore APN-based tumor cell motility, we examined the interactions between APN and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. APN binds to, but does not degrade, NGR motifs in ECM proteins that share similar conformations with the NGR motif in the APN-bound tumor-homing peptide. Therefore, APN-based tumor cell motility and tumor-homing therapy rely on a unified mechanism in which both functions are driven by the specific and stable interactions between APN and the NGR motifs in ECM proteins and tumor-homing peptides. This study further implicates APN as an integrin-like molecule that functions broadly in cell motility and adhesion by interacting with its signature NGR motifs in the extracellular environment.

Exp Ther Med
Exp Ther Med 2014 Dec 1;8(6):1807-1812. Epub 2014 Oct 1.
Department of Rheumatology, Hebei Province General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to explore the use of high frequency color Doppler ultrasound to measure synovial thickness and blood flow to assess the therapeutic value of the recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) II receptor antibody fusion protein in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. A total of 36 clinically-diagnosed patients with RA were treated with methotrexate tablets or the recombinant TNF-receptor antibody fusion protein for 24 weeks. Joint synovial thickness and synovial blood flow integrity were monitored by high frequency color Doppler in the second metacarpophalangeal joint in one hand.Read More

The correlation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein (CRP) and 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) with the ultrasound parameters were analyzed. Metacarpophalangeal second joint 2 (MCP2) synovial thickness, wrist joint synovial thickness and MCP2 synovial blood flow, prior and subsequent to the treatment, have a high correlation with DAS28 (P<0.05), and the MCP2 synovial blood flow integral has a strong correlation with CRP. Evaluating the wrist joint synovial thickness and synovial integrity of the second metacarpophalangeal joint using high frequency ultrasound detection can effectively evaluate the disease status in patients with RA. This procedure is potentially valuable as a means of evaluating the curative effects of RA treatments.

J. Neurol. Sci.
J Neurol Sci 2014 Dec 20;347(1-2):275-80. Epub 2014 Oct 20.
Department of Rehabilitation, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China; Department of Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury has neuroprotective benefits in animal models, including enhancing functional recovery after ischemic stroke. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of EE on the improvement of damaged neural function and the induction of angiogenesis.Read More

Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Neurological status scores were used to evaluate neural function on postoperative days 2, 7, and 14. A beam-walking task was used to test the recovery of motor behavior on postoperative days 2, 5, 10, and 15. We also used a Morris water maze task to examine whether EE protected learning and memory performance. The specific marker of angiogenesis of CD31 was examined by western blot. Angiogenesis around the peri-infarction region was assayed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) after 14 days of EE exposure starting 24h after ischemia. Neurological status scores of animals in the EE group were significantly higher than those in the standard housing condition (SC) control group from the seventh day after ischemic. EE accelerated the recovery of motor coordination and integration and also improved learning and memory performance after cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, EE increased CD31 levels and promoted angiogenesis of cortex in the peri-infarction region compared to the SC group. Neural function outcomes are positively correlated with post-ischemia angiogenesis. These findings suggest that EE plays an important role in the recovery of damaged neural function via regulation of angiogenesis after ischemia.

PLoS One 2014 2;9(12):e113742. Epub 2014 Dec 2.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

This study aims at using 18F-FDG microPET to monitor the brown adipose tissue (BAT) glucose metabolism in obese and diabetic mouse models under different interventions, and study the therapeutic potential of BAT activation for weight loss and lowering of blood glucose in these models.
Obese mice were established by a high-fat diet for eight weeks, and diabetes mellitus(DM) models were induced with Streptozocin in obese mice. 18F-FDG microPET was used to monitor BAT function during obese and DM modeling, and also after BRL37344 (a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist) or levothyroxine treatment.Read More

The BAT function was correlated with the body weight and blood glucose levels.
Compared with the controls, the obese mice and DM mice showed successively lower 18F-FDG uptake in the interscapular BAT (P = 0.036 and < 0.001, respectively). After two-week BRL37344 treatment, the BAT uptake was significantly elevated in both obese mice (P = 0.010) and DM mice (P = 0.004), accompanied with significantly decreased blood glucose levels (P = 0.023 and 0.036, respectively). The BAT uptake was negatively correlated with the blood glucose levels in both obese mice (r = -0.71, P = 0.003) and DM mice (r = -0.74, P = 0.010). BRL37344 treatment also caused significant weight loss in the obese mice (P = 0.001). Levothyroxine treatment increased the BAT uptake in the control mice (P = 0.025) and obese mice (P = 0.013), but not in the DM mice (P = 0.45).
The inhibited BAT function in obese and DM mice can be re-activated by β3-adrenergic receptor agonist or thyroid hormone, and effective BAT activation may lead to weight loss and blood glucose lowering. Activating BAT can provide a new treatment strategy for obesity and DM.

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2014 Dec;26(12):860-4
Department of Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, Anhui, China, Corresponding author: Li Zegeng, Department of Respiratory Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Traditional Medicine, Hefei 230031, Anhui, China,

To observe the changes in forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3(Foxp3), regulatory T cells (Treg), retinoid-related orphan receptor gamma (RORγt) in rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Twenty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal control group and COPD model group, with 10 rats in each group. The COPD model was reproduced by smoke inhalation and tracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and no such treatment was conducted in normal control group.Read More

Twenty-eight days after the model reproduction, the pulmonary function was determined, the pathological changes of lung tissue were observed with haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, interleukins (IL-6, IL-10) in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg of peripheral blood was determined by flow cytometry, and the expressions of Foxp3, RORγt, IL-17 protein in lung tissue were assayed by Western Blot.
Under light microscope, significal interstitial infiltration of inflammatory cells was found in alveoli and interstitial tissue of the lung, and destruction of alveolar tissue, alveolar wall thinning, and even rupture to fuse into bullae, and bleeding into alveoli in different degress could be observed. Compared with the normal control group, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 0.3 second (FEV0.3), FEV0.3/FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF) in model group were significantly decreased [FVC (mL): 8.04±2.03 vs. 9.97±2.14, FEV0.3 (mL): 6.16±2.23 vs. 8.84±2.12, FEV0.3/FVC: 0.70±0.09 vs. 0.85±0.11, PEF (mL/s): 33.56±4.76 vs. 40.14±5.64, P<0.05 or P<0.01]. Serum IL-6 was obviously increased (ng/L: 93.17±20.96 vs. 76.28±13.24, P<0.05), IL-10 was significantly decreased (ng/L: 78.62±15.17 vs. 104.34±19.46, P<0.01), and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)Treg was significantly diminished [(2.75±0.83)% vs. (4.16±1.14)%, P<0.01] in model group compared with those in the normal control group. The expression of Foxp3 protein in lung tissue in model group was significantly down-regulated compared with that in the normal control group (gray scale: 0.38±0.15 vs. 0.63±0.11, P<0.01), and RORγt and IL-17 protein expressions were significantly up-regulated [RORγt (gray scale): 0.96±0.23 vs. 0.47±0.11, IL-17 (gray scale): 1.02±0.24 vs. 0.34±0.08, both P<0.01]. Correlation analysis showed that FEV0.3 was positively correlated with Foxp3 (r=0.585, P<0.05), and FEV0.3/FVC was negatively correlated with IL-6 and RORγt(r=-0.655, r=-0.607, both P<0.05). PEF was positively correlated with Treg (r=0.573, P<0.05), and negatively correlated with IL-17 (r=-0.198, P<0.05). IL-6 was negatively correlated with Foxp3(r=-0.603, P<0.05),and positively correlated with RORγt (r=0.588, P<0.05). IL-10 was positively correlated with Treg (r=0.573, P<0.05). Treg was positively correlated with Foxp3 (r=0.607, P<0.05), and negatively correlated with IL-17 (r=-0.569, P<0.05). Foxp3 was negatively correlated with RORγt(r=-0.591, P<0.05). RORγt was positively correlated with IL-17 (r=0.578, P<0.05).
There is a relationship among decreased pulmonary function, inflammation and imbalance of Foxp3/Treg and RORγt/Th17 in COPD.

Mol. Biol. Rep.
Mol Biol Rep 2014 Dec 6. Epub 2014 Dec 6.
Department of Thoracocardiac Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006, Jiangsu, China,

The current paper aims to study the effect of adenovirus-mediated IL-24 (Ad-IL-24) on human lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo and determine its possible mechanism of action. The growth-suppressing and apoptosis-inducing effects of Ad-IL-24, radiotherapy, and Ad-IL-24+ radiotherapy (hereinafter referred to as the joint group) on SPC-A1 lung carcinoma cells were assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethyliazolyl-2)-2,5-diphnyltetrazolium bromide and flow cytometry. A human lung model was established with SPC-A1 cells in nude mice.Read More

Groups of mice were subjected to multi-point injections to their tumors. Gross tumor volumes were measured dynamically. The ratios of tumor suppression and radiosensitization effect were evaluated according to the method of probability sum Q values. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, Survivin, and Caspase-3 in tumor samples were detected by immunohistochemistry. The ratios of inhibition and apoptosis in the joint group were higher than those in the individual Ad-IL-24 and radiotherapy groups. In vitro, the joint group suppressed tumor growth conspicuously, showing a weight inhibition rate of about 64 %. The expressions of FasL, Bax and Caspase-3 were upregulated in the joint group, while the expressions of Cox,Bcl-2,VEGF,CD34 and Survivin were downregulated. The current study proves that Ad-IL-24 suppresses growth of SPC-A1 cells both in vitro and in vivo. Its functions appear to be related to cell apoptosis and antiangiogenesis.

BackgroundAcupuncture has analgesic effect to most pain conditions. Many neuroimaging studies were conducted to explore acupoint specificity in pain and other condition, but till now there is still discrepancy. Based on our previous finding, this study investigated the brain metabolism changes of acupuncture analgesia induced by sub-specific acupoint and non-acupoint stimulation.Read More

Methods30 migraineurs were included and randomly assigned to 3 groups: Acupuncture Group (AG), Sham Acupuncture Group (SAG) and Migraine Group (MG). In AG, a combination sub-specific points of Shaoyang meridians, Luxi (TE19), San Yangluo (TE8), and Xi Yangguan(GB33) has been stimulated with electroacupuncture, while non-acupoints for SAG were used and MG received no treatment. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET-CT) was used to identify differences in brain glucose metabolism between groups.ResultsIn the AG, brain glucose metabolism increase compared with the MG was observed in the middle frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, the precuneus, parahippocampus, cerebellum and middle cingulate cortex (MCC), and decrease were observed in the left hemisphere of Middle Temporal Cortex (MTC).In the SAG, compared with MG, glucose metabolism increased in the poster cingulate cortex (PCC), insula, inferior temporal gyrus, MTC, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, fusiform, inferior parietal lobe, superior parietal lobe, supramarginal gyrus, middle occipital lobe, angular and precuneus; while, decreased in cerebellum, parahippocampus.ConclusionsAcupuncture stimulation at both sub-specific acupoint and non-acupoint yields ameliorating effect to migraine pain, but with evidently differed central mechanism as measured by PET-CT. The pattern of brain glucose metabolism change in acupoint is pertinent and targeted, while in non-acupoint that was disordered and randomized. These finding may provide new perspectives into the validation of acupoint specificity, optimizing acupuncture analgesia and revealing central mechanism of acupuncture analgesia by neuroimaging measurement.Trial registrationThis trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, with registration no. ChiCTR-TRC-11001813.

Front Microbiol
Front Microbiol 2014 26;5:635. Epub 2014 Nov 26.
Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Chinese and Western Integrative Medicine, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine Hefei, China.

Quorum sensing (QS) is a means of cell-to-cell communication that uses diffusible signaling molecules that are sensed by the population to determine population density, thus allowing co-ordinate gene regulation in response to population density. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, production of the QS signaling molecule, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), co-ordinates expression of key factors of pathogenesis, including biofilm formation and toxin secretion. It is predicted that the inhibition of AHL sensing would provide an effective clinical treatment to reduce the expression of virulence factors and increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.Read More

We previously demonstrated that sodium houttuyfonate (SH), commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases, can effectively inhibit QS-regulated processes, including biofilm formation. Here, using a model system, we demonstrate that SH causes the dose-dependent inhibition of AHL production, through down-regulation of the AHL biosynthesis gene, lasI. Addition of SH also resulted in down-regulation of expression of the AHL sensor and transcriptional regulator, LasR, and inhibited the production of the QS-regulated virulence factors, pyocyanin and LasA. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of SH may be due to its ability to disrupt QS in P. aeruginosa.

Clin. Exp. Med.
Clin Exp Med 2014 Dec 17. Epub 2014 Dec 17.
Department of Dermatology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, NO. 28, Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853, China.

This study is to evaluate the association between p73 G4C14-A4T14 polymorphism and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) risk in diverse populations. We searched the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedicine databases for all articles on the association between p73 G4C14-A4T14 polymorphism and SCC risk through March 2014. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of six case-control studies that included 1,758 SCC cases and 2,970 case-free controls.Read More

All analyses were performed using STATA 11.0, using two-sided P values. Overall, this meta-analysis showed that the p73 G4C14-A4T14 polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of SCC in three genetic models. However, after excluding one study deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the results then demonstrated that the p73 G4C14-A4T14 polymorphism was only associated with elevated risk of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (for AT/GC vs GC/GC: OR 1.51, 95 % CI 1.14-2.00, P heterogeneity = 0.996; for AT/AT+AT/GC vs GC/GC: OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.08-1.87, P heterogeneity = 0.994) in subgroup analysis by tumor sites. No publication bias was found in the present study. This meta-analysis suggests that the p73 G4C14-A4T14 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association.

Community Ment Health J
Community Ment Health J 2014 Dec 23. Epub 2014 Dec 23.
Department of Psychiatry, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3535 Market Street, 2nd Floor, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF).Read More

Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family.

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2014 Dec;34(12):1721-7
Deptartment of Respiratory Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China.E-mail:

To establish a canine cell line with p53 gene knockdown by lentivirus- mediated RNA interference (RNAi).
Four pairs of oligonucleotide sequences of p53 gene were synthesized and cloned into the pGMLV-SC5 RNAi vector. Following confirmation by PCR and DNA sequencing, the recombinant pGMLV-p53 plasmids and packaging mix vectors were packaged into mature lentivirus to infect 293T cells.Read More

The supernatant of the infected cells was harvested to infect WRD cells, in which p53 expression was detected using Western blotting and real-time PCR. The lentivirus with the strongest p53⁻ silencing effect was packaged for infecting WRD cells at the optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) to establish a stably infected cell line (WRD/p53⁻) screened using puromycin.
The lentivirus carrying p53 shRNA was constructed successfully and a virus titer of 1 × 10⁹ TU/ml. The 4 pGMLV-p53 plasmids all produced strong p53 interference affects, and pGMLV- p53A1 with the strongest effect. The stably infected cells line WRD/p53⁻ was established successfully using pGMLV-p53A1 plasmid.
The canine cell line WRD/p53⁻ with stable lentivirus-mediated p53 silencing has been established successfully.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2014 Dec 26. Epub 2014 Dec 26.
From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine, and †Pathology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

A 23-year-old woman with recurrent uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma underwent FDG PET/CT, which showed pelvic recurrence and multiple pulmonary metastases. In addition, increased activity in a vertical soft tissue mass along the left ureter was noted, which appears similar to retroperitoneal fibrosis on PET/CT images. However, pathological examination demonstrated that the elevated FDG activity in this mass was a result of tumor thrombus from endometrial stromal sarcoma in the left ovarian arteries and veins.Read More

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2014 Dec;32(12):903-8
Library of Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China. E-mail:

To investigate the distribution of authors, funding, institutions, and regions in Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases between 2006 and 2013, to understand the types and characteristics of cooperation, and to identify the core authors, core institutions, and core regions.
Based on the Chinese Science Citation Database, the data on the journal were analyzed by bibliometric methods, including the number of papers, cooperation, core authors, regional distribution of authors, systematic distribution of authors, productive institutions, and funding sources and distribution.
Within the eight years, there were 2488 papers published in the journal, and 1363 authors published only one paper in the journal, accounting for 76.Read More

57%of the number of first authors. A total of 2304 (92.60%) out of 2488 papers were published by co-authors and the degree of cooperation was 4.64. One hundred and eighty-four papers (7.40%) were published by only one author. There were 64 (3.60%) core authors who published 324 papers (13.02%). Nine hundred and sixty-eight papers (38.91%) were published by research institutes, 825 papers (33.16%) by universities, and 272 papers (10.93%) by affiliated hospitals of medical universities. There were 19 productive institutions publishing 838 papers (33.68%), in which Beijing ranked first with 300 papers (12.06%).
The journal has a large number of authors, extensive institutions, a wide regional distribution, a high cooperation rate, and a strong ability to attract funded papers. Research institutes and universities are the main sources of papers in the journal.

To study changes in the nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65)-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway and the effects of Xinfeng capsules (XFC) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
One hundred twenty patients with AS were randomly divided into an XFC group and a Salazopyrin group. Sixty health subjects were included as a normal control group.Read More

In the two treatment groups, pulmonary functional parameters, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 25% of forced vital capacity (FEF25), forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (FEF50), and forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF75) were determined. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were used for detection of the serum oxidative stress indexes, NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidative capacity (TAOC) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents. Westergren's method was used for determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) was detected with a 7060 full-automatic biochemical analyzer (Hitachi, Japan).
The clinical therapeutic effect in the XFC group was significantly superior to that in the Salazopyrin group (P < 0.01). Compared with the normal control group, FEV1, MVV, PEF, FEF50, FEF75, SOD, CAT, TAOC, IL-4, IL-10 were significantly lower, and NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, ROS, RNS, MDA, IL-1β, TNF-α, ESR, and Hs-CRP significantly higher in patients with AS (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Compared with before treatment, FEV1, MVV, PEF, FEF50, FEF75, SOD, CAT, TAOC, IL-4, and IL-10 were significantly increased, and NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, ROS, RNS, MDA, IL-1β, TNF-α, ESR, CRP, visual analog scales (VAS), Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease active index, Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index, and Bath ankylosing spondylitis global index significantly decreased in the two treatment groups after treatment (P <. 0.01 or P < 0.05), with significant differences between the XFC and Salazopyrin groups (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Spearman correlation analysis indicated that FEV1, MWVV, PEF, FEF50, and FEF75 were positively correlated with SOD, CAT, TAOC, IL-4, and IL-10, and were negatively correlated with NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, ROS, RNS, MDA, IL-13, TNF-α, ESR, and CRP.
Patients with AS have local pathologic changes in the spinal cord and other joints. They also have decreased pulmonary function, which is negatively correlated with the NF-κB-iNOS-NO signaling pathway, oxidative indexes, and inflammatory factors. XFC improves rigidity and pain in spinal joints and other symptoms, laboratory indexes, and pulmonary function. The mechanism is possibly related to inhibition of the NF-KB-iNOS-NO signaling pathway.

To evaluate the association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and breast cancer incidence among the non-diabetic females in a large-scale cohort study in Kailuan group.
The Kailuan cohort was established on May 1, 2006. Baseline information on demography, lifestyle, medical history, and anthropometry, i.Read More

e., body height and weight, were collected during the baseline interview, and breast cancer incidence, mortality and other related outcome information were obtained by follow-up every two years and the related health condition database information were collected every year. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95%CI (confidence interval) between the level of hsCRP at baseline interview and breast cancer incidence adjusted for age group, body mass index (BMI), marital status (married and single) and tobacco smoking (smokers and non-smokers) when appropriate.
By Dec 31, 2011, a total of 17 402 females were enrolled in the cohort. There were 85 286 person-years of follow-up with a mean follow-up period of (58.81 ± 4.52) months. A total of 75 incident breast cancer cases were collected. Subjects with the highest level (>3 mg/L) of hsCRP at baseline interview were associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted HR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.03-3.15) compared with those with the lowest level (<1 mg/L).
Elevated levels of hsCRP at baseline interview may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-diabetic females. Further follow-up and etiological exploration will help to evaluate the association between the hsCRP level and the risk of breast cancer more reliably.

Immunol. Lett.
Immunol Lett 2014 Nov 9;162(1 Pt A):212-6. Epub 2014 Sep 9.
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710061, Shaanxi, China; Institute of Advanced Surgical Technology and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710061, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10204525 in the 3'-untranslated region (3' UTR) of PD1 gene was shown to be associated with the disease course of HBV infection. This study examined the associations of PD-1 mRNA expression with the clinical and viral profiles and the genotypes of rs10204525 in HBV infection. PD-1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood nuclear cells were determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Read More

PD1 rs10204525 was genotyped by bidirectional PCR amplification of specific alleles. The results showed that patients with chronic HBV infection had significantly elevated PD-1 mRNA levels than healthy controls. Patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma had significantly higher PD-1 mRNA levels than healthy controls. HBeAg (+) patients had significantly higher PD-1 mRNA levels than HBeAg (-) patients (P<0.001). PD-1 mRNA levels were sequentially increased with the elevation of HBV DNA levels. In HBV patients, but not in healthy controls, PD-1 mRNA levels were sequentially decreased from rs10204525 genotypes AA, AG to GG and the levels in genotype AA were significantly higher than in genotype GG (P=0.039). These findings suggest that increased PD-1 expression may affect the disease course of chronic HBV infection by facilitating HBV viral replication, and this may at least partially relate to PD1 3' UTR polymorphism.

Med. Oncol.
Med Oncol 2014 Nov 14;31(11):268. Epub 2014 Oct 14.
Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006, People's Republic of China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of co-stimulatory molecule B7-H1 in gastric carcinoma, to assess its clinical significance, and to explore related mechanism. Expression of B7-H1 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 205 gastric carcinoma tissues and nonmalignant para-carcinoma tissues and 30 normal tissues. Expression data were correlated with clinicopathologic features of the patients.Read More

Furthermore, gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901, MGC803, and AGS were employed to assess the expression of B7-H1 under the stimulation of IFN-γ. There was no detectable or weak amount of B7-H1 in normal tissue, while 43 % (88/205) of gastric carcinoma tissues and nonmalignant para-carcinoma tissues were confirmed with B7-H1 positive (p < 0.01). High B7-H1 expression was significantly associated with the age (p < 0.01), alcohol (p < 0.05), carcinoma location (p < 0.01), and differentiation (p < 0.05). Moreover, IFN-γ and CD3(+) T cells infiltration were found in carcinoma tissues, but not in normal tissues. In addition, the expression of B7-H1 was also found in gastric carcinoma cell lines (SGC7901, MGC803 and AGS), and IFN-γ could increase its expression. Our data suggest that B7-H1 may represent a new early diagnostic marker for patients with well-differentiated gastric carcinoma. Furthermore, given its immune-inhibitory function, B7-H1 may represent a potential target in the treatment of gastric carcinoma.

PLoS One 2014 31;9(10):e111611. Epub 2014 Oct 31.
College of Animal Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing, China.

CDKN3 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3), a dual specificity protein phosphatase, dephosphorylates cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and thus functions as a key negative regulator of cell cycle progression. Deregulation or mutations of CDNK3 have been implicated in various cancers. However, the role of CDKN3 in Bcr-Abl-mediated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) remains unknown.Read More

Here we found that CDKN3 acts as a tumor suppressor in Bcr-Abl-mediated leukemogenesis. Overexpression of CDKN3 sensitized the K562 leukemic cells to imanitib-induced apoptosis and dramatically inhibited K562 xenografted tumor growth in nude mouse model. Ectopic expression of CDKN3 significantly reduced the efficiency of Bcr-Abl-mediated transformation of FDCP1 cells to growth factor independence. In contrast, depletion of CDKN3 expression conferred resistance to imatinib-induced apoptosis in the leukemic cells and accelerated the growth of xenograph leukemia in mice. In addition, we found that CDKN3 mutant (CDKN3-C140S) devoid of the phosphatase activity failed to affect the K562 leukemic cell survival and xenografted tumor growth, suggesting that the phosphatase of CDKN3 was required for its tumor suppressor function. Furthermore, we observed that overexpression of CDKN3 reduced the leukemic cell survival by dephosphorylating CDK2, thereby inhibiting CDK2-dependent XIAP expression. Moreover, overexpression of CDKN3 delayed G1/S transition in K562 leukemic cells. Our results highlight the importance of CDKN3 in Bcr-Abl-mediated leukemogenesis, and provide new insights into diagnostics and therapeutics of the leukemia.

Trials 2014 13;15:442. Epub 2014 Nov 13.
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University, 23 Meishuguanhou Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100010, China.

Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (VCIND) is a condition at risk for future dementia and should be the target of preventive strategies. Preliminary evidence suggests that acupuncture may be a clinically effective intervention for people with early-stage vascular cognitive impairment. We will do a multicenter, 6-month, drug-controlled, nonblinded, randomized, parallel-group trial to determine whether acupuncture is effective for improving cognitive function and quality of life for patients with VCIND.Read More

A total of 216 eligible patients will be recruited and randomly assigned acupuncture for two sessions/week (n = 108) or citicoline 300 mg/day (n = 108) in a multicenter, 6-month trial. The primary endpoint is cognition (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog)). Secondary endpoints include assessments of activities of daily living and behavioral symptoms (Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale (IADL)).
This will be the first large-scale trial specifically evaluating acupuncture therapy in VCIND. If the study confirms the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture treatment, it will be important to examine how the acupuncture approach could most effectively be integrated into the provision of routine healthcare.
This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial on 17 January 2014, number ISRCTN 82980206.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol
Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014 15;7(10):7278-85. Epub 2014 Sep 15.
Departments of General Surgery, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital Beijing, P. R. China.

Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a clinicopathologically distinct variant of fibrosarcoma that is capable of recurrence and metastasis. Awareness of imaging features and histopathologic characteristics will be helpful for differential diagnosis from other common tumors. Here, we report a case of SEF metastasizing to the pancreas as a solitary mass mimicking primary pancreatic cancer, and summarize the reported cases with FDG PET/CT from the literature (n=4).Read More

PET/CT showed abnormal FDG accumulation (n=2), mild FDG uptake (n=1), or photopenic (n=1). The FDG PET/CT features are closely related to histopathologic characteristics regarding its differentiation and aggressiveness.

Chin. Med. J.
Chin Med J (Engl) 2014 ;127(22):3932-6
Department of Orthopaedics, the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi Key Lab of Bone and Soft Tissue Injury Repair, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030001, China. Email:

Osteoporosis (OP) is a common bone disease, which adversely affects life quality. Effective treatments are necessary to combat both the loss and fracture of bone. Recent studies indicated that caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a natural chemical compound from honeybee propolis which is capable of attenuating osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.Read More

Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of CAPE on bone loss in OP mice using micro-computed tomography (CT) and histology.
Eighteen mice were prepared and evenly divided into three groups. The six mice in the sham+PBS group did not undergo ovariectomy and were intraperitoneally injected with PBS during the curing period. Twelve mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to induce OP. Six of them in the OVX+CAPE group were intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mg/kg CAPE twice per week for 4 weeks after ovariectomy. The other six OVX mice in OVX+PBS group were treated with PBS. All the mice were sacrificed 4 weeks after ovariectomy. The tibias were bilaterally excised for micro-CT scan and histological analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the statistical differences among groups.
Bone loss occurred in OVX mice. Compared with the sham+PBS group, mice in the OVX+PBS group exhibited a significant decrease in bone mineral density (BMD, P < 0.05), bone volume fraction (BV/TV, P < 0.01), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, P < 0.05), and trabecular number (Tb.N, P < 0.01), as well as a non-insignificant increase in the number of osteoclasts (N.Oc/B.Pm). With CAPE treatment, the microarchitecture of the tibial metaphyses was significantly improved with a reduction of osteoclast formation. Compared with the OVX+PBS group, BV/TV in the OVX+CAPE group was significantly increased by 33.9% (P < 0.05).
CAPE therapy results in the protection of bone loss induced by OVX.

BackgroundThe Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been implicated in stem cell maintenance and its activation is aberrant in several types of cancer including mesothelioma. Protein kinase CK2 affects several cell signaling pathways through the mechanism of phosphorylation.MethodsProtein and mRNA levels of CK2¿ and Gli1 were tested by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry staining in mesothelioma samples and cell lines.Read More

Down-regulated Gli1 expression and transcriptional activity were demonstrated by RT-PCR, Western blot and luciferase reporter assay.ResultsIn this study, we show that CK2¿ is over-expressed and a positive regulator of Hegdehog/Gli1 signaling in human malignant pleural mesothelioma. First of all, we found that the mRNA levels of CK2¿ and Gli1 were broadly elevated and correlated (n¿=¿52, r¿=¿0.401, P¿<¿0.05), compared with LP9 (a normal mesothelial cell line). We then investigated their expression at the protein level, and found that all the 7 mesothelioma cell lines tested showed positive staining in CK2¿ and Gli1 immunohistochemistry. Correlation analysis by Pearson test for CK2¿ and Gli1 expression in the 75 mesothelioma tumors and the 7 mesothelioma cell lines showed that the two protein expression was significantly correlated (n¿=¿82, r¿=¿0.554, P¿<¿0.01). Furthermore, we demonstrated that Gli1 expression and transcriptional activity were down-regulated after CK2¿ was silenced in two mesothelioma cell lines (H28 and H2052). CK2¿ siRNA also down-regulated the expression of Hh target genes in these cell lines. Moreover, treatment with a small-molecule CK2¿ inhibitor CX-4945 led to dose-dependent inhibition of Gli1 expression and transcriptional activity. Conversely, forced over-expression of CK2¿ resulted in an increase in Gli1 transcriptional activity in H28 cells.ConclusionsThus, we report for the first time that over-expressed CK2¿ positively regulate Hh/Gli1 signaling in human mesothelioma.

This study aimed to investigate the potential use of icotinib as first-line treatment to prevent brain metastasis from advanced lung adenocarcinoma.
This investigation was designed as a retrospective nonrandomized controlled study. Enrolled patients received either icotinib or traditional chemotherapy as their first-line treatment.Read More

The therapeutic efficacy was compared among patients with advanced (stages IIIB and IV) lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-sensitive mutation. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of brain metastasis, whereas the secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Death without brain metastasis was considered a competitive risk to calculate the cumulative risk of brain metastasis. Survival analysis was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method and statistical significance were determined using the log-rank test.
The present study included 396 patients with 131 in the icotinib group and 265 in the chemotherapy group. Among those with EGFR-sensitive mutation, the cumulative risk of brain metastasis was lower in the icotinib group than in the chemotherapy group. However, no significant difference in OS was observed between the two groups.
Icotinib can effectively reduce the incidence of brain metastasis and therefore improve prognosis in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR-sensitive mutation.

Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2014 Nov 7;25(1):142-147. Epub 2014 Nov 7.
Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Chinese and Western Integrative Medicine, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, 103 Meishan RD., Hefei 230038, PR China. Electronic address:

Sodium houttuyfonate (SH) has been found to be mildly anti-pathogenetic against the planktonic and biofilm phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, we have attempted to investigate further the anti-pathogenicity of SH and EDTA-Na2 in combination and in vitro and in vivo against planktonic and biofilm phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16 strains), Staphylococcus aureus (13 strains) and Candida albicans (13 strains). The antimicrobial activity of SH against all three pathogens increased dramatically when it was combined with EDTA-Na2, in vitro.Read More

Toxic reactions to the drugs when administered orally were insignificant in mice; no abnormalities were observed in the internal organs, such as the lungs and kidneys. Finally, the results of in vivo studies indicate that SH could extend the lifespan of infected animals when administered in combination with EDTA-Na2. Therefore, the results of the present study lead us to suggest that SH could be a promising antimicrobial agent and that SH combined with EDTA-Na2 has the potential to be an excellent choice of drug for combating bacterial infections clinically.

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2014 Nov;45(6):941-5
Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

To determine T box expressed in T cells (T bet), GATA binding protein-3 (GATA 3), and retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor gammat (RORgammat) in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Thirty rats were randomly divided into a control and a COPD group. The COPD model was established through smoking and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tracheal instillation.Read More

Pulmonary function of the rats was measured 28 d after the establishment of the COPD model by a spirometer. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect serum γ interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17. The expressions of T-bet, GATA-3, and RORgammat protein in lung tissues were determined by Western blot.
Compared with the controls, the COPD rats had decreased pulmonary function and expression of serum IL-4, and increased INF-γ, IL- 17, Th1/Th2, T-bet, T bet /GATA-3, and RORgammat protein (P<0. 05). Forced expiratory volume in 0. 3 seconds (FEV 0.3) was negatively correlated with INF γ and T-bet/GATA-3. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was positively correlated with IL 4. FEV0.3/FVC was negatively correlated with Thl/Th2, T-bet and T-bet/GATA-3. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was negatively correlated with IL-17, T bet, and RORgammat (P<0. 05). Thl/Th2 was positively correlated with T bet/GATA-3. IL-17 was positively correlated with RORgammat. T bet/GATA-3 was positively correlated with RORgammat (P<0. 05).
Imbalanced regulation of T bet / GATA 3 and RORgammat on Th1/Th2 and Th17 cells is associated with the occurrence of COPD.

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Nov;49(11):688-92

To compare the distribution and concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, 2, 3, 8, 9 in human coronal dentin.
The localization of five types of MMP was performed using immunohistochemistry. Molars were demineralized and sectioned into 5 µm thick specimens.Read More

All specimens were randomly divided into five groups according to the antibodies. Each group contained two subgroups (n = 6). Immunoreactivity of each subgroup was visualized with 3, 3-diaminobenzidine solution or fluorescein isothiocyanate and observed under microscopy respectively. Molars were sectioned into slices. The slices were divided into two groups according to superficial or deep dentin and pulverized to fine powder. After dentin protein was extracted, the concentrations of MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9 were detected by using fluorescent microsphere immunoassay.
Immunohistochemical staining revealed that MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9 were highly concentrated in the deep dentin. However, intense immunoreactivities of MMP-2, 8, 9 were identified in a 6-10 µm wide zone adjacent to the dentino-enamel junction. The content of MMP-1 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.037±0.025) and (0.433±0.089) ng/mg. The content of MMP-2 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.445±0.115) and (2.730±0.712) ng/mg. The content of MMP-3 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.071±0.069) and (0.460±0.108) ng/mg. The content of MMP-8 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.586±0.246) and (6.159±0.948) ng/mg. The content of MMP-9 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.384±0.185) and (1.460±0.251) ng/mg. The concentrations of all tested MMP were significantly higher in deep dentin than those in superficial dentin (P < 0.05).
There are five types of MMP contained in human coronal dentin, and the distribution of MMP shows a decreasing trend from the deep dentin to the superficial dentin.

J. Biol. Chem.
J Biol Chem 2014 Oct 8;289(43):30075-81. Epub 2014 Sep 8.
From the Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061 and Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China

Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily and responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics. Our previously study demonstrated that PXR is expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) and acts as a master regulator of detoxification genes to protect ECs against xenobiotics. Vascular endothelial cells are key sentinel cells to sense the pathogens and xenobiotics.Read More

In this study, we examined the potential function of PXR in the regulation of innate immunity in vasculatures. Treatments with PXR agonists or overexpression of a constitutively active PXR in cultured ECs increased gene expression of the key pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLR-2, -4, -9) and NOD-like receptors (NOD-1 and -2 and NLRP3). In particular, PXR agonism triggered the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and the ensuing cleavage and maturation of caspase-1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Conversely, selective antagonism or gene silencing of PXR abrogated NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In addition, we identified NLRP3 as a transcriptional target of PXR by using the promoter-reporter and ChIP assays. In summary, our findings revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of innate immune by PXR, which may act as a master transcription factor controlling the convergence between the detoxification of xenobiotics and the innate immunity against them.

Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
Cell Physiol Biochem 2014 8;34(4):1063-74. Epub 2014 Sep 8.
Center for Kidney Disease, 2 Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Fibroblast activation is one of the most important mechanisms for Angiotensin II (Ang II) in promoting renal fibrosis. Transcription factor Ets-1 is recognized to play a key role in kidney diseases. However, the role and mechanisms of Ets-1 in Ang-II induced fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis are not fully understood.Read More

Mice were treated with Ang II via osmotic mini-pumps or Ang II expression plasmid (pAng II). Cultured normal rat kidney interstitial fibroblast (NRK-49F) cells were incubated with Ang II. Role of Ets-1 in renal fibrosis and fibroblast activation were assessed by Western blot, Immunohistochemical staining'MTT, Boyden chamber and Immunofluorescence staining. Effects of miR-221 on Ets-1 and fibroblast activation were investigated by MTT, Boyden chamber, Western blot and Q-PCR.
We found that Ets-1 was up-regulated in fibrotic kidneys. Similarly, Ang II could activate NRK-49F cells as demonstrated by up-regulated α-SMA and fibronectin(FN) expression and enhanced cell proliferation and migration. Ang II also induced Ets-1 expression in NRK-49F cells in a dose and time dependent manner. Knock-down of Ets-1 by RNA interference attenuated Ang II-induced activation of NRK-49F cells. Ets-1 was previously reported as a target of microRNA-221 (miR-221). In Ang II-induced fibrotic kidney, miR-221 was down-regulated. Similar results were observed in Ang II treated NRK-49F cells. Ectopic expression of miR-221 mimic attenuated the up-regulation of Ets-1 by Ang II in NRK-49F cells, which further prevented the activation of NRK-49F cells. However, the inhibitor of miR-221 aggravated Ang II induced Ets-1 expression and NRK-49F cells activation.
Our study suggests that miR-221/Ets-1 axis takes an important role in mediating AngII induced interstitial fibroblast activation and renal fibrosis.

Vaccine 2014 Oct 19;32(46):6170-6. Epub 2014 Sep 19.
Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The newly emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is currently spreading among humans, making development of effective MERS vaccines a high priority. A defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) in MERS-CoV spike protein can potentially serve as a subunit vaccine candidate against MERS-CoV infections. To identify an ideal vaccine candidate, we have constructed five different versions of RBD fragments, S350-588-Fc, S358-588-Fc, S367-588-Fc, S367-606-Fc, and S377-588-Fc (their names indicate their residue range in the spike protein and their C-terminal Fc tag), and further investigated their receptor binding affinity, antigenicity, immunogenicity, and neutralizing potential.Read More

The results showed that S377-588-Fc is among the RBD fragments that demonstrated the highest DPP4-binding affinity and induced the highest-titer IgG antibodies in mice. In addition, S377-588-Fc elicited higher-titer neutralizing antibodies than all the other RBD fragments in mice, and also induced high-titer neutralizing antibodies in immunized rabbits. Structural analysis suggests that S377-588-Fc contains the stably folded RBD structure, the full receptor-binding site, and major neutralizing epitopes, such that additional structures to this fragment introduce non-neutralizing epitopes and may also alter the tertiary structure of the RBD. Taken together, our data suggest that the RBD fragment encompassing spike residues 377-588 is a critical neutralizing receptor-binding fragment and an ideal candidate for development of effective MERS vaccines, and that adding non-neutralizing structures to this RBD fragment diminishes its neutralizing potential. Therefore, in viral vaccine design, it is important to identify the most stable and neutralizing viral RBD fragment, while eliminating unnecessary and non-neutralizing structures, as a means of "immunofocusing".

BackgroundCervical lesions caused by integrated human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are highly dangerous because they can quickly develop into invasive cancers. However, clinicians are currently hampered by the lack of a quick, convenient and precise technique to detect integrated/mixed infections of various genotypes of HPVs in the cervix. This study aimed to develop a practical tool to determine the physical status of different HPVs and evaluate its clinical significance.Read More

MethodsThe target population comprised 1162 women with an HPV infection history of¿>¿six months and an abnormal cervical cytological finding. The multiple E1-L1/E6E7 ratio analysis, a novel technique, was developed based on determining the ratios of E1/E6E7, E2/E6E7, E4E5/E6E7, L2/E6E7 and L1/E6E7 within the viral genome. Any imbalanced ratios indicate integration. Its diagnostic and predictive performances were compared with those of E2/E6E7 ratio analysis. The detection accuracy of both techniques was evaluated using the gold-standard technique ¿detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences¿ (DIPS). To realize a multigenotypic detection goal, a primer and probe library was established.ResultsThe integration rate of a particular genotype of HPV was correlated with its tumorigenic potential and women with higher lesion grades often carried lower viral loads. The E1-L1/E6E7 ratio analysis achieved 92.7% sensitivity and 99.0% specificity in detecting HPV integration, while the E2/E6E7 ratio analysis showed a much lower sensitivity (75.6%) and a similar specificity (99.3%). Interference due to episomal copies was observed in both techniques, leading to false-negative results. However, some positive results of E1-L1/E6E7 ratio analysis were missed by DIPS due to its stochastic detection nature. The E1-L1/E6E7 ratio analysis is more efficient than E2/E6E7 ratio analysis and DIPS in predicting precancerous/cancerous lesions, in which both positive predictive values (36.7%-82.3%) and negative predictive values (75.9%-100%) were highest (based on the results of three rounds of biopsies).ConclusionsThe multiple E1-L1/E6E7 ratio analysis is more sensitive and predictive than E2/E6E7 ratio analysis as a triage test for detecting HPV integration. It can effectively narrow the range of candidates for colposcopic examination and cervical biopsy, thereby lowering the expense of cervical cancer prevention.


The Agaricus brasiliensis proves to be the main source of many minerals, especially selenium (Se). In this study, Se-containing polysaccharides and proteins were isolated, purified, and characterized. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of Se-containing proteins and polysaccharides were also studied.Read More

Selenium in A. brasiliensis is present mostly in organic forms, accounting for 81.57% of the total Se. The organic forms of selenium mainly present in Se proteins account for 73.53%, while 12.23% is in Se polysaccharides. Two Se-containing proteins (AB-SePA-22) and (AB-SePG-22) with Se contents of 4.935 µg/g and 6.083 µg/g were obtained. AB-SePA-22 appeared as four bands with molecular masses of 16.7, 21.7, 26.3, and 33.6 kDa, respectively. The Se content of the three Se-containing polysaccharides, namely AB-SeP-1, AB-SeP-2, and AB-SeP-3, were 1.911, 0.613, and 0.671 µg/g, respectively. AB-SeP-1 (3.1×103 Da) was composed of glucose and galactose in a 7.494:1 molar ratio, whereas AB-SeP-2 (2.1×104 Da and 3.5×104 Da) and AB-SeP-3 (1.1×105 Da) were composed of glucose, galactose, and mannose with molar ratios of 27.01:1.55:1 and 9.805:1:1.22, respectively. Moreover, crude Se polysaccharide and total soluble Se protein had good antioxidant activities on scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical, and further research is needed.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014 Oct 10;6(20):18104-11. Epub 2014 Oct 10.
CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China , 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

In this work, chemiluminescence (CL) reagent and catalyst metal ion complexes bifunctionalized gold nanoparticles (BF-AuNPs) with high CL efficiency were synthesized via an improved synthesis strategy. Biothiols, such as cysteine (Cys), cysteinyl-glycine (Cys-Gly), homocysteine (Hcy), and glutathione (GSH), instead of 2-[bis[2-[carboxymethyl-[2-oxo-2-(2-sulfanylethylamino)ethyl]amino]ethyl]amino]acetic acid (DTDTPA), were used as new chelators. N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) was used as a model of CL reagents and Cu(2+) as a model of metal ion.Read More

In this strategy, biothiols were first grafted on the surface of ABEI-AuNPs by Au-S bond. Then, Cu(2+) was captured onto the surface of ABEI-AuNPs by the coordination reaction to form BF-AuNPs. The CL intensity of Cu(2+)-Cys/ABEI-AuNPs was 1 order of magnitude higher than that of DTDTPA/Cu(2+)-ABEI-AuNPs synthesized by the previous work. Moreover, strong CL emission of Cu(2+)-Cys/ABEI-AuNPs was also observed in neutral pH conditions. In addition, the present BF-AuNPs synthesis method exhibited advantages over the previous method in CL efficiency, simplicity, and synthetic rate. Finally, by virtue of Cu(2+)-Cys/ABEI-AuNPs as a platform, a simple CL chemosensor for the sensitive and selective detection of pyrophosphate ion (PPi) was established based on the competitive coordination interactions of Cu(2+) between Cys and PPi. The method exhibited a wide detection range from 10 nM to 100 μM, with a low detection limit of 3.6 nM. The chemosensor was successfully applied to the detection of PPi in human plasma samples. It is of great application potential in clinical analysis. This work reveals that BF-AuNPs could be used as ideal nanointerface for the development of novel analytical methods.

Ann. Thorac. Surg.
Ann Thorac Surg 2014 Oct;98(4):e85-6
Department of Echocardiography, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, and Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Vessel Disease, Beijing, China.

Coronary artery fistula (CAF) and noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium (NCVM) result from obliteration or compact failure of the intramyocardial trabecular sinusoids to form a ventricular cavity wall. The draining site of a right coronary artery (RCA) fistula may usually be the right ventricle, right atrium, or pulmonary artery. An RCA aneurysm with a fistula to the left ventricle is rare.Read More

We report a patient with an RCA aneurysm with a fistula to the left ventricle coexisting with NCVM. The patient's condition was diagnosed by echocardiography and contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography.

Ind Health
Ind Health 2014 Oct 6. Epub 2014 Oct 6.
Department of Nursing, Meiho University, Taiwan.

This article has been retracted by the Editorial Board of INDUSTRIAL HEALTH due to violation of our publishing policies and procedures as of September 26, 2014.Read More

PLoS One 2014 14;9(10):e103079. Epub 2014 Oct 14.
Center for Kidney Disease, Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ribonucleotides regulating gene expression. MicroRNAs are present in the blood in a remarkably stable form and have emerged as potential diagnostic markers in patients with cardiovascular disease. Our study aimed to assess circulating miR-133a levels in MHD patients and the relation of miR-133a to cardiac hypertrophy.Read More

We profiled miRNAs using RNA isolated from the plasma of participants. The results were validated in 64 MHD patients and 18 healthy controls.
Levels of plasma miR-133a decreased in MHD patients with LVH compared with those in healthy controls. Plasma miR-133a concentrations were negatively correlated with LVMI and IVS. After single hemodialytic treatment, plasma miR-133a levels remained unchanged. Cardiac Troponin I and T were not associated with LVMI and IVS.
Our observations supplied the possibility that circulating miR-133a could be a surrogate biomarker of cardiac hypertrophy in MHD patients.

Virus Genes
Virus Genes 2014 Oct 21. Epub 2014 Oct 21.
State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources of State Oceanic Administration, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen, 361005, People's Republic of China.

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens of cultured shrimp. Identification of envelope protein interactions has become a central issue for the understanding of WSSV assembly. In this paper, WSSV envelope protein VP52B was fused with GST-tag and expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3).Read More

Immunogold-electron microscopy revealed that VP52B was located on the outside surface of WSSV virions. Far-Western blotting analysis suggested that VP52B might directly interact with a major viral envelope protein VP26, and their interaction was confirmed by GST pull-down assay. Further investigation showed that the VP52B binding domain was located between residues 135-170 of VP26. These findings will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of WSSV morphogenesis.

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2014 Oct;22(5):1408-14
Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong Province, China. E-mail:

This study was aimed to investigate the change of cell phenotype and the expression of hematopoiesis associated cytokines in umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC) in three-dimensional (3-D) system. MSC were isolated from umbilical cord, and then cultured in 2-D and 3-D system respectively. The phenotype of MSC was detected by flow cytometry; the angiogenic capability of MSC cultured in 2-D and 3-D syitem was assessed using in vitro capillary formation assay.Read More

The cytokine expression of MSC in two kinds of culture conditions was measured by real-time PCR. The results showed that MSC were successfully isolated from umbilical cord. Flow cytometry showed that the percentage of CD31, CD133 and CD271 expressed in endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells and primitive mesenchymal stem cells increased significantly in 3-D culture conditions, as compared to 2-D system. Capillary formation assay showed that the angiogenic capability of UC-MSC was greatly enhanced. Quantitative PCR showed that the expression of β-actin was upregulated in 3-D system. The expression of some cytokines associated with hematopoiesis, such as G-CSF, LIF, SCF, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-3, IL-7 and IL-11, increased, especially for LIF, IL-3, IL-7. The expression of IL-10 associated with immune regulation also increased. The expression of SDF-1, IL-6 slightly decreased, but without significant difference. It is concluded that expression of CD31, CD133 and CD271 increases in 3-D system, the angiogenic capability of UC-MSC enhances and the expression of hematopoiesis-associated cytokines in UC-MSC increases in 3-D system.

Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2014 Oct;35(10):891-6
State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, PUMC and CAMS, Tianjin 300020, China; Central Laboratory, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250013, China.

To investigate the potential immunomodulatory properties of fetal bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (FBM- MSCs).
Mononuclear cells from the bone marrow of second trimester (14-22 wks) fetus were isolated and cultured for the derivation of MSCs. The derived FBM-MSC cells were characterized via morphology, immunophenotyping and the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation assays.Read More

The immunomodulatory properties of FBM-MSC on lymphocytes were evaluated through the co- culture assay with PHA activated adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Derived FBM-MSCs were CD29⁺, CD44⁺, CD49e⁺, CD73⁺, CD90⁺, CD105⁺ and CD31⁻ , CD34⁻ , CD45⁻ , HLA-DR⁻ and can be differentiated into adipocytes and osteocytes. When co-cultured with PHA-activated PBMCs, FBM-MSCs inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes up to 96% and down-regulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α up to 90.9% and 58.4% respectively. When compared with FBM-MSCs cultured alone, the expression of MSCs derived immunomodulatory cytokines, such as IDO, TSG-6 and TGF-β, was up-regulated significantly in the co-culture system.
MSC derived from fetal bone marrow demonstrated immunosuppressive effects on adult PBMCs in vitro. MSC-derived cytokines like IDO, TSG-6 and TGF-β may be critical for FBM-MSCs mediated immunosuppressive function.

J. Heart Lung Transplant.
J Heart Lung Transplant 2014 Oct 24. Epub 2014 Oct 24.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles. Electronic address:

Anti-MHC Class I alloantibodies have been implicated in the processes of acute and chronic rejection. These antibodies (Ab) bind to endothelial cells (EC) and transduce signals leading to the activation of cell survival and proliferation pathways, including Src, FAK and mTOR, as well as downstream targets ERK, S6 kinase (S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). We tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation of S6K, S6RP and ERK in capillary endothelium may serve as an adjunct diagnostic tool for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in heart allografts.Read More

Diagnosis of AMR was based on histology or immunoperoxidase staining of paraffin-embedded tissue, consistent with 2013 ISHLT criteria. Diagnosis of acute cellular rejection (ACR) was based on ISHLT criteria. Endomyocardial biopsies from 67 heart transplant recipients diagnosed with acute rejection [33 with pAMR, 18 with ACR (15 with Grade 1R, 3 with Grade ≥2R), 16 with pAMR and ACR (13 with 1R and 3 with ≥2R)] and 40 age- and gender-matched recipients without rejection were tested for the presence of phosphorylated forms of ERK, S6RP and S6K by immunohistochemistry.
Immunostaining of endomyocardial biopsies with evidence of pAMR showed a significant increase in expression of p-S6K and p-S6RP in capillary EC compared with controls. A weaker association was observed between pAMR and p-ERK.
Biopsies diagnosed with pAMR often showed phosphorylation of S6K and S6RP, indicating that staining for p-S6K and p-S6RP is useful for the diagnosis of AMR. Our findings support a role for antibody-mediated HLA signaling in the process of graft injury.

Biomed Mater Eng
Biomed Mater Eng 2014 ;24(6):3207-14
Digital Medical Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention of Shanghai, Shanghai 200032, China.

Surface registration is widely used in image-guided neurosurgery to achieve spatial registration between the patient space and the image space. Coarse registration, followed by fine registration, is an important premise to ensure the robustness and efficiency of surface registration. In this paper, a coarse registration algorithm based on the principal axes is proposed to achieve this goal.Read More

The extraction of the principal axes relies on the approximated surface with an adaptive Gaussian kernel, the width of which is consistent with neighborhood relation so that it is applicable for various scanning data. Determining the corresponding centers of translation is another problem for aligning different scanning data, which is solved through heuristics. Six pairs of points on two surfaces with the farthest projections on the principal axes were regarded as the candidates of translation centers, and then through tentative alignments of local regions around them, a pair of candidates with the minimum registration error was selected as the optimal translation centers. Automatic registration of two scans of a head phantom is presented in this paper. Experimental results confirmed the robustness of the algorithm and its feasibility in clinical applications.

Iran J Pharm Res
Iran J Pharm Res 2014 ;13(2):449-57
School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, China .

The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) enantioseparation of four β-blocking agents metoprolol, bisoprolol, propranolol and atenolol was performed on amylose tris-(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phase using n-hexane-ethanol-diethylamine (DEA) as the mobile phase and related chiral recognition mechanisms were discussed. Enantiomeric separation of the four β-blockers was a result of more than one type of interaction between solutes and CSP. Besides hydrogen bonding, there was another type interaction that was independent of solvent polarity and responsible for enantiomeric selectivity, such as - interactions.Read More

Both the groups close to the chiral centers and the substituent groups on the phenyl rings, which were far away from the chiral centers, could contribute to the good separation. The separations of the four β-blocker enantiomers were all enthalpy driven process. In the range of 293-308K (20-35 ℃), as the temperature increased, the retention as well as the resolution decreased. The molecular size rather than concentration of the alcohol modifiers affected the resolution and retention.

Fungal Genet. Biol.
Fungal Genet Biol 2014 Sep 28. Epub 2014 Sep 28.
Institute of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous entomopathogen, has five distinct superoxide dismutases (SODs), including cytosolic and mitochondrial MnSODs (Sod2/3) which have proved contributing primarily to intracelluar SOD activity and additively to antioxidation and virulence. Here we characterized cytosolic Cu/ZnSOD (Sod1), mitochondrial FeSOD (Sod4) and cell wall-anchored Cu/ZnSOD (Sod5). The latter two are unexplored despite existence in many filamentous fungi, and their subcellular localization was well confirmed with specifically stained cells expressing Sod4::eGFP or Sod5::eGFP fusion.Read More

Total SOD activity decreased by ∼15% in Δsod1 but increased by 11-20% in three sod4 knockdown mutants (Δsod4 was lethal) when co-cultivated with menadone and H2O2. Surprisingly, total catalase activity decreased much more in the sod4 mutants (69-75%) than in Δsod1 (27-33%) under normal and oxidative conditions. However, Δsod5 showed little change in either SOD or catalase activity. Transcript levels of SOD partners and five catalases also changed more dramatically in the sod4 mutants than in Δsod1 and Δsod5. As a consequence of global effect, intracellular ROS levels induced by both oxidants were higher in Δsod1 than in the sod4 mutants and Δsod5. All the mutants were differentially more sensitive to the two oxidants and UV-A/UV-B irradiations and less virulent to Galleria mellonella larvae but not responsive to high osmolarity, cell wall stress and high temperature. Taken together with previously characterized Sod2 and Sod3, our results provide full insight into the SOD family, unveiling the interactions of each SOD with other partners and catalases in the antioxidant reaction associated with the fungal biocontrol potential.

The 3D Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm can be used to compute a computer-generated hologram (CGH) to produce a 3D holographic display. But, using the 3D GS method, there exists a serious distortion in reconstructions of binary input images. We have eliminated the distortion and improved the image quality of the reconstructions by a maximum of 486%, using a symmetrical 3D GS algorithm that is developed based on a traditional 3D GS algorithm.Read More

In addition, the hologram computation speed has been accelerated by 9.28 times, which is significant for real-time holographic displays.


To study the types of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in dentin bonding interface degradation.
Dentin slices were prepared and treated with two adhesive systems (Single Bond 2 or Clearfil S3 Bond). The dentin surface was bonded with composite resin.Read More

All specimens were immersed in sterile artificial saliva for 0 or 6 months, and their micro-shear bond strength (muSBS) were measured. The fracture modes were observed through field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Dentin slices with 4 mm x 3 mm x 1 mm dimensions were prepared. The slices were divided into three groups according to the treatment modes (negative control, Single Bond 2, and Clearfil S3 Bond). All specimens were stored in sterile artificial saliva for 0 or 6 months. The concentrations of MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, and -9 of each group were detected through fluorescent microsphere immunoassay.
The muSBS of both adhesive systems significantly decreased after storage aging. Significant differences in failure modes within the four groups tested in this study were observed. Compared with the negative control, the concentrations of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in different adhesive groups showed no significant difference after storage aging. However, the concentrations of MMP-2, -8, and -9 in Single Bond 2 group and the concentrations of MMP-8 and -9 in Clearfil S3 Bond group significantly decreased after 6 months of storage aging.
Significant degradation occur in the dentin bonding interface of both adhesive groups under 6 months aging challenge. The concentrations ofdentinal MMP-2, -8, and -9 significantly decrease after treatment with adhesives and aging, indicating that these MMPs have an important function in dentin bonding interface degradation.

To compare therapeutic effects between unilateral decompression technique only and open decompression technique with fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis.
From March 2008 to February 2011, 82 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis were treated with operations, and divided into two groups. There were 13 males and 19 females in group A, with a mean age of (56.Read More

31±4.31) years old. The patients in group A were treated with unilateral decompression via fenestration technique only, including 23 patients obtaining single level decompression and 9 patients obtaining two levels decompression. In group B, there were 18 males and 32 females, with a mean age of (57.53±4.28) years old. The patients in group B were treated with open decompressive technique with fusion and internal fixation, including 38 patients obtaining single level decompression and 12 patients obtaining two levels decompression. The VAS of back pain and leg pain, ODI were recorded before and after surgery to evaluate low back pain,leg pain and walking tolerance.
All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 10.9 to 43.4 months,with a mean of 32.8 months. There were no differences in age, stenosis level, VAS of back and leg pain and ODI before surgery between two groups. Compared with the corresponding ones in group B, the operation time, blood loss, hospitalization time,recovery time of routine daily life and finacial expenditure of patients were all shorter or less in group A. There was no statistically difference in complications between two groups.
"Unilateral decompression via fenestration technique" is a less invasive and more effective decompressive technique for degenerative spinal stenosis without posterior elements damage. It has advantages in operation time, blood loss, hospitalization time, recovery to daily life and financial expenditure. When controlling the operative indications strictly, the technique could be an important procedure for surgical treatment of degenerative spinal stenosis, especially in the elderly population.

To compare therapeutic effects between unilateral decompression technique only and open decompression technique with fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis.
From March 2008 to February 2011, 82 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis were treated with operations, and divided into two groups. There were 13 males and 19 females in group A, with a mean age of (56.Read More

31±4.31) years old. The patients in group A were treated with unilateral decompression via fenestration technique only, including 23 patients obtaining single level decompression and 9 patients obtaining two levels decompression. In group B, there were 18 males and 32 females, with a mean age of (57.53±4.28) years old. The patients in group B were treated with open decompressive technique with fusion and internal fixation, including 38 patients obtaining single level decompression and 12 patients obtaining two levels decompression. The VAS of back pain and leg pain, ODI were recorded before and after surgery to evaluate low back pain,leg pain and walking tolerance.
All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 10.9 to 43.4 months,with a mean of 32.8 months. There were no differences in age, stenosis level, VAS of back and leg pain and ODI before surgery between two groups. Compared with the corresponding ones in group B, the operation time, blood loss, hospitalization time,recovery time of routine daily life and finacial expenditure of patients were all shorter or less in group A. There was no statistically difference in complications between two groups.
"Unilateral decompression via fenestration technique" is a less invasive and more effective decompressive technique for degenerative spinal stenosis without posterior elements damage. It has advantages in operation time, blood loss, hospitalization time, recovery to daily life and financial expenditure. When controlling the operative indications strictly, the technique could be an important procedure for surgical treatment of degenerative spinal stenosis, especially in the elderly population.

By means of field sampling and laboratory analysis, the content distribution characteristics of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in agricultural region soils of Huaihe basin in Anhui province were analyzed. Assessment of heavy metal pollutions was conducted using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the average mass fraction of Cd and Cu was 0.Read More

113 5 and 22.09 mg x kg(-1) respectively in the study area soil, which were above the background values 0.097 and 20.4 mg x kg(-1) in Anhui Province. The average mass fraction of other four heavy metals did not exceed the average values of Anhui Province. The results of the evaluations from geoaccumulation index and ecological risk assessment discovered that Cd is the strongest pollution metal among six heavy metals in the study area soil. For some samples of the study soil, Cd was slight risk for the ecosystem. The ecosystem risks caused by the other five heavy metals were not obviously for the sampling points. The entire study area soils were mid integrated potential ecological risk.

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Jun;49(6):367-70
Department of Prosthodontics, College of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

To systematically investigate the aging effect of thermocycling, water storage and bacteria aggression on the stability of resin-dentin bonds.
Forty molars were sectioned perpendicularly to the axis of the teeth to expose the middle-coronal dentin surfaces. The dentin surfaces were then treated with Single Bond 2 and made a core build-up.Read More

According to random digits table, the bonding specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10) as follows: immediate control group, aging group with thermocycling for 5 000 times, aging group with artificial saliva storage for 6 months and aging group with bacteria aggression for 14 days. The specimens in each group were then subjected to microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) testing and nanoleakage evaluation respectively.
After aging treatments, the three aging groups showed significantly lower µTBS than the immediate control group [(44.24 ± 12.75) MPa, P < 0.05]. The immediate control group also showed the lowest value of nanoleakage. The µTBS of aging group with bacteria aggression [(25.53 ± 7.39) MPa] was significantly lower than those of the other aging groups with artificial saliva storage[(29.72 ± 6.51) MPa] and thermocycling [(31.92 ± 11.87) MPa, P < 0.05]. There were no differences in the nanoleakage values among the three aging groups (P > 0.05).
All the aging treatments with artificial saliva storage, thermocycling and bacteria aggression could accelerate the degradation of bonding interfaces between an etch-and-rinse adhesive and dentin. Bacteria aggression showed the most impairing effect on the stability of resin-dentin bonds.

China, like other countries, is facing a growing burden of chronic disease but the prevalence of multimorbidity and implications for the healthcare system have been little researched. We examined the epidemiology of multimorbidity in southern China in a large representative sample. The effects of multimorbidity and other factors on usual source of healthcare were also examined.Read More

We conducted a large cross-sectional survey among approximately 5% (N = 162,464) of the resident population in three prefectures in Guangdong province, southern China in 2011. A multistage, stratified random sampling was adopted. The study population had many similar characteristics to the national census population. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect self-report data on demographics, socio-economics, lifestyles, healthcare use, and health characteristics from paper-based medical reports.
More than one in ten of the total study population (11.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6 to 11.6) had two or more chronic conditions from a selection of 40 morbidities. The prevalence of multimorbidity increased with age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.38 per five years). Female gender (aOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.64 to 1.76), low education (aOR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.29), lack of medical insurance (aOR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.71 to 1.89), and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were independent predictors of multimorbidity. Multimorbidity was associated with the regular use of secondary outpatient care in preference to primary care.
Multimorbidity is now common in China. The reported preferential use of secondary care over primary care by patients with multimorbidity has many major implications. There is an urgent need to further develop a strong and equitable primary care system.

Int J Clin Exp Med
Int J Clin Exp Med 2014 15;7(12):4967-74. Epub 2014 Dec 15.
Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital Beijing 100029, China.

The aims of this study was to assessed the ability of a combination treatment of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) and atorvastatin in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) as an appropriate substitute for current SCI treatments. In the present study, the female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 20) after SCI by New York University Device: SCI, sham, atorvastatin, graft BMSC and graft BMSC plus atorvastatin. Locomotion was assessed using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and walking test after SCI.Read More

In addition, microvessel density (MVD) was calculated by immunohistochemistry after SCI. We also investigate the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression level by western blot after drug treatment. The results showed that BBB scores and walking test were increased in atorvastatin plus BMSC group compared to single atorvastatin and BMSC groups (P < 0.05). In addition, MVD also significantly increased in combination group compared to single treatment group. Compared to sole drug, VEGF and BDNF expression were significantly up-regulated in atorvastatin combination with BMSC group (P < 0.05). These results imply that the combined use of atorvastatin and BMSC treatment may represent a promising strategy for clinically applicable pharmacological therapy for initiation of neuroprotection after SCI.

Biomed Res Int
Biomed Res Int 2014 15;2014:320828. Epub 2014 Dec 15.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The General Hospital of Beijing Military Area Command, No. 5 Nanmencang Road, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100700, China.

Several studies report that the OPG is an important candidate gene in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. This study aimed to detect the potential association of OPG gene polymorphisms with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. We recruited 928 subjects containing 463 with primary postmenopausal osteoporosis and 465 healthy volunteers as controls.Read More

The BMD of neck hip, lumbar spine (L(2-4)), and total hip were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Through the created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and DNA sequencing methods, the g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A have been investigated. As for g.18873C>T, our data indicated that subjects with CC genotype have significantly higher BMD value than those of CT and TT genotypes (all P values < 0.05). As for g.27522G>A, the BMD values of subjects with GG genotype were significantly higher than those of GA and AA genotypes (all P values < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the OPG g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A genetic polymorphisms are associated with the decreased risk for osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.

Neural Regen Res
Neural Regen Res 2013 Nov;8(33):3077-86
PLA Institute of Orthopedics, Beijing Army General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100700, China.

This is an expert consensus on the evaluation and treatment of thoracolumbar spinal injury, established from February 2009 to July 2010. The expert consensus consists mainly of six parts with a total of 54 recommendations including the overview (one item); pre-hospital care (one item); evaluation and diagnosis (13 items); treatment (23 items); prevention and treatment of major complications (12 items); and rehabilitation (four items). This is the first time that Chinese experts have published a consensus on spine and spinal cord injury.Read More

The expert consensus was established based on Delphi methods, literature analysis, and clinical experiences. Each recommendation is supported by and was interpreted using multi-level evidences. The level of agreement with the recommendation among the panel members was assessed as either low, moderate, or strong. Each panel member was asked to indicate his or her level of agreement on a 5-point scale, with "1" corresponding to neutrality and "5" representing maximum agreement. Scores were aggregated across the panel members and an arithmetic mean was calculated. This mean score was then translated into low, moderate, or strong. After all of the votes were collected and calculated, the results showed no low-level recommendations, 10 moderate-level recommendations, and 44 strong-level recommendations. An expert consensus was reached and was recognized by Chinese spine surgeons. Wide-scale adoption of these recommendations is urgent in the management of acute thoracolumbar spine and spinal cord injury in a broader attempt to create a standard evaluation and treatment strategy for acute thoracolumbar spine and spinal cord injury in China.