Fang Li - Capital Medical University
Capital Medical University
Publications Authored By Fang Li
The present study collected clinical data from three patients with PPD from three unrelated families, and WISP3 mutations were detected by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Overall, five mutations were identified, which consisted of two missense mutations, two nonsense mutations and one duplication mutation, which spanned exons 2, 4 and 5 of WISP3. In family 1, a compound heterozygosity mutation of WISP3 was detected, and the proband was shown to carry a novel missense mutation: c.667T>G (p.Cys223Gly) and a nonsense mutation: c.857C>G (p.Ser286*). The other three mutations: c.342T>G (p.Cys114Trp), c.136C>T (p.Gln46*) and c.866dupA (p.Ser290Glufs*13) had previously been identified. Overall, the three patients had similar clinical phenotypes, and no specific correlation between genotype and phenotype was detected. The results of the present study expand the WISP3 mutation spectrum that is associated with PPD and aid in further elucidating the function of WISP3.
This review aims to provide scientific evidence to support the notion and discuss how these findings contribute to the neural mechanisms of acupuncture.
RNA ligase-mediated 5'RACE cleavage assay showed that miR858 mediates the cleavage of SlMYB7-like and SlMYB48-like transcripts in tomato. Expression analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the accumulation of miR858 and its target SlMYB7-like mRNA, in different tissues of tomato. Subsequently, a small tandem target mimic construct for blocking miR858 (STTM858) was generated and transformed into tomato. The majority of endogenous miR858 was blocked in STTM858 over-expressing tomato plants, whereas SlMYB7-like transcripts increased significantly. Concomitantly, upregulated expression was detected for several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, including PAL, CHS, DFR, ANS and 3GT. As a result, anthocyanins were highly accumulated in young seedlings, leaves, stems and leaf buds of the transgenic plants under normal growth conditions. In addition, over-expression of STTM858 in tomato activated another MYB transcription factor, SlMYB48, implicating the possible involvement of SlMYB48 in anthocyanin biosynthesis.
However, p62 began to accumulate after 18 h treatment with PA, suggesting prolonged exposure to PA lead to an impairment of autophagic flux. PA enhanced ROS production as well as activated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNKs). The antioxidant N-Acety-l-Cysteine (NAC) was found to attenuate the JNK and p38 MAPK activation with a concomitant reduction of PA-induced autophagy and apoptosis. Furthermore, both JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors were shown to directly abrogate caspase 7 cleavage as well as the conversion of LC3BI to LC3BII. Thus, we demonstrate that PA stimulates autophagy and apoptosis via ROS-dependent JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.
In this study, we found that delivery of miR-494 into human vascular endothelial cells (ECs) enhanced the EC migration and promoted angiogenesis. The angiogenic effect of miR-494 was mediated by the targeting of PTEN and the subsequent activation of Akt/eNOS pathway. Importantly, co-culture experiments demonstrated that a lung cancer cell line, A549, secreted and delivered miR-494 into ECs via a microvesicle-mediated route. In addition, we found that the expression of miR-494 was induced in the tumor cells in response to hypoxia, likely via a HIF-1α-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, a specific miR-494 antagomiR effectively inhibited angiogenesis and attenuated the growth of tumor xenografts in nude mice. Taken together, these results demonstrated that miR-494 is a novel tumor-derived paracrine signal to promote angiogenesis and tumor growth under hypoxic condition.
Expressions of hTERT, a rate-limiting subunit of telomerase, and VEGF mRNA and proteins were, respectively, assessed by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and TRAP-ELISA in HPV-positive tissue samples and cervical cancer cell lines. To assess hTERT and VEGF secretion, hTERT overexpression and knockdown were conducted in HPV-18-positive Hela cells by hTERT cDNA and shRNA transfection, respectively. Then, the effect of HPV E6 and E7 on VEGF expressions was assessed in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data have shown that VEGF expression levels are associated with hTERT expressions and telomerase activity in HPV-positive cervical cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of hTERT expression down-regulated VEGF expressions, whereas overexpression of hTERT up-regulated VEGF expressions in HPV-18-positive Hela cells. Furthermore, HPV E7 oncoprotein was necessary for hTERT to up-regulate VEGF expressions in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data from this current study indicate that HPV oncoproteins up-regulated hTERT and telomerase activity and in turn promoted VEGF expressions, which could be a key mechanism for HPV-induced cervical cancer development and progression.
Moreover, PEDV infects cells from pig, human, monkey, and bat. These results support the idea of bats as an evolutionary origin for PEDV, implicate PEDV as a potential threat to other species, and suggest antiviral strategies to control its spread.
Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from random-effects or fixed-effects models were calculated. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's test and the funnel plot. A total of 14 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. On the basis of the highest versus the lowest analysis, consumption of vegetables was associated inversely with the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) (OR=0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.88, n=9 studies), but not with Crohn's disease (CD) (OR=0.66, 95% CI 0.40-1.09, n=8 studies). Higher consumption of fruit was associated inversely with the risk of UC (OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96, n=8 studies) and CD (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.74, n=10 studies). For intake of vegetables and the risk of CD, subgroup analysis showed a significant association for studies carried out in Europe (OR=0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57), but not in Asia (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.50-2.03). No significant publication bias was found for the analysis of intake of vegetables and the risk of UC, intake of fruit and the risk of UC, and intake of vegetables and the risk of CD. This meta-analysis indicates that consumption of vegetables and fruit might be associated inversely with the risk of UC and CD, and the results need to be further confirmed.
The CCK-8 assay was used to compare proliferation of the cells. Annexin-V and PI staining by flow cytometry and acridine orange/ethidium bromide stains were used to detect and quantify apoptosis. Western blot was used to detect expression of p21, Akt, pAkt, p210, Acetyl-Histone H3, and Acetyl-Histone H4 proteins. Results. SAHA and ATO inhibited proliferation of K562 cells in an additive and time- and dose-dependent manner. SAHA in combination with ATO showed significant apoptosis of K562 cells in comparison to the single drugs alone (p < 0.01). Both SAHA and ATO alone and in combination showed lower levels of p210 expression. SAHA and SAHA and ATO combined treatment showed increased levels of Acetyl-Histone H3 and Acetyl-Histone H4 protein expression. SAHA alone showed increased expression of p21, while ATO alone and in combination with SAHA showed no significant change. SAHA and ATO combined therapy showed lower levels of Akt and pAkt protein expression than SAHA or ATO alone. Conclusion. SAHA and ATO combined treatment inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and showed a chemosensitive augmentation effect on K562 cells. The mechanism might be associated with increasing histone acetylation levels as well as regulating the Akt signaling pathway.
05). With BV+CT treatment, 40 patients (33.89%) survived, whereas only 11 patients (18.64%) survived with CT treatment. The outcome for the BV+CT group was significantly better than that for the CT group only for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-positive patients. A post-treatment with BV+CT was significantly reduced than with CT only for patients with high carbonic anhydrase-9 (CA9) expression. This retrospective analysis provides supportive evidence that BV+CT can significantly reduce the incidence of brain metastasis in patients with advanced NSCLC compared with CT alone. Vascular endothelial growth factor -positive patients may benefit more from BV treatment and the outcomes with BV may be related to CA9 expression.
Furthermore, treatment of mice with phenyl butyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone alleviating ER stress, resulted in a significant restoration of systemic insulin sensitivity and recovery of insulin signaling induced by PGRN. Consistent with these findings in vivo, we also observed that PGRN treatment induced ER stress, impaired insulin signaling in cultured hepatocytes and adipocytes, with such effects being partially nullified by blockade of PERK. Whereas PGRN-deficient hepatocytes and adipocytes were more refractory to palmitate-induced insulin resistance, indicating the causative role of the PERK-eIF2α axis of the ER stress response in action of PGRN. Collectively, our findings supported the notion that PGRN is a key regulator of insulin resistance and that PGRN may mediate its effects, at least in part, by inducing ER stress via the PERK-eIF2α dependent pathway.
The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with the theoretical expectation.
A total of 162 patients with idiopathic male infertility who had undergone first ICSI cycles.
The levels of miR-34b/c in spermatozoa were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fertilization, early cleavage, day-3 good-quality embryo, pregnancy, implantation, and live birth rate were assessed. A receiver operating characteristic curve was employed to analyze the cutoff values.
No correlation was found between the spermatozoa miR-34b/c levels and the 2 pronuclei early cleavage rate. A correlation was seen between an increased level of miR-34c and a higher percentage of good-quality embryos on day 3. Although miR-34b and miR-34c levels were higher in the pregnancy group, compared with the nonpregnancy group, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that miR-34c levels in spermatozoa were more strongly correlated with ICSI treatment outcomes, compared with miR-34b (area under the curve = 0.75). Patients in the miR-34c-positive group were more likely to exhibit higher rates of good-quality embryos, implantation, pregnancy, and live birth. A multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that miR-34c in spermatozoa (odds ratio: 5.699, with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.687-12.088) and woman's age (odds ratio: 0.843, with 95% CI: 0.736-0.966) were the 2 parameters that were significantly correlated with pregnancy.
Our results demonstrate that miR-34c levels in spermatozoa are correlated with ICSI outcomes, suggesting that paternal miR-34c may play a role in the early phases of embryonic development. Levels of MiR-34c in human spermatozoa may be used as an indicator for ICSI outcomes.
This research was undertaken to evaluate efficacy of Ga DOTATATE PET/CT in this clinical setting.
Images of Ga DOTATATE PET/CT and clinical charts from 54 patients with clinically suspected TIO were retrospectively reviewed. The image findings were compared with the results of histopathological examinations and clinical follow-ups.
Ga DOTATATE PET/CT scans were positive in 44 patients, among which, 33 had surgery to remove the lesions. Postsurgical pathological examination confirmed causative tumors in 32 patients whose symptoms diminished promptly, and the serum phosphate levels became normal, which confirmed the diagnoses of TIO. Eleven patients with positive Ga DOTATATE PET/CT did not have surgery. These 11 patients continued to have symptoms and hypophosphatemia but were not included in the final analysis because of lack of evidence to confirm or exclude TIO. Ten patients had negative Ga DOTATATE PET/CT scans. All of these10 patients responded to conservative therapy and had normal serum phosphate levels in the follow-up, which excluded TIO. Therefore, the Ga DOTATATE PET/CT imaging had a sensitivity of 100% (32/32) and a specificity of 90.9% (10/11). The overall accuracy of Ga DOTATATE PET/CT scan in the detection of tumors responsible for osteomalacia is 97.7% (42/43).
Ga DOTATATE PET/CT scan is an accurate imaging modality in the detection of tumors causing TIO.
874 parathyroid glands were removed. A positive correlation was identified between the size and the weight of resected parathyroid glands. We found that both the preoperative PTH and the reduction of PTH were significantly correlated with the size and the weight of parathyroid glands in a positive manner. However, in the subgroup of patients with PTH < 1000 pg/ml, no significant correlation was found.
Larger parathyroid gland secretes more PTH and high level of serum PTH usually indicated that surgical removal might be required. However, since PTH levels could be influenced by the pharmaceutical drug, the large size of parathyroid gland might be used as a much more appropriate guide that indicates the requirement of surgery treatment even when the parathyroid hormone was less than 1000 pg/ml.
These mutations therefore played critical roles in the bat-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV.
In this study, the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effect of resveratrol in human ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3 and Caov-3) was investigated using various molecular biology techniques, such as flow cytometry, western blotting, and RNA interference, with a major focus on the potential role of autophagy in resveratrol-induced apoptotic cell death. We demonstrated that resveratrol induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which triggers autophagy and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Resveratrol induced ATG5 expression and promoted LC3 cleavage. The apoptotic cell death induced by resveratrol was attenuated by both pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy. The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine, which functions at the late stage of autophagy, significantly reduced resveratrol-induced cell death and caspase 3 activity in human ovarian cancer cells. We also demonstrated that targeting ATG5 by siRNA also suppressed resveratrol-induced apoptotic cell death. Thus, we concluded that a common pathway between autophagy and apoptosis exists in resveratrol-induced cell death in OVCAR-3 human ovarian cancer cells.
We retrospectively analyzed the FDG PET/CT scan of 175 FUO patients, 79 males and 96 females. The final diagnosis of all FUO patients was achieved through pathology or clinical evaluation, including 108 normal patients and 67 FUO patients. CT anatomic information was used to acquire bone functional information from PET images. The skeletal system of FUO patients was classified by analyzing the standardized uptake value (SUV) and the PET index of bone glucose metabolism (PIBGM). The SUV distributions in the bone marrow and the bone cortex were also studied in detail.
The SUV and PIBGM of the bone marrow only slightly differed between the FUO patients and normal people, whereas the SUV of whole bone structures and the PIBGM of the bone cortex significantly differed between the normal people and FUO patients. The method detected 43 patients from 67 FUO patients, with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 64.18%, 95%, 93.48%, 72.73%, and 83.33%, respectively.
The experimental results demonstrate that the study can achieve automatic classification of FUO patients by the proposed novel biomarker of PIBGM, which has the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.
We report increased mRNA levels of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in human lung cancer tissues compared to normal counterparts. Expression levels of CXCR1/2 cognate ligands was determined by ELISA. CXCR1/2 receptor antagonism via G31P leads to decreased H460 and A549 cell proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner. G31P also enhanced apoptosis in lung cancer cells as determined by elevated levels of cleaved PARP, Caspase-8, and Bax, together with a reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In an in vivo orthotopic xenograft mouse model of human lung cancer, G31P treatment suppressed tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. At the molecular level, G31P treatment was correlated with decreased expression of VEGF and NFÐºB-p65, in addition to reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT. Our results suggest that G31P blockage of CXCR1 and CXCR2 can inhibit human lung cancer cell growth and metastasis, which offers potential therapeutic opportunities.
Structural modeling showed that the TLR27 ectodomain can be divided into three distinctive sections. The lack of conserved asparagines on the concave surface of the central subdomain causes a structural transition in the middle of the ectodomain, forming a distinct hydrophobic pocket at the border between the central subdomain and the C-terminal subdomain. We infer that, like other functionally characterized TLRs in family 1, the hydrophobic pocket located between LRR11 and LRR12 participates in ligand recognition by TLR27. An evolutionary analysis showed that the dN/dS value at the TLR27 locus was very low. Approximately one quarter of the total number of TLR27 sites are under significant negatively selection pressure, whereas only two sites are under positive selection. Consequently, TLR27 is highly evolutionarily conserved and probably plays an extremely important role in the innate immune systems of fishes.
In vitro, hAFS cells differentiate into keratinocytes (termed hAFS-K). Like keratinocytes, hAFS-K cells express the markers K5, K14, K10 and involucrin; display typical cellular structure, including a tonofibril-rich cytoplasm; and construct a completely pluristratified epithelium in 3D culture. In vivo, in a mouse excisional wound model, GFP-positive hAFS cells participate in wound repair. Co-localization of GFP/K14 and GFP/K10 in the repaired epidermis demonstrated that hAFS cells can differentiate into keratinocytes. Real-time PCR results confirmed that hAFS cells can initiate and promote early-stage repair of skin damage. During wound repair, hAFS cells did not directly secrete repair-related factors, such as bFGF, VEGF, CXCL12, TGF-β1 and KGF, and provided a moderate inflammation reaction with lower expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, Cox2 and Mac3. In hAFS cells, the negative co-stimulatory molecule B7H4 regulates low immunogenicity, which can provide a modest inflammatory reaction microenvironment for wound repair. Furthermore, with their uniquely high proliferation rate, hAFS cells offer a promising alternative for epidermal regeneration.
Phosphate starvation reduced the levels of AsPPD1 transcripts in roots while increased those levels in nodules. We confirmed the acid phosphatase and phosphodiesterase activities of recombinant AsPPD1 purified from Pichia pastoris, and demonstrated its ability to hydrolyze ADP and ATP in vitro. Subcellular localization showed that AsPPD1 located on the plasma membranes in hairy roots and on the symbiosomes membranes in root nodules. Over-expression of AsPPD1 in hairy roots inhibited nodulation, while its silencing resulted in nodules early senescence and significantly decreased nitrogenase activity. Furthermore, HPLC measurement showed that AsPPD1 overexpression affects the ADP levels in the infected roots and nodules, AsPPD1 silencing affects the ratio of ATP/ADP and the energy charge in nodules, and quantitative observation demonstrated the changes of AsPPD1 transcripts level affected nodule primordia formation. Taken together, it is speculated that AsPPD1 contributes to symbiotic ADP levels and energy charge control, and this is required for effective nodule organogenesis and nitrogen fixation.
Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging was performed at 1 and 4 hours post-tracer injection, and SPECT/CT images of the abdomen were also acquired. The image findings were compared to final diagnoses which were made from pathological examination.
Among all 20 pancreatic masses evaluated, there were 16 malignant lesions which included 1 ductal adenocarcinoma and 15 neuroendocrine tumors. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging identified 14 of 15 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and excluded 4 of 5 lesions which were not neuroendocrine tumors. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was therefore 93.3% (14 of 15), 80% (4 of 5), and 90.0% (18 of 20), respectively, in our patient population.
Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging provides reasonable accuracy in the evaluation pancreatic mass suspected to be neuroendocrine tumors.
We conducted a population-based case-control study. A total of 24 100 subjects with similar and stable iodine nutrition status were recruited from China. Cases of 5033 SCH patients were identified and equal controls were matched by age, gender, and region. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the association between serum triglyceride levels and risk for SCH.
Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with an approximately 35% increased risk for SCH in both men (odds ratio 1.325; 95% confidence interval 1.002-1.753) and women (odds ratio 1.397; 95% confidence interval 1.217-1.604), even after adjustment for potential confounders. Notably, the risk for SCH increased progressively following the elevation of serum triglyceride levels. Compared with individuals with serum triglyceride levels less than 0.97 mmol/L, the risk for SCH increased approximately 1.9-fold in men and 1.4-fold in women, respectively, when triglyceride levels were greater than 1.99 mmol/L.
Our findings suggested that hypertriglyceridemia was positively associated with the risk for SCH.
Here, using a mouse model of intravenous JEV infection, we show that virus titers increased exponentially in the brain from 2 to 5 days postinfection. This was accompanied by an early, dramatic increase in the level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Enhancement of BBB permeability, however, was not observed until day 4, suggesting that viral entry and the onset of inflammation in the CNS occurred prior to BBB damage. In vitro studies revealed that direct infection with JEV could not induce changes in the permeability of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. However, brain extracts derived from symptomatic JEV-infected mice, but not from mock-infected mice, induced significant permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Consistent with a role for inflammatory mediators in BBB disruption, the administration of gamma interferon-neutralizing antibody ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice. Taken together, our data suggest that JEV enters the CNS, propagates in neurons, and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which result in the disruption of the BBB.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in 70,000 cases each year, in which approximately 20 to 30% of cases are fatal, and a high proportion of patients survive with serious neurological and psychiatric sequelae. Pathologically, JEV infection causes an acute encephalopathy accompanied by BBB dysfunction; however, the mechanism is not clear. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of BBB disruption in JEV infection is important. Our data demonstrate that JEV gains entry into the CNS prior to BBB disruption. Furthermore, it is not JEV infection per se, but the inflammatory cytokines/chemokines induced by JEV infection that inhibit the expression of TJ proteins and ultimately result in the enhancement of BBB permeability. Neutralization of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice, suggesting that IFN-γ could be a potential therapeutic target. This study would lead to identification of potential therapeutic avenues for the treatment of JEV infection.
Few studies have assessed whether SCH plays a role in the increase in age-related dyslipidemia. This study aimed to explore the association between SCH and lipid profiles in different age groups.
This was a large-scale, population-based, case-control study. The population was derived from the REACTION study conducted across China. A total of 17,046 individuals (8827 cases and 8219 controls) aged 40 years or older were enrolled in the final analyses. The relationships between SCH and serum lipid parameters in each age group were evaluated after adjustment for thyroid hormones and common confounding factors.
In the entire population, thyrotropin (TSH), the key indicator of SCH, was positively associated with cholesterol parameters (total cholesterol [TC] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) through the sixth decade of life. After adjusting for common confounding factors and thyroid hormones, each 1 mIU/L increase in TSH was estimated to elevate the TC level by 0.0147 mmol/L and 0.0551 mmol/L, respectively, in individuals aged 40-49 years and 60-69 years. Similarly, with each 1 mIU/L increase in TSH, the LDL-C level tended to show gradually greater increases as age increased. In moderately old subjects (60-69 years), mild (TSH≤10 mIU/L) and significant (TSH>10 mIU/L) SCH increased the concentration of TC approximately 1.03- and 1.36-fold, and the concentration of LDL-C approximately 1.19- and 1.65-fold, respectively, when compared with younger subjects.
TSH exhibited a stronger effect on the TC and LDL-C level in moderately old subjects than in younger subjects. SCH might augment and worsen the effects of aging on serum lipid profiles.
Two weeks after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), all rats were subjected to a hidden platform trial to test their 3-day spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To estimate the numbers of pyramidal neuron, astrocytes, and synaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1 area, we adopted an unbiased stereology method to accurately sample and measure the size of cells.
We found that acupuncture at ST36 significantly decreased the escape latency of VD rats. In addition, acupuncture significantly increased the pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease the number of astrocytes (P = 0.063). However, there was no significant change in the synaptic bouton number of hippocampal CA1 area in any of the groups (P > 0.05).
These findings suggest that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits and increase pyramidal neuron number of hippocampal CA1 area in VD rats.
The patient initially underwent urine catecholamine measurement and an isotope scan, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (CT), which indicated a multiple, cardiac pheochromocytoma. Echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT reconstruction, and a coronary CT angiography revealed several lesions at the aortic root and along the cardiac vasculature.Multifocal cardiac pheochromocytoma was diagnosed and pheochromocytoma crisis with severe cyclic blood pressure fluctuation occurred during surgery.Surgical resection of multiple pheochromocytomas in the right medial carotid sheath, mediastinum between the main and pulmonary arteries, and between the abdominal aorta and inferior vena artery was performed. To ensure cardiac perfusion and avoid severe circulatory fluctuation, the cardiac paraganglioma resection was prioritized. After resecting the cardiac pheochromocytoma, a severe pheochromocytoma crisis with rapid cyclic blood pressure fluctuation developed. ECMO and intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) were initiated to stabilize circulation and perfusion. Phenoxybenzamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and fluid resuscitation were administered to support cardiovascular function.The magnitude of blood pressure fluctuation steadily decreased with treatment. IABP was discontinued after 3 days, and ECMO was discontinued after 16 days. The patient was discharged 3 months postoperatively.This case indicates that mechanical life support with ECMO is a valuable option for pheochromocytoma-induced cardiac shock and should be considered as an effective therapeutic choice in patients with highly unstable hemodynamic function.
The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.
In this study, we aimed to explore whether FOXO1 and FOXO3a play similar roles in HGF-mediated protection against apoptosis in mature endothelial cells. Our result showed that HGF prevented ECs from oxidative-stress induced apoptosis in part by inducing the phosphorylation of FOXO proteins. FOXO1 and FOXO3a are equally important in this process by regulating the expression of Bim, PUMA, FasL, and TRAIL.
We thus conducted this survey to determine acupuncturists' perspectives about Deqi and to further find the proper way to induce Deqi. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out to acupuncturists and 202 (80.8%) were returned. According to the results, most acupuncturists believe that Deqi is vital to obtain preferable clinical effects. The reliability of acupuncturists' Deqi sensation ranks as sinking> tightening> astringent. The reliability of patients' Deqi sensations ranks as sourness> numbness> distention> heaviness> pain. The reliability of influential factors ranks as manipulation> specificity of acupoint> TCM constitution> disease status> patient's psychological condition> acupuncturists' psychological guidance> clinical environment. This study is believed to provide additional evidence to the qualitative and quantitative research of Deqi in the future.
The current study analyzed the genetic mutations in complete HPV16 genomes and the physical integration status of HPV16 DNA.
A total of 30 samples of cervical exfoliated cells from patients with HPV16 infection were collected. The entire HPV16 genome was isolated, amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. The physical integration status was determined by 3'RACE nested PCR.
A total of 13 integration sites were identified, including 9 in common fragile sites and 1 not close to any fragile sites. Phylogenetic analysis identified two HPV lineages: the European (E) lineage and the East Asian (EA) lineage. Amino acid changes of D25E and N29S were the most common variations across the genome. The HPV16 early genes E1 and E7 and the late gene L1 tended to be highly conserved, whereas the early genes E2, E4 and E6 were more variable. Furthermore, 10 novel variations were identified in this study, which led to the 3 amino acid changes of S23I in E2 and E244K and T269I in E2/E4.
Integrated HPV16 viruses were detected in all stages of cervical samples. Many variants in E2, E4, E7, and the long control region co-varied with E6 variations and helped to define the HPV16 lineages. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
We focuse on examining the function of acupoints from different perspectives, including the local and the systemic effects of stimulating acupoints. For example, acupoints may release certain substances or incur some changes, which could adjust the function of organs, maintain homeostasis. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of verum acupoints versus sham acupoints were discussed. However, due to insufficience in evidence and in current methodologies, research into mechanisms of acupuncture is still incomplete.
This review might explain, to some extent, what an acupoint is. Further research into the identity of acupoints is warranted, and multidisciplinary methods using novel technologies may yield significant advances over existing knowledge.
Q and I2 test were applied to test statistical heterogeneities among studies. Publication bias of total effective rate was evaluated through a funnel plot and sensitive analysis was conducted.
We identified 10 Chinese studies including 1024 esophageal cancer patients. The RRs of total effective rate and 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate for concurrent versus sequential CRT were 1.15 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.24), 1.15 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.26), 1.44 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.73), and 1.66 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.01), respectively, all with statistically significant differences (p<0.05). With regards to incidence of leukocytopenia, the RR for concurrent versus sequential CRT was 1.14 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) with significant difference (p<0.05). However, the RR of incidence of radiation esophagitis was 1.09 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.22) for concurrent versus sequential CRT without significant differences (p = 0.17).
Concurrent CRT was superior to sequential CRT for esophageal cancer management among Chinese people. Though higher toxic effects were revealed in concurrent CRT, it was tolerable. Therefore, concurrent CRT could be applied into esophageal cancer treatments for Chinese patients.
First, we examined responses to a survey administered to 49 clinicians on barriers and attitudes toward delivering the 5 A's. Second, we used multilevel models to examine variance between patients (n = 228), patient factors, and variance between their psychiatrists (n = 28) in the delivery of the 5 A's (and first 3 A's).
The most strongly endorsed barrier was perceived lack of patient interest in smoking cessation. Psychiatrists and patients both accounted for significant variance in the delivery of the 5 A's and 3 A's. Patient "readiness to change" predicted delivery of the full 5 A's, while smoking severity predicted delivery of the first 3 A's.
There is a critical need for creative and collaborative solutions, policies, and clinician training to address actual and perceived obstacles to the delivery of evidence-based smoking cessation treatment in the mental health care setting.
Two three-generation families with GS were identified and screened for mutations in the SLC12A3 gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations were analysed.
The two probands (A and B) were characterized by hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria without hypertension. Complete DNA sequencing of the SLC12A3 gene revealed two novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.179C>T and c.234delG; c.486-490delTACGGinsA and c.1925G>A), which are predicted to drastically affect normal protein structure. The female members of the pedigrees showed mild-to-no phenotype, although they carried the same mutations as the probands. Moreover, proband B presented with more severe symptoms than did proband A, which might be related to a lower serum magnesium level. During the 1-year follow-up, both probands showed satisfactory symptom improvement following the use of potassium and magnesium supplements.
Our findings strongly suggested that the two novel mutations in the SLC12A3 gene are the causative agents of GS, which may provide further insights into the function of this gene and help clinicians better understand this disorder.
Two novel GBA variants of c.-119 A/G and S (-35)N, five known GBA mutations of R120W, N370S, L444P, RecNciI and RecTL mutation (del55/D409H/RecNciI) as well as two non-pathological variants of E326K and T369M were identified from PD patients while only one mutation of S13L and two non-pathological variants of E326K and T369M were found in the control individuals. The frequency of GBA mutations within PD patients (4.4%) is 4.8 times higher than the 0.91% observed in control individuals (X(2) = 2.91, P = 0.088; odds ratio = 4.835; 95% confidence interval = 2.524-9.123). The most common mutations of N370S and L444P accounted for 36.0% (9/25) of all the GBA mutations in this Eastern Canadian PD cohort. The frequency (6.67%) of E326K and T369M in PD patients is comparable to 7.27% in control individuals (X(2) = 0.042, p = 0.8376), further supporting that these two variants have no pathological effects on PD. Phenotype analysis showed that no significant difference in family history, age at onset, and cognitive impairment was identified between the GBA mutation carriers and non-GBA mutation carriers.
GBA mutations were found to be a common genetic risk factor for PD in Eastern Canadian patients.
Rats were treated with lipo-prostaglandin E1(Lipo-PGE1, 10 μg/kg/d) or the same volume of 0.9% saline starting 24 hours after MCAO daily for 6 consecutive days. All rats were injected 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 3 consecutive days before being sacrificed. At 7 and 14 days after MCAO or sham-operation, rats were sacrificed. Post-stroke neurological outcome, infarction volume, angiogenesis and neurogenesis were evaluated. Treatment with lipo-PGE1 significantly increased vascular density in the peri-infarct areas at 7 and 14 days after MCAO. Lipo-PGE1 treatment significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration of endogenous neural stem cells in the ipsilateral subventricular zone. The neural stem cells associated with blood vessels closely within a neurovascular niche in lipo-PGE1 treated rats after stroke. Lipo-PGE1 treatment also significantly improved neurological recovery after MCAO. These results indicate that treatment with lipo-PGE1 promotes post-stroke angiogenesis, neurogenesis and their interaction, which would contribute to neurological recovery after cerebral infarction. Our study provides novel experimental evidences for the neuroprotective roles of PGE1 in ischemic stroke.
); once daily) induced a dose‑dependent reduction in I/R‑induced hippocampal neuron cell loss, with 10 mg/kg/day being the lowest dose that achieved maximal neuroprotection. Administration of 10 mg/kg quercetin over at least 3 days prior to I/R was required to improve the survival rate of I/R rats. Fluorescence‑assisted cell sorting, hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling indicated neuronal cell loss in the CA1 hippocampus. Rats that had undergone transient global cerebral ischemia for 15 min followed by 1 h of reperfusion exhibited a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hippocampus. The I/R‑induced ROS overproduction in the hippocampus at 1, 12 and 24 h following I/R was significantly decreased by quercetin pre‑treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that the neuroprotective effects of quercetin (5 and 10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were associated with an upregulation of the I/R‑induced suppression of B‑cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl extra large and survivin expression as well as phosphorylation of Bcl‑2‑associated death promoter. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of quercetin (5, 10 mg/kg/day) in the brain were associated with an upregulation of Akt signaling. These findings suggested that the inhibition of I/R‑induced brain injury by quercetin likely involves a transcriptional mechanism to enhance anti‑apoptotic signaling.
The combination of KIT and FGFR inhibition showed increased growth inhibition in imatinib-sensitive GIST cell lines and improved efficacy in patient-derived GIST xenografts. In addition, inhibition of MAPK signaling by imatinib was not sustained in GIST cells. An ERK rebound occurred through activation of FGF signaling, and was repressed by FGFR1 inhibition. Downregulation of Sprouty proteins played a role in the imatinib-induced feedback activation of FGF signaling in GIST cells.
We here show that FGFR-mediated reactivation of the MAPK pathway attenuates the antiproliferation effects of imatinib in GISTs. The imatinib-induced ERK rebound can be repressed by the FGFR inhibitor BGJ398, and combined KIT and FGFR inhibition leads to increased efficacy in vitro and in patient-derived xenografts.
This new scheme is analogous to the biopharmaceutical classification scheme (BCS) used by the pharmaceutical industry to classify drug bioavailability, but it contains additional factors important for understanding nutraceutical bioavailability in foods. The article also highlights potential strategies for increasing the oral bioavailability of nutraceuticals based on their NuBACS designation (B*A*T*).
To monitor changes in their differentiation potential, cells were cultured in medium supplemented with serum, and the expression of specific stem cell markers was determined. Drug-sensitivity tests were used to measure the sensitivity of the stem cells to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone. The cells were also transplanted into non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice to determine the changes in their tumorigenicity in vivo. Cells transfected with the WWOX-expressing plasmid stably expressed WWOX protein, while no WWOX protein was detected in control cells. Compared with the two types of control cells, WWOX-expressing stem cells manifested significantly reduced self-renewal ability. Compared with control cells, the expression levels of stem cell markers, including CD133, CD117, ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2, Nanog, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 and breast cancer resistance protein, were significantly lower in WWOX-expressing cells, while the level of the differentiation marker E-cadherin was significantly higher in WWOX-expressing cells. Furthermore, WWOX-expressing cells were more sensitive to treatment with cisplatin, doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. In NOD/SCID mice, the tumorigenicity of WWOX-expressing cells was significantly lower compared with that of control cells. The results indicate that the tumor suppressor WWOX suppresses stem cell properties in cancer stem cells, including self-renewal ability, differentiation potential, in vivo tumorigenic capability, high-level expression of stem cell genes and multidrug resistance.
The obtained sensing platform showed strong and stable ECL signal. When NT-proBNP was captured by its antibody immobilized on the sensing platform via immunoreaction, the ECL intensity decreased. Direct ECL signal changes were used for the determination of NT-proBNP. The present ECL immunosensor demonstrated a quite wide linear range of 0.01-100 pg/mL. The achieved low detection limit of 3.86 fg/mL was about 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained with electrochemistry method reported previously. Because of the simple and fast analysis, high sensitivity and selectivity, and stable and reliable response, the present immunosensor has been successfully applied to quantify NT-proBNP in practical plasma samples. The success of the sensor in this work also confirms that ABEI/GNDs/chitosan/COOH-MWCNTs hybrid is an ideal nanointerface to fabricate a sensing platform. Furthermore, the proposed strategy could be applied in the detection of other clinically important biomarkers.
The static strain is demodulated by calculating the wavelength difference of the PDH signals between the sensing FBG-FP sensor and the reference FBG-FP sensor. As an experimental result using the modulator, the linearity (R2) of the time-frequency response increases from 0.989 to 0.997, and the frequency-swept range (dynamic range) increases from hundreds of MHz to several GHz compared with commercial PZT-tunable lasers. The high-linearity time-wavelength relationship of the modulator is beneficial for improving the strain measurement resolution, as it can solve the problem of the frequency-swept nonlinearity effectively. In the laboratory test, a 0.67 nanostrain static strain resolution, with a 6 GHz dynamic range, is demonstrated.
Intravitreal injection of EphB2-Fc, an activator of ephrinB2, induced an increase in TUNEL-positive signals in normal retinae. A coimmunoprecipitation assay demonstrated direct interactions among ephrinB2, p-src, and GluA2. Moreover, in COH rats the expression of GluA2 proteins on the surface of retinal cells was decreased. Such GluA2 endocytosis could be prevented by preoperational intravitreal injection of 4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(t-butyl)-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidine (PP2), an inhibitor of src family tyrosine kinases, and possibly involved the protein interacting with C kinase 1 and phosphorylation of GluA2. In normal rats, intravitreal injection of EphB2-Fc caused changes in these protein levels similar to those observed in COH rats, which all could be avoided by preinjection of PP2. Patch-clamp experiments further showed that the current-voltage relationship of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs of RGCs exhibited stronger inward rectification in EphB2-Fc-injected rats. Furthermore, preinjection of PP2 or N-[3-[[4-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]butyl]amino]propyl]-1-naphthaleneacetamide trihydrochloride) (Naspm), a Ca(2+)-permeable GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor inhibitor, remarkably inhibited RGC apoptosis in either EphB2-Fc-injected or COH rats. Together, elevated GluA2 trafficking induced by activated EphB2/ephrinB2 reverse signaling likely contributes to RGC apoptosis in COH rats.
Serum samples from the patients were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 following intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and the serum concentrations of 42 amino acids were measured.
The metabolic spectrum of the amino acids changed dramatically in patients with sepsis. As the disease progressed further or with poor prognosis, the levels of the different amino acids gradually increased, decreased, or fluctuated over time. The concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs), especially taurine, decreased significantly as the severity of sepsis worsened or with poor prognosis of the patient. The serum concentrations of SAAs, especially taurine, exhibited weak negative correlations with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) (r=-0.319) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II (r=-0.325) scores. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of cystine, taurine, and SAA levels and the SOFA and APACHE II scores, which denoted disease prognosis, were 0.623, 0.674, 0.678, 0.86, and 0.857, respectively.
Critically ill patients with disorders of amino acid metabolism, especially of SAAs such as cystine and taurine, may provide an indicator of the need for the nutritional support of sepsis in the clinic.
ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01818830.
Uptake of VLDL in HUVECs was assessed by Dil-fluorescent labelling of VLDL. Levels of VLDL receptor mRNA and microRNA (miR-100) were detected by quantitative PCR. The target genes of miR-100 were predicted using bioinformatics analysis. 3'-Untranslated region (3'-UTR) luciferase reporter and Argonaute 1 pull-down assays were used to validate the target of miR-100.
PPAR-δ agonist GW501516 decreased uptake of VLDL and expression of VLDL receptor at mRNA and protein levels. GW501516 inhibited the luciferase reporter activity of the 3'-UTR of VLDL receptor. VLDL receptor was a direct target of miR-100. miR-100 was significantly increased by GW501516 in HUVECs. Transfection of a miR-100 mimic decreased the mRNA and protein levels of VLDL receptor and uptake of VLDL. Furthermore, a miR-100 inhibitor abolished the inhibitory effect of PPAR-δ on VLDL receptor expression and VLDL uptake.
In endothelial cells, activation of PPAR-δ decreased VLDL receptor expression and VLDL uptake via the induction of miR-100. These results provided a novel mechanism for the vascular protective effect of PPAR-δ agonists.
Moreover, this sublethal activation of caspase-3 promoted persistent DNA damage and oncogenic transformation. In addition, chemically induced skin carcinogenesis was significantly reduced in mice genetically deficient in caspase-3. Furthermore, attenuation of EndoG activity significantly reduced radiation-induced DNA damage and oncogenic transformation, identifying EndoG as a downstream effector of caspase-3 in this pathway. Our findings suggest that rather than acting as a broad inhibitor of carcinogenesis, caspase-3 activation may contribute to genome instability and play a pivotal role in tumor formation following damage.
L4-5 and L5-6 intervertebral disk samples were harvested and analyzed for PLA2 activity in different groups at different time points.
The PLA2 activity in the coblation control group was significantly higher than that in the control group (194.86 ± 11.80 and 80.68 ± 5.56, respectively; P < 0.01). There was a significant decrease in the PLA2 activity 1 week after coblation than at the real time after coblation (154.39 ± 7.99 and 184.98 ± 9.43, respectively; P < 0.001). The PLA2 activity at 1 month after coblation remained at a lower level than those at 1 week and at the real time after coblation (142.63 ± 10.72, 154.39 ± 7.99, and 184.98 ± 9.43, respectively), but there was no significant decrease in the PLA2 activity between 1 week and 1 month after coblation.
Coblation appeared to effectively degrade the PLA2 activity in the degenerative intervertebral disks of this animal model. This represents a potential mechanism for the clinical use of coblation in the treatment of low back pain.
The neuroprotective role of PPARs is suggested to be closely associated with the inflammation control and regenerative function of NSCs. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we review the current knowledge about the beneficial role of PPARs in NSC development and neurogenesis and attempt to discuss the underlying mechanisms.
We found that the mechanical withdrawal threshold was significantly reduced and an anxiety-like behavior was increased as determined via open field tests and elevated plus-maze tests at 28 days after injury. No significant differences were found in the ratio of sucrose preference and immobility time detected by sucrose preference tests and forced swimming tests respectively, possibly due to the timing factor. The expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subtypes NR1 and NR2B, but not NR2A, GluR1, or GluR2 (the main subtype of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid [AMPA] receptor) in the hippocampus of injured rats was significantly reduced. Moreover, PSNL resulted in decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus. Intriguingly, treatment with D-serine (a co-agonist of NMDA receptor, 1 g/kg intraperitoneally) reduced the anxiety-like behavior but not the mechanical hypersensitivity induced by PSNL.
PSNL can induce significant anxiety-like but not depression-like behavior, and trigger down-regulation of NMDA but not AMPA receptors in the hippocampus at 28 days after injury.
Four hundred and fifty-five patients with chronic HBV infection with clinical diseases of chronic hepatitis (n = 183), liver cirrhosis (n = 167) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 105), 92 HBV infection resolvers and 171 healthy controls were included. All subjects were of Chinese Han ethnicity. Genotyping of rs2230926 was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method.
The gender and age between HBV patients, HBV infection resolvers and healthy controls had no statistical difference. The genotypes of rs2230926 in HBV patients, HBV infection resolvers and healthy controls are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphism between HBV patients, HBV infection resolvers and healthy controls had no significant difference. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphism between HBV patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma also showed no significant difference.
The TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphism is not suggested to be associated with the susceptibility of chronic HBV infection or the progression of HBV-related diseases in this study. Replicative studies and studies in large control and HBV patient populations of different ethnicity by genotyping more polymorphisms in TNFAIP3 gene are needed.
The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.
The rats in the control group received daily intraperitoneal injections of saline, and those in STZ+H(2)S group and H(2)S group were given NaHS (100 µmol/kg) injections. After 8 weeks, the pathologies of cardiac fibrosis were examined with HE staining, and the expressions of collagen I, MAPK1/3 and MMP-8 were analyzed with Western blotting.
Compared with the control group, the diabetic rats showed increased collagen content and obvious interstitial fibrosis in the myocardial tissue with significantly increased expression levels of collagen I, MAPK1/3 and MMP-8 (P<0.05); all these changes were obviously reversed by treatment with H(2)S (P<0.05). Collagen I, MAPK1/3 and MMP-8 expression levels and the degree of myocardial fibrosis were comparable between H(2)S group and control group (P>0.05).
Hydrogen sulfide can attenuate cardiac fibrosis in diabetic rats, and the mechanism may involve the inhibition of MAPK1/3/MMP-8 signal pathway.
The Hilbert transform is proposed for changing the Gaussian distribution of the two FBG-FPs' reflection spectra, and a cross third-order cumulant is used to use the results of the Hilbert transform and get a group of noise-vanished signals which can be used to accurately calculate the wavelength difference of the two FBG-FPs. The benefit by these processes is that Gaussian noise in the spectra can be suppressed completely in theory and a higher resolution can be reached. In order to verify the precision and flexibility of this algorithm, a detailed theory model and a simulation analysis are given, and an experiment is implemented. As a result, a static-strain resolution of 0.9 nε under laboratory environment condition is achieved, showing a higher resolution than the traditional cross-correlation method.
In addition, we also evaluated the efficacy of single blood sample method and dried blood spots method in iohexol plasma clearance.
Forty-five CKD children completed the iohexol plasma clearance and thirty-six children completed the (99m)Tc-DTPA plasma clearance at the same time among them. Thirteen children finished the iohexol dried blood spot clearance. The correlation coefficient between (99m)Tc-DTPA plasma clearance and iohexol plasma clearance was 0.941 and the bias was (6.53 ± 11.6) ml/ (min·1.73 m²), and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was high (ICC=0.947). The correlation between iohexol single-sample plasma clearance and double samples was also strong (r=0.958), with the bias being (4.26 ± 9.06)ml/(min·1.73 m²) and the ICC being 0.970. The iohexol clearance by dried blood spots showed a good correlation with the serum iohexol clearance (r=0.950), with the bias still being small [(0.48 ± 10.89)ml/(min·1.73 m²)].
Iohexol plasma clearance has satisfactory agreement with (99m)Tc-DTPA plasma clearance and can be used as an ideal method to measure GFR in CKD children. The single-sample method and dried blood spots method make iohexol plasma clearance more convenient and practical.
1% to 10%) on soluble rhMMP-8 and rhMMP-9 were measured using a colorimetic assay. Matrix-bound endogenous MMP activity was evaluated in demineralized human dentin. Dentin beams were divided into four groups (n=10) and incubated in calcium- and zinc-containing media (control medium); or control medium+0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX); 5% 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB); or 5% DMADDM. Dissolution of dentin collagen peptides was evaluated by mechanical testing in three-point flexure, loss of dentin mass, and a hydroxyproline assay.
Use of 0.1% to 10% DMADDM exhibited a strong concentration-dependent anti-MMP effect, reaching 90% of inhibition on rhMMP-8 and rhMMP-9 at 5% DMADDM concentration. Dentin beams in medium with 5% DMADDM showed 34% decrease in elastic modulus (vs. 73% decrease for control), 3% loss of dry dentin mass (vs. 28% loss for control), and significantly less solubilized hydroxyproline when compared with control (p<0.05).
The new antibacterial monomer DMADDM was effective in inhibiting both soluble rhMMPs and matrix-bound human dentin MMPs. These results, together with previous studies showing that adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited biofilms without compromising dentin bond strength, suggest that DMADDM is promising for use in adhesives to prevent collagen degradation in hybrid layer and protect the resin-dentin bond.
Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that AgNPs exhibited a size effect on their adsorption and uptake by RBCs. The middle sized AgNPs50, compared with the smaller or bigger ones, showed the highest level of adsorption and uptake by the RBCs, suggesting an optimal size of ∼50 nm for passive uptake by RBCs. The toxic effects determined based on the hemolysis, membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme production were fairly size and dose dependent. In particular, the smallest sized AgNPs15 displayed a greater ability to induce hemolysis and membrane damage than AgNPs50 and AgNPs100. Such cytotoxicity induced by AgNPs should be attributed to the direct interaction of the nanoparticle with the RBCs, resulting in the production of oxidative stress, membrane injury, and subsequently hemolysis. Overall, the results suggest that particle size is a critical factor influencing the interaction between AgNPs and the RBCs.
We then evaluated different desert ecosystems responses using statistical analysis, and a threshold-delay model (TDM). TDM is an integrative framework for analysis of plant growth, precipitation thresholds, and plant functional type strategies that capture the nonlinear nature of plant responses to rainfall pulses. Our results showed that: (1) the growing season NDVIINT (INT stands for time-integrated) was largely correlated with the warm season (spring/summer) at our mildly-arid desert ecosystem (SD). The arid ecosystem (LZ) exhibited a different response, and the growing season NDVIINT depended highly on the previous year's fall/winter precipitation and ANPP. At the extremely arid site (JQ), the variability of growing season NDVIINT was equally correlated with the cool- and warm-season precipitation; (2) some parameters of threshold-delay differed among the three sites: while the response of NDVI to rainfall pulses began at about 5 mm for all the sites, the maximum thresholds in SD, LZ, and JQ were about 55, 35 and 30 mm respectively, increasing with an increase in mean annual precipitation. By and large, more previous year's fall/winter precipitation, and large rainfall events, significantly enhanced the growth of desert vegetation, and desert ecosystems should be much more adaptive under likely future scenarios of increasing fall/winter precipitation and large rainfall events. These results highlight the inherent complexity in predicting how desert ecosystems will respond to future fluctuations in precipitation.
By co-immunoprecipitation, two VP28-binding domains of VP24 were located at amino acid residues 46-61 and 148-160, while VP24-binding domain of VP28 was located at amino acid residues 31-45. These binding domains were further corroborated by peptide blocking assay, in which synthetic peptides spanning the binding domains were able to inhibit VP28-VP24 interaction, whereas same-size control peptides from non-binging regions did not.
Lentivirus-mediated NIBP shRNA knockdown significantly inhibited the growth/proliferation, invasion/migration, colony formation and xenograft tumorigenesis of breast (MDA-MB-231) or colon (HCT116) cancer cells. NIBP overexpression in HCT116 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. Mechanistically, NIBP knockdown in cancer cells inhibited cytokine-induced activation of NFκB luciferase reporter, thus sensitizing the cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis. Endogenous NIBP bound specifically to the phosphorylated IKK2 in a TNFα-dependent manner. NIBP knockdown transiently attenuated TNFα-stimulated phosphorylation of IKK2/p65 and degradation of IκBα. In contrast, NIBP overexpression enhanced TNFα-induced NFκB activation, thus inhibiting constitutive and TNFα-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our data identified important roles of NIBP in promoting tumorigenesis via NFκΒ signaling, spotlighting NIBP as a promising target in cancer therapeutic intervention.
T helper type 17 (Th17) cells are potent inducers of tissue inflammation. Many studies have shown that Th17 cells are major effector cells in the pathogenesis of many experimental autoimmune diseases and human inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One of our previous studies has shown that Gαq negatively controls the disease activity of RA. However, how Gαq controls the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease is not clear. Whether this effect is via the regulation of Th17 differentiation is still not known. We aimed to find out the role of Gαq in control of Th17 differentiation. We investigated the relationship between Gαq and Th17 in RA patients. We then investigated the mechanism of how Gαq regulated Th17 differentiation by using Gnaq(-/-) mice. We observed that the expression of Gαq was negatively associated with interleukin-17A expression in RA patients, indicating that Gαq negatively controlled the differentiation of Th17 cells. By using Gnaq(-/-) mice, we demonstrated that Gαq inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cell via regulating the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 to control the expression of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and RORα (RAR-related orphan receptor-α). These data suggest the possibility of targeting Gαq to develop a novel therapeutic regimen for autoimmune disease.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 3 March 2015; doi:10.1038/icb.2015.13.
This dearth of amphibian genomes greatly restricts genomic studies of amphibians and, more generally, our understanding of tetrapod genome evolution. To fill this gap, we provide the de novo genome of a Tibetan Plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri, and compare it to that of X. tropicalis and other vertebrates. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, a number similar to that of Xenopus. Although the genome size of Nanorana is considerably larger than that of Xenopus (2.3 vs. 1.5 Gb), most of the difference is due to the respective number of transposable elements in the two genomes. The two frogs exhibit considerable conserved whole-genome synteny despite having diverged approximately 266 Ma, indicating a slow rate of DNA structural evolution in anurans. Multigenome synteny blocks further show that amphibians have fewer interchromosomal rearrangements than mammals but have a comparable rate of intrachromosomal rearrangements. Our analysis also identifies 11 Mb of anuran-specific highly conserved elements that will be useful for comparative genomic analyses of frogs. The Nanorana genome offers an improved understanding of evolution of tetrapod genomes and also provides a genomic reference for other evolutionary studies.
Clinical data of all patients were recorded. Patients of both groups were followed up and the overall survival (OS) were compared retrospectively.
After culture and proliferation in vitro, the percentages of CD3+, CD3+CD8+, CD45RO+, CD28+, CD29+, CD8+CD28+ and CD3+CD16+/CD56+ cells increased markedly (p<0.05). The OS of the EAAL treatment group was longer than that of control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.060, HR=0.487, 95%CI 0.228~1.037). 1- to 3-year survival rates in EAAL treatment group were longer than those in control group, but there was still no significant difference (p>0.05). COX multivariate regression analysis showed that the number of chemotherapy cycles and the application of EAAL immunotherapy were independent prognostic factors for SCLC patients. The OS in females and chemotherapy≤6 cycles were obviously prolonged after EAAL immunotherapy.
In vitro induction and proliferation of EAAL is easy and biologically safe. Generally, EAAL adoptive immunotherapy can evidently prolong the OS of SCLC patients.
Using a TaqMan-based reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, the relationship between cir-ITCH and ESCC was analyzed in a total of 684 ESCC and paired adjacent non-tumor tissue samples from eastern and southern China. We found that cir-ITCH expression was usually low in ESCC compared to the peritumoral tissue. The functional relevance of cir-ITCH was further examined by biochemical assays. As sponge of miR-7, miR-17, and miR-214, cir-ITCH might increase the level of ITCH. ITCH hyper expression promotes ubiquitination and degradation of phosphorylated Dvl2, thereby inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These results indicate that cir-ITCH may have an inhibitory effect on ESCC by regulating the Wnt pathway.
62; 95% CI, 1.41-1.86 for the lowest income group vs the highest), whereas China showed the opposite (aOR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.56-0.60). In Hong Kong, poorer people were more likely to be admitted to public hospitals (aOR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.36-2.07), but less likely to be admitted to private ones (aOR = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.13-0.25). Strategies to improve equitable health care should consider the impact of socioeconomic deprivation on the use of health care resources, particularly among populations with prevalent multimorbidity.
The allele number per loci ranged from 3 to 14. The average gene diversity index and average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.5340 and 0.4817, respectively. A model based population structure analysis divided the germplasm resources into three subgroups: the relative species, the grasspea from Asia, and the grasspea from Europe and Africa. The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA cluster also demonstrated that Asian group was convincingly separated from the other group. The AMOVA result showed that the cultivated species was quite distinct from its relative species, however a low level of differentiation was revealed among their geographic origins. In all, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of L. sativus and its relatives.
Veterans with serious mental illness commonly use the internet, including to obtain health information, though use varies across demographic characteristics and clinical diagnosis.
Publication bias of the articles was evaluated using funnel plots and Begg test.
A total of 10 studies with 239 patients (339 eyes) from clinical studies were included. Central corneal thickness reduced significantly from 1 day to 1 week by 5.73 μm (95% CI, 1.75-9.70 μm; P=0.005), and a significant mean reduction of 5.89 μm also occurred from 1 day to 1 month (95% CI, 3.50-8.29 μm; P<0.001). No significant reduction was found between 1 week and 1 month (P=0.32).
Our meta-analysis demonstrated that most reduction of CCT occurred during the first week and remained thinner for 1 month. Further randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes, standardized outcome measurements, and different follow-up periods are warranted to find the precise change.
In this study, three miRNAs were predicted to putatively interact with PD1 rs10204525 polymorphic site of allele G. One of them, miRNA-4717, was demonstrated to allele-specifically affect luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner in cells transfected with vectors containing different rs10204525 alleles. In lymphocytes from chronic HBV patients withrs10204525 genotype GG, miR-4717 mimics significantly decreased PD-1 expression and increased (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ production. miR-4717 inhibitor significantly increased PD-1 expression and decreased TNF-α and IFN-γ production although not significantly. In lymphocytes from from chronic HBV patients with rs10204525 genotype AA, no similar effects were observed. miR-4717 levels in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with HBV-related chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and HCC were significantly decreased. In conclusion, miR-4717 may allele-specifically regulate PD-1 expression through interaction with the 3' UTR of PD1 mRNA, leading to the alteration of immune regulation and affecting the susceptibility and disease course of chronic HBV infection.
Western blotting was used to detect SOCS3 protein expression in PBMCs from groups of patients with the rs4969170 AA and AG genotypes.The state of IR in eight patients was evaluated by determining their HOMA-IR.
The pGL3-A, PGL3-G and pGL3-control vectors showed significantly different luciferase expression in the HepG2 cells (0.121 00 ± 0.022 07,0.027 00+/-0.012 49 and 0.043 33 ± 0.005 51; F =48.068, P=0.001) and in the Huh7 cell lines (0.164 70 ± 0.007 10,0.027 33 ± 0.017 04 and 0.033 67 ± 0.014 98; F =115.137, P=0.001). The expression of SOCS3 protein was significantly higher in the rs4969170 AA genotype group than in the AG genotype group (1.22 ± 0.40 vs. 0.30 ± 0.19; t =4.149, P=0.006).The IR index of patients with the rs4969170 AA genotype and the AG genotype was 4.11 ± 2.62 and 1.47 ± 1.01 respectively.There were three patients with IR in the rs4969170 AA genotype group and one in the rs4969170 AG group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two genotype groups (t=1.881, P=0.109).
The SOCS3 rs4969170 A haplotype may enhance transcriptional activity of the gene promoter to regulate gene expression, thereby increasing intracellular SOCS3 protein level and ultimately interfering with insulin signaling and causing IR in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
In intrinsically disordered proteins, slow transverse relaxation permits measurement of (3)J(C'C') and (3)J(HNH) couplings at very high precision, and impact of factors other than the intervening torsion angle on (3)J will be minimal, making these couplings exceptionally valuable structural reporters. Analysis of α-synuclein yields rather homogeneous widths of 69 ± 6° for the ϕ angle distributions and (3)J(C'C') values that agree well with those of a recent maximum entropy analysis of chemical shifts, J couplings, and (1)H-(1)H NOEs. Data are consistent with a modest (≤30%) population of the polyproline II region.
From I- to II- and III-graded ESCC, the positive expression of P27 was decreased, but the P73 was increased, showing a ladded change (P < .05). The oncogene and tumor suppressor gene protein expression were related to the differentiation and can be one of the factors of influencing prognosis. The oncogene and tumor suppressor gene protein expression was related to the prognostic factor, and thus, it is valuable for clinical treatment and judging prognosis to detect the expression of P27, FHIT, PTEN, and P73 in ESCC.
Such characteristics of influenza viruses present a grand challenge in devising therapeutic strategies to combat influenza virus infection. This review summarizes recent progress in designing small molecule inhibitors that target the drug-resistant influenza A virus M2 proton channels and highlights the contribution of mechanistic studies of proton conductance to drug discovery. The lessons learned throughout the course of M2 drug discovery might provide insights for designing inhibitors that target other therapeutically important ion channels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
2 months. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was applied to analyze the time of TgAb concentration decreased by more than 50% (T₅₀) and its influencing factors.
Compared with the previous TgAb levels, TgAb decreased significantly 2.3 months and 5.2 months after surgery or after ¹³¹I therapy, respectively (both P=0.000). The proportions of patients with TgAb decreased by more than 50% in each stage were 28.6%,33.3%, and 37.2%,respectively. The negative conversion ratios were 23.4%,48.9%, and 62.8%,respectively. MLR showed that only the interval between surgery and ¹³¹I therapy was correlated with T₅₀ (B=1.125, P=0.000).
The TgAb levels in DTC patients remarkably decrease after surgery and after ¹³¹I therapy. The interval between surgery and ¹³¹I therapy remarkably influences the lowering speed of TgAb levels. Prompt application of ¹³¹I therapy after surgery helps to lower TgAb levels.
SF-36 had moderate reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient exceeding 0.7, good fit on day 30). Statistical significant changes were observed in physical function (P < 0.01), body pain (P = 0.01), and general health (P < 0.01) domains. Spearman correlation coefficients for SF-36 with S-AI were -0.131~-0.515 (P < 0.05); SF-36 with VAS were -0.141~-0.273 (P < 0.05), indicating significant but moderate negative correlations between HRQoL and pain/anxiety. Overall, the application of SF-36 in assessing HRQoL is reluctantly suitable for young Chinese orthodontic patients in the early stage of orthodontic treatment. Early treatment-related pain and anxiety are important factors in HRQoL.
The HCC stages at diagnosis according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer staging system had no significant change. Treatment options of liver transplantation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and other therapy decreased while percutaneous local ablation and supportive care increased from P1 to P2. Options of surgical resection and systematic therapy had no significant change. Patient survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years significantly improved from P1 to P2. The treatments with increasing option trend had a higher magnitude of survival increase and vise versa.
Over the last 10 years, the patient survival had a significant increase which was mainly a result of the optimal therapeutic selections according to disease stages in this center. However, the proportion of patients diagnosed at early stages of HCC remained low and did not increase, a result calling for implementing surveillance system for at risk patients.
Following the CT scan, all patients underwent (11)C-acetate dynamic PET imaging. A three-compartment irreversible dual-input model was applied to the lesion time activity curves (TACs) to estimate the kinetic rate constants K1-k3, vascular fraction (VB) and the coefficient α representing the relative hepatic artery (HA) contribution to the hepatic blood supply on lesions and non-lesion liver tissue. The parameter Ki (=K1×k3/(k2 + k3)) was calculated to evaluate the local hepatic metabolic rate of acetate (LHMAct). The lesions were further classified by discriminant analysis with all the above parameters.
K1 and lesion to non-lesion standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (T/L) were found to be the parameters best characterizing the differences among well-differentiated HCC, poorly-differentiated HCC and benign lesions in stepwise discriminant analysis. With discriminant functions consisting of these two parameters, the accuracy of lesion prediction was 87.5% for well-differentiated HCC, 50% for poorly-differentiated HCC and 66.7% for benign lesions. The classification was much better than that with SUV and T/L, where the corresponding classification accuracy of the three kinds of lesions was 57.1%, 33.3% and 44.4%.
(11)C-acetate kinetic parameter K1 could improve the identification of HCC from benign lesions in combination with T/L in discriminant analysis. The discriminant analysis using static and kinetic parameters appears to be a very helpful method for clinical liver masses diagnosis and staging.
Questionnaire was carried out to collect data on treatment history, demographics and possible risk factors. Chi-square test and logistic regression were conducted using SPSS in this study. As the result, 99 active TB patients were identified and the recurrence rate was 16.67% and irregular medicine and smoking were the causes of the recurrence. The retreatment TB patients with sputum smear and/or culture positive in this study had higher recurrence rate and health education work on regular medication and smoking should be strengthened.
Additionally, the protective effect of the treatments were confirmed histopathologically and the expression of TNF-α and NF-κB in the rat liver was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1A1 mRNA was determined by quantitative RT-PCR.
GP treatments at oral doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg per day significantly decreased the levels of serum AST and ALT (P<0.05, P<0.01), especially at the dose of 800 mg/kg per day. To a similar extent, GP at 800 mg/kg per day reduced the levels of BG (4.19±0.47, P<0.01), TG (80.08±10.05, P<0.01), TC (134.38±16.39, P<0.01) and serum insulin (42.01±5.04, P<0.01). The expression of TNF-α and NF-κB measured by immunohistochemistry was significantly reduced by GPs in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression of PPARγ and CYP4501A1 mRNA, as measured using quantitative real-time PCR, were significantly down-regulated by GPs. Moreover, GPs decreased the infiltration of liver fats and reversed the histopathological changes in a dose-dependent manner.
This study suggests that GPs have a protective effect against T2DM-NAFLD by down-regulating the expression of TNF-α and NF-κB proteins, and PPARγ and CYP4501A1 mRNAs.
In this study, we showed that stress promotes the release of the Th1 cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 and the Th17 cytokine IL-17 of splenic naive CD4+ T cells. This suggests that stress promotes the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells to Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells. Knockout strategies verified that TLR2 might modulate the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, our data suggest that chronic stress induces immune suppression by targeting TLR2 and p38 MAPK in naive CD4+ T cells. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
A wedged type-II KTP crystal inside the NOPA is used for implementing frequency-down-conversion of the pump field to generate the optical entangled state and achieving the dispersion compensation between the pump and the subharmonic waves. The EPR entangled state of light with quantum correlations of 8.4 dB for both amplitude and phase quadratures are experimentally produced by a single NOPA under the pump power of 75 mW.
Models were established after 28 days and then the normal and model groups were given normal saline (0.09 g/kg), Liuweibuqi group was given Liuweibuqi capsule (0.35 g/kg), Jinshuibao group was given Jinshuibao capsules (0.495 g/kg), and the spleen group was given spleen aminopeptidase (0.33 mg/kg), once a day for 30 days. Changes in symptoms, signs, and lung histology were observed. Lung function was measured with a spirometer. Serum cytokines were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and changes in the JAK/STAT pathway, MMP-9, and MMPs inhibitor 1 (TIMP1) were detected by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and western blotting, respectively.
Compared with the normal group, lung tissue was damaged, and lung function was reduced in the model control group. Additionally, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and IL-6 were higher, while IL-4 and IL-10 were lower in the model control group than those in the normal group. The expressions of JAK1, STAT3, p-STAT3, and MMP-9 mRNA and protein in lung tissue were higher, and TIMP1 mRNA and protein was lower in the model group compared with the normal group. After treatment, compared with the model group, the expression of inflammatory cytokines was lower in each treatment group, and expressions of JAK/STAT pathway, MMPs were lower. Compared with the positive control groups, the Jinshuibao and spleen aminopeptidase groups, lung function was better, and JAK1, STAT3, and p-STAT3 protein were lower and TIMP1 was higher in the Liuweibuqi group.
Liuweibuqi capsules can improve the symptoms of COPD possibly by regulating the expression of the JAK1/STAT3 pathway and MMP9/TIMP1.
It is very important to separate, fit and extract spectral feature lines in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, which is the cornerstone of spectral feature recognition and subsequent elements concentrations inversion research. In order to realize effective separation, fitting and extraction of spectral feature lines in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, the original parameters for spectral lines fitting before iteration were analyzed and determined. The spectral feature line of' chromium (Cr I : 427.480 nm) in fly ash gathered from a coal-fired power station, which was overlapped with another line(FeI: 427.176 nm), was separated from the other one and extracted by using damped least squares method. Based on Gauss-Newton iteration, damped least squares method adds damping factor to step and adjust step length dynamically according to the feedback information after each iteration, in order to prevent the iteration from diverging and make sure that the iteration could converge fast. Damped least squares method helps to obtain better results of separating, fitting and extracting spectral feature lines and give more accurate intensity values of these spectral feature lines: The spectral feature lines of chromium in samples which contain different concentrations of chromium were separated and extracted. And then, the intensity values of corresponding spectral lines were given by using damped least squares method and least squares method separately. The calibration curves were plotted, which showed the relationship between spectral line intensity values and chromium concentrations in different samples. And then their respective linear correlations were compared. The experimental results showed that the linear correlation of the intensity values of spectral feature lines and the concentrations of chromium in different samples, which was obtained by damped least squares method, was better than that one obtained by least squares method. And therefore, damped least squares method was stable, reliable and suitable for separating, fitting and extracting spectral feature lines in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.
2 was harvested on commercial maturity and stored at 0-1 °C after the fruit was treated by water (control), 80 mg L(-1)ClO2 (ClO2), 0.5 μL L(-1)1-MCP (1-MCP), or combination treatment of 80 mg L(-1) ClO2 with either 0.1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP (0.1 1-MCP+ ClO2) or 0.5 μL L(-1) 1-MCP (0.5 1-MCP+ ClO2). During storage, respiration, ethylene production, phenolics content, antioxidative activity, weight changes, decay of the fruit and kernel traits of acid value, peroxide value,free fatty were measured. All treatments decreased postharvest respiration intensity in different degrees and inhibited ethylene production peak. ClO2 increased the total phenol and flavonoid content of the green fruit compared with other treatments and the control (P < 0.05), but not did the total antioxidant activity for this treatment. After 42-day storage, ClO2 remained higher fresh weight and lower decay index than control, while 1-MCP increased the fruit decay index. Final acid values of kernel from ClO2, control and 0.1 1-MCP+ ClO2 were not different from their initial values, which from 0.5 1-MCP increased. Final peroxide value for kernel from ClO2 showed no change during storage but increased at least 1.0-fold for other treatments. ClO2 preserved 99.9 % of initial free fatty acid, similar to that for the control (99.8 %), whereas 0.5 1-MCP preserved only 95.7 %. ClO2 is of potential in decay retardation and kernel traits maintenance of green walnut fruit, whereas the 1-MCP has a negative effect for decay control on walnut.
The pathological morphological changes in myocardial fiber was analyzed by HE staining. The expression of PKCα, HSP70 and type III collagen were analyzed by Western blot.
Compared with the control group, the expressions of PKCα, HSP70 and type III collagen in diabetic rats were significantly increased (P<0.05), accompanied by the disordered arrangement of myocardial cells, which were dramatically reversed by H2S treatment (P<0.05).
H2S could reduce myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats, which is related to the inhibition of PKCα and HSP70 expression.
The proposed imaging concept provides the unique ability to achieve super resolution for real-time data when illuminated by broadband electromagnetic waves, without the harsh requirements such as near- field scanning, mechanical scanning, or antenna arrays. We expect the imaging methodology to make breakthroughs in super-resolution imaging in microwave, terahertz, optical, and ultrasound regimes.
Gentiana scabra bage treatment can reduce the content of hepatic type III and type I collagen protein significantly in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis, thereby, playing the role against hepatic fibrosis.
The echelle spectroscopy with high resolution and wide spectral range was used as the spectral separation device, and the intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) as the spectral detection device in the experiment. The characteristic line at 405. 78 nrn was chosen as the analysis line to measure Pb concentration. Fe I : 404. 58 line was chosen as the internal standard. Pre-experiment was carried out to confirm the appropriate condition. Under the laser energy of 128. 5 mJ, the delay time of 2. 5 tps, and the gate width of 3 ps, it was determined that with the addition of Pb to the sample in the range of 0 and 25 000 mg . kg-1, there wasn't self-absorption. There was a good linear relationship between the intensity of the spectral line of 405. 78 nm and the addition of Pb. The appropriate concentration of Pb added into the sample for analysis was determined by this series of samples. On this basis, four samples were prepared with three parallel samples for each sample in order to verify the repeatability and reliability of the method, i. e. 5 000, 10 000, 15 000, 20 000 mg . kg-1 Pb was added into the original sample. The results were compared with the result of ICP-MS. The twelve samples' relative errors were between -24. 6% and 17. 6%. The average result was 43 069 mg . kg-1 with the relative error -2. 44%.
57%of the number of first authors. A total of 2304 (92.60%) out of 2488 papers were published by co-authors and the degree of cooperation was 4.64. One hundred and eighty-four papers (7.40%) were published by only one author. There were 64 (3.60%) core authors who published 324 papers (13.02%). Nine hundred and sixty-eight papers (38.91%) were published by research institutes, 825 papers (33.16%) by universities, and 272 papers (10.93%) by affiliated hospitals of medical universities. There were 19 productive institutions publishing 838 papers (33.68%), in which Beijing ranked first with 300 papers (12.06%).
The journal has a large number of authors, extensive institutions, a wide regional distribution, a high cooperation rate, and a strong ability to attract funded papers. Research institutes and universities are the main sources of papers in the journal.
In the two treatment groups, pulmonary functional parameters, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 25% of forced vital capacity (FEF25), forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (FEF50), and forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF75) were determined. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were used for detection of the serum oxidative stress indexes, NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidative capacity (TAOC) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents. Westergren's method was used for determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) was detected with a 7060 full-automatic biochemical analyzer (Hitachi, Japan).
The clinical therapeutic effect in the XFC group was significantly superior to that in the Salazopyrin group (P < 0.01). Compared with the normal control group, FEV1, MVV, PEF, FEF50, FEF75, SOD, CAT, TAOC, IL-4, IL-10 were significantly lower, and NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, ROS, RNS, MDA, IL-1β, TNF-α, ESR, and Hs-CRP significantly higher in patients with AS (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Compared with before treatment, FEV1, MVV, PEF, FEF50, FEF75, SOD, CAT, TAOC, IL-4, and IL-10 were significantly increased, and NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, ROS, RNS, MDA, IL-1β, TNF-α, ESR, CRP, visual analog scales (VAS), Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease active index, Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index, and Bath ankylosing spondylitis global index significantly decreased in the two treatment groups after treatment (P <. 0.01 or P < 0.05), with significant differences between the XFC and Salazopyrin groups (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Spearman correlation analysis indicated that FEV1, MWVV, PEF, FEF50, and FEF75 were positively correlated with SOD, CAT, TAOC, IL-4, and IL-10, and were negatively correlated with NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, ROS, RNS, MDA, IL-13, TNF-α, ESR, and CRP.
Patients with AS have local pathologic changes in the spinal cord and other joints. They also have decreased pulmonary function, which is negatively correlated with the NF-κB-iNOS-NO signaling pathway, oxidative indexes, and inflammatory factors. XFC improves rigidity and pain in spinal joints and other symptoms, laboratory indexes, and pulmonary function. The mechanism is possibly related to inhibition of the NF-KB-iNOS-NO signaling pathway.
e., body height and weight, were collected during the baseline interview, and breast cancer incidence, mortality and other related outcome information were obtained by follow-up every two years and the related health condition database information were collected every year. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95%CI (confidence interval) between the level of hsCRP at baseline interview and breast cancer incidence adjusted for age group, body mass index (BMI), marital status (married and single) and tobacco smoking (smokers and non-smokers) when appropriate.
By Dec 31, 2011, a total of 17 402 females were enrolled in the cohort. There were 85 286 person-years of follow-up with a mean follow-up period of (58.81 ± 4.52) months. A total of 75 incident breast cancer cases were collected. Subjects with the highest level (>3 mg/L) of hsCRP at baseline interview were associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted HR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.03-3.15) compared with those with the lowest level (<1 mg/L).
Elevated levels of hsCRP at baseline interview may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-diabetic females. Further follow-up and etiological exploration will help to evaluate the association between the hsCRP level and the risk of breast cancer more reliably.
All specimens were randomly divided into five groups according to the antibodies. Each group contained two subgroups (n = 6). Immunoreactivity of each subgroup was visualized with 3, 3-diaminobenzidine solution or fluorescein isothiocyanate and observed under microscopy respectively. Molars were sectioned into slices. The slices were divided into two groups according to superficial or deep dentin and pulverized to fine powder. After dentin protein was extracted, the concentrations of MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9 were detected by using fluorescent microsphere immunoassay.
Immunohistochemical staining revealed that MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9 were highly concentrated in the deep dentin. However, intense immunoreactivities of MMP-2, 8, 9 were identified in a 6-10 µm wide zone adjacent to the dentino-enamel junction. The content of MMP-1 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.037±0.025) and (0.433±0.089) ng/mg. The content of MMP-2 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.445±0.115) and (2.730±0.712) ng/mg. The content of MMP-3 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.071±0.069) and (0.460±0.108) ng/mg. The content of MMP-8 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.586±0.246) and (6.159±0.948) ng/mg. The content of MMP-9 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.384±0.185) and (1.460±0.251) ng/mg. The concentrations of all tested MMP were significantly higher in deep dentin than those in superficial dentin (P < 0.05).
There are five types of MMP contained in human coronal dentin, and the distribution of MMP shows a decreasing trend from the deep dentin to the superficial dentin.
L200F/D215K was characterized for its highest catalytic efficiency and compared with that of L200F.
The Vmax of L200F/D215K was 36.92 U/mg, 1.24 times as that of L200F. The optimum reaction temperature of L200F/D215K was 37 degrees C, 2 degrees C higher than that of L200F. The optimum pH of L200F/D215K was 7.5, the same as that of L200F. The half-life time of L200F/D215K under optimum temperature was 4.16 h and was 1.12 times as that of L200F. Both L200F/D215K and L200F had good resistance to organic solvents and metal ions.
Through the spatial structure transformation, the enzymatic activity was increased, and the enzymology properties was optimized.
In addition, microvessel density (MVD) was calculated by immunohistochemistry after SCI. We also investigate the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression level by western blot after drug treatment. The results showed that BBB scores and walking test were increased in atorvastatin plus BMSC group compared to single atorvastatin and BMSC groups (P < 0.05). In addition, MVD also significantly increased in combination group compared to single treatment group. Compared to sole drug, VEGF and BDNF expression were significantly up-regulated in atorvastatin combination with BMSC group (P < 0.05). These results imply that the combined use of atorvastatin and BMSC treatment may represent a promising strategy for clinically applicable pharmacological therapy for initiation of neuroprotection after SCI.
The BMD of neck hip, lumbar spine (L(2-4)), and total hip were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Through the created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and DNA sequencing methods, the g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A have been investigated. As for g.18873C>T, our data indicated that subjects with CC genotype have significantly higher BMD value than those of CT and TT genotypes (all P values < 0.05). As for g.27522G>A, the BMD values of subjects with GG genotype were significantly higher than those of GA and AA genotypes (all P values < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the OPG g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A genetic polymorphisms are associated with the decreased risk for osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.