Fang Li - Capital Medical University

Fang Li
Are you Fang Li?

Claim your profile, edit publications, add additional information:

Contact Details

Fang Li
Capital Medical University

Publications Authored By Fang Li

Nanoscale Res Lett
Nanoscale Res Lett 2016 Dec 16;11(1):204. Epub 2016 Apr 16.
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518060, People's Republic of China.

Graphene coating is receiving discernable attention to overcome the significant challenges associated with large volume changes and poor conductivity of silicon nanoparticles as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. In this work, a tremella-like nanostructure of silicon@void@graphene-like nanosheets (Si@void@G) composite was successfully synthesized and employed as a high-performance anode material with high capacity, cycling stability, and rate capacity. The Si nanoparticles were first coated with a sacrificial SiO2 layer; then, the nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene-like nanosheets were formed on the surface of Si@SiO2 through a one-step carbon-thermal method, and the SiO2 layer was removed subsequently to obtain the Si@void@G composite.Read More

The performance improvement is mainly attributed to the good conductivity of N-doped graphene-like nanosheets and the unique design of tremella nanostructure, which provides a void space to allow for the Si nanoparticles expanding upon lithiation. The resulting electrode delivers a capacity of 1497.3 mAh g(-1) at the current density of 0.2 A g(-1) after 100 cycles.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 Jul;41(7):580-2
From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine, and †Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

A 48-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of right lower extremity edema. Clinical examination only showed right lower limb swelling. Routine laboratory examination revealed no abnormal results.Read More

Abdominal ultrasonography identified uterine leiomyoma and soft tissue masses. An abdominal CT demonstrated a continuous mass extending from the right internal and external iliac vein into the common iliac vein and inferior vena cava. To distinguish the mass from malignancy, the patient underwent PET/CT scan which showed increased FDG activity in the mass. However, histopathological examination proved the mass to be IV leiomyomatosis.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 Jul;41(7):587-9
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

A 67-year-old man with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma underwent both FDG and C-acetate PET/CT sequentially on different days. There was increased FDG activity only in L1 vertebral body, but there was diffuse abnormal C-acetate activity throughout the skeletal system. After the successful therapy, the patient who was on remission clinically underwent follow-up PET/CT scans.Read More

Interestingly, L1 remained to have elevated FDG, although with less intensity. In contrast, there was no abnormal C-acetate activity anywhere in the body. The patient remained in remission clinically.

Cytokine 2016 Jul 12;83:92-8. Epub 2016 Apr 12.
Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Science, Dalian Medical University, Lvshun south Road, Dalian 116044, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A), a member of tumor necrosis factor family, recognized as a ligand of death receptor 3 (DR3) and decoy receptor 3 (DcR3). The interaction of TL1A and DR3 may participate in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our previous results showed that high concentrations of TL1A could be found in synovial and serum in RA patients, and it was correlated with disease severity.Read More

In addition, TL1A could promote Th17 differentiation induced by TGF-β and IL-6 and increased the production of IL-17A. In the present study, we found that TL1A could promote the expression of IL-6 on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA patients via NF-κB and JNK signaling pathway. TL1A-stimulated FLS increased the percentage of Th17 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in RA via the production of IL-6, a critical cytokine involved in the differentiation of Th17. Moreover, the blocking of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) decreased TL1A-stimulated IL-6 production by RA FLS. Our results suggest that TL1A was capable of acting on RA FLS to elevate IL-6 expression, which promoted the production of Th17. More importantly, we showed that TL1A could influence RA FLS through binding to TNFR2 rather than DR3 on FLS, which indicated that the treatment of TNF inhibitors not only blocked the TNF but also suppressed the TL1A in RA patients.

Bioresour. Technol.
Bioresour Technol 2016 Jul 2;211:751-8. Epub 2016 Apr 2.
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China; Textile Pollution Controlling Engineering Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection, Shanghai 201620, China.

Forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable interest for water and energy related applications in recent years. Biofouling behavior and performance of cellulose triacetate (CTA) forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification via polydopamine (PD) coating and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting (PD-g-PEG) in a submerged osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) were investigated in this work. The modified membranes exhibited lower flux decline than the pristine one in OMBR, confirming that the bioinspired surface modification improved the antifouling ability of the CTA FO membrane.Read More

The result showed that the decline of membrane flux related to the increase of the salinity and MLSS concentration of the mixed liquid. It was concluded that the antifouling ability of modified membranes ascribed to the change of surface morphology in addition to the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity. The bioinspired surface modifications might improve the anti-adhesion for the biopolymers and biocake.

APMIS 2016 Jul 22;124(7):611-8. Epub 2016 Apr 22.
Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, China.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. Because it forms biofilms, which protect against host immune attack and increase resistance to conventional antibiotics, mucoid P. aeruginosa is nearly impossible to eradicate.Read More

Moreover, mucoid conversion of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to poor outcomes. This conversion is mainly due to mucA gene mutation, which is thought to be induced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the reactive oxygen species they release. Ambroxol, a mucolytic agent with antioxidant characteristics, is used clinically, and this compound has recently been demonstrated to possess anti-biofilm properties. In this study, we found that ambroxol inhibits the H2 O2 -mediated conversion of P. aeruginosa from a non-mucoid to a mucoid phenotype, an effect that is due to its antioxidant property against H2 O2 . Furthermore, the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms was increased in vitro when used in combination with ambroxol.

Int. J. Cardiol.
Int J Cardiol 2016 Jul 14;215:186-92. Epub 2016 Apr 14.
Department of Pediatric Cardiovasology, Children's Medical Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Institute of Pediatrics of Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

To explore the circadian rhythm of neurally mediated syncope (NMS).
411 patients with NMS (165 males and 246 females aged from 3 to 68years) were included in the study. All subjects underwent head-up tilt test (HUTT) and were carefully asked about the number of syncopal attacks and the periods (morning 06:00am-12:00am, afternoon 12:00am-18:00pm, evening 18:00pm-24:00pm, night 00:00am-06:00am) in which episodes occurred in.Read More

(1) Syncopal attacks of all patients tended to occur in the morning (P=0.010); there was a statistical difference in the frequency of episodes in four periods through the day in HUTT positive patients (P=0.001), but there was no significant change of episodes within a day in HUTT negative group; and there was no statistical difference in circadian syncope distribution between HUTT negative and HUTT positive group or among patients with different HUTT responses (the orthostatic hypotension (OH) and orthostatic hypertension (OHT) patients were excluded). (2) The syncopal attacks of morning hours occurred more in males than females, but the episodes in the evening occurred more in females than males (P=0.034). (3) The younger the patients were, the chance of syncopal attacks in the morning increased; the older the patients were, they may have more episodes at night (P<0.001).
A distinct circadian variation in the frequency of syncopal episodes exists, with a peak in the morning, and there were statistical differences in circadian rhythm of syncopal episodes regarding gender and age.

Mol Med Rep
Mol Med Rep 2016 Jul 17;14(1):865-73. Epub 2016 May 17.
Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001, P.R. China.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is critical in the occurrence and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been found to be the third gaseous signaling molecule with anti‑ER stress effects. Previous studies have shown that H2S acts as a potent inhibitor of fibrosis in the heart of diabetic rats.Read More

This study aimed to demonstrate whether H2S exhibits protective effects on the myocardium of streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats by suppressing ER stress. In this study, diabetic models were established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 40 mg/kg STZ. The STZ‑treated mice were divided into three groups, and subsequently treated with normal saline, 30 µmol/kg or 100 µmol/kg NaHS, i.p., respectively, for 8 weeks. The extent of myocyte hypertrophy was measured using hematoxylin and eosin‑stained sections and collagen components were investigated using immunostaining. The expression of glucose-regulated protein (Grp78), C/EBP‑homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase‑12 in the heart tissue of each group was detected by western blot analysis. It was demonstrated that H2S could improve myocardial hypertrophy and myocardial collagen deposition in diabetic rats. In addition, it could reduce the expression of Grp78, caspase-12 and CHOP. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that H2S suppresses STZ‑induced ER stress in the hearts of rats, and it may serve as a novel cardioprotective agent for DC.

Biosens Bioelectron
Biosens Bioelectron 2016 Jun 28;80:208-14. Epub 2016 Jan 28.
College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong 266109, China. Electronic address:

Owing to the intrinsic importance of nucleic acid as bio-targets, the development of isothermal and ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor is very essential for biological studies and medical diagnostics. Herein, the autonomous cascade DNA replication strategy was effectively married with the enzyme/gold nanoparticle-based post-amplification strategy to promote the detection performance toward target DNA. A hairpin DNA probe (HP) is designed that consists of an overhang at 3'-end as the recognition unit for target DNA, a recognition site for nicking endonuclease, and an alkane spacer to terminate polymerization reaction.Read More

The autonomous DNA replication-scission-displacement reaction operated by the nicking endonuclease/KF polymerase induced the autocatalytic opening of HP, which was then specifically bound by the enzyme/gold nanoparticles for further dual-signal amplification toward target-related sensing events. A low detection limit of 0.065fM with an excellent selectivity toward target DNA could be achieved. The proposed biosensor could be also easily regenerated for target detection. The developed biosensor creates an opportunity for the effective coupling of the target replication with post-amplification strategies and thus opens a promising avenue for the detection of nucleic acid with low abundance in bioanalysis and clinical biomedicine.

Int. Immunopharmacol.
Int Immunopharmacol 2016 Jun 16;35:323-6. Epub 2016 Apr 16.
Basic Medical College, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, China. Electronic address:

Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) larvae in raw or inadequately cooked meat can cause chronic infections in a wide range of hosts including humans. During the development inside the skeletal muscles, T.Read More

spiralis larvae infect muscle cells accompanying with the infiltration of host inflammatory cells, eventually create a new type of cell known as nurse cell developing a surrounding vascular network to support the larvae development. Controlling of host inflammatory responses and angiogenesis influences both the nurse cell differentiation and the parasite larvae development. CXCL8 is a chemokine that acts on G-protein coupled receptors, of which activation contributes to fibrosis and angiogenesis. CXCL8(3-73)K11R/G31P (G31P) has been reported as a CXCL8 analogue. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of G31P in inflammatory responses and the development of T. spiralis larvae in muscle tissues of mice infected with T. spiralis. The level of inflammatory factors and the morphology of T. spiralis larvae in infected tissues were investigated through ELISA and electron-microscopy analysis. G31P up-regulated IFN-γ and down-regulated CXCL8 level, and impaired the encapsulation of T. spiralis larvae in vivo. The results showed that G31P influenced the development of T. spiralis larvae in muscle tissues.

Oncol. Rep.
Oncol Rep 2016 Jun 15;35(6):3178-84. Epub 2016 Apr 15.
Department of General Surgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050031, P.R. China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MicroRNA-214 (miR-214) and microRNA-218 (miR-218) have shown the function of tumor suppressors in various types of human cancers. However, the biological functions of miR-214 and miR-218 in breast cancer have not been elucidated completely.Read More

The present study evaluated the expression and biological function of miR-214 and miR-218 in human breast cancer. Our results revealed that the expression of miR-214 and miR-218 were significantly decreased in breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent tissues. The aberrant expression of miR-214 and miR-218 were negatively associated with Ki-67, and the miR-218 expression was positively associated with progesterone receptor (PR) in breast cancer tissues. In vitro, the cell proliferation and migration were decreased, cell apoptosis was induced, and cell cycle was also disturbed in miR-214 or miR-218 overexpressed breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that miR-214 and miR-218 function as tumor suppressors in breast cancer, and may become biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer.

J. Bone Miner. Res.
J Bone Miner Res 2016 Jun 13. Epub 2016 Jun 13.
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250021, China.

Osteopetrosis (OMIM: 611497), literally "stone bone," is a group of inherited bone disorders characterized by increased skeletal mass due to defective osteoclast function. A patient who reported a history of frequent fractures, weakness and fatigue was admitted to our hospital in 2011. The patient presented with the typical features of osteopetrosis: fractures after minor trauma, early tooth loss, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and a generalized increase in bone mineral density (BMD).Read More

Aside from his father's complaint of excessive tooth loss, his mother, two sisters, son, and daughter were healthy. Blood samples of the family members were drawn for genetic analyses. The entire coding region and adjacent splice sites of the PLEKHM1 gene were sequenced. One mutation, a heterozygous deletion mutation in exon 11 (c.3051_3052delCA), was identified in the patient but not in his relatives. The mutation leads to a translation product with a highly impaired Rubicon homology domain. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses using HEK293 cells showed that overexpression of a PLEKHM1 CA-deletion mutant resulted in a dramatic decrease in the interaction between PLEKHM1 and the small GTPase Rab7 compared to wildtype PLEKHM1. The normal processes of endocytosis and autophagy were disturbed in cells expressing the mutant (transfected HEK293 and U937 cells), as indicated by EGFR degradation and an altered LC3-I/II ratio, respectively, which may lead to a defect in osteoclast function. A four-year follow-up study of the patient showed that the PLEKHM1-dependent osteopetrosis was relatively malignant, with significant symptoms of pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Dis. Aquat. Org.
Dis Aquat Organ 2016 Jun;120(1):17-26
Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources, Fujian Collaborative Innovation Center for Exploitation and Utilization of Marine Biological Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, PR China.

We report the preliminary characterization of a new iridovirus detected in diseased Cherax quadricarinatus collected from a farm in Fujian, China. Transmission electron microscopy identified numerous icosahedral particles (~150 nm in diameter) in the cytoplasm and budding from the plasma membrane of hematopoietic tissue cells. SDS-PAGE of virions semi-purified from the hemolymph of moribund C.Read More

quadricarinatus identified 24 proteins including a 50 kDa major capsid protein (MCP). By summing the sizes of DNA restriction endonuclease fragments, the viral genome was estimated to be ~150 kb in length. A 34 amino acid sequence deduced from a 103 bp MCP gene region amplified by PCR using degenerate primers targeted to MCP gene regions conserved among iridoviruses and chloriridoviruses was most similar (55% identity) to Sergestid iridovirus. Based on virion morphology, protein composition, DNA genome length, and MCP sequence relatedness, the virus identified has tentatively been named Cherax quadricarinatus iridovirus (CQIV). In addition, experimental infection of healthy C. quadricarinatus, Procambarus clarkii, and Litopenaeus vannamei with CQIV caused the same disease and high mortality, suggesting that CQIV poses a potential threat to cultured and wild crayfish and shrimp.

Am. J. Hum. Genet.
Am J Hum Genet 2016 Jun 16. Epub 2016 Jun 16.
Institute of Genomic Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China; National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20982, USA. Electronic address:

Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies in humans. Oligodontia, a severe form of tooth agenesis, is genetically and phenotypically a heterogeneous condition. Although significant efforts have been made, the genetic etiology of dental agenesis remains largely unknown.Read More

In the present study, we performed whole-exome sequencing to identify the causative mutations in Chinese families in whom oligodontia segregates with dominant inheritance. We detected a heterozygous missense mutation (c.632G>A [p.Arg211Gln]) in WNT10B in all affected family members. By Sanger sequencing a cohort of 145 unrelated individuals with non-syndromic oligodontia, we identified three additional mutations (c.569C>G [p.Pro190Arg], c.786G>A [p.Trp262(∗)], and c.851T>G [p.Phe284Cys]). Interestingly, analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed that mutations in WNT10B affect the development of permanent dentition, particularly the lateral incisors. Furthermore, a functional assay demonstrated that each of these mutants could not normally enhance the canonical Wnt signaling in HEPG2 epithelial cells, in which activity of the TOPFlash luciferase reporter was measured. Notably, these mutant WNT10B ligands could not efficiently induce endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. Our findings provide the identification of autosomal-dominant WNT10B mutations in individuals with oligodontia, which increases the spectrum of congenital tooth agenesis and suggests attenuated Wnt signaling in endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

The hamster is a useful model of human reproductive biology because its oocytes are similar to those in humans in terms of size and structural stability. In the present study we evaluated fecundity rate, ovarian follicular numbers, ova production, mitochondrial number, structure and function, and cytoplasmic lamellae (CL) in young (2-4 months) and old (12-18 months) Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Young hamsters had higher fertilisation rates and larger litters than old hamsters (100 vs 50% and 9.Read More

3 ± 0.6 vs 5.5 ± 0.6, respectively). Ovarian tissue from superovulated animals showed a 46% decrease in preantral follicles in old versus young hamsters. There was a 39% reduction in MII oocyte number in old versus young hamsters. Young ova had no collapsed CL, whereas old ova were replete with areas of collapsed, non-luminal CL. Eighty-nine per cent of young ova were expanded against the zona pellucida with a clear indentation at the polar body, compared with 58.64% for old ova; the remaining old ova had increased perivitelline space with no polar body indentation. Higher reactive oxygen species levels and lower mitochondrial membrane potentials were seen in ova from old versus young hamsters. A significant decrease in mitochondrial number (36%) and lower frequency of clear mitochondria (31%) were observed in MII oocytes from old versus young hamster. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the theory of oocyte depletion during mammalian aging, and suggest that morphological changes of mitochondria and CL in oocytes may be contributing factors in the age-related decline in fertility rates.

Emerg Microbes Infect
Emerg Microbes Infect 2016 22;5(6):e62. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
Department of Diarrheal Disease, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

Typhoid fever remains a severe public health problem in developing countries. The emergence of resistant typhoid, particularly multidrug-resistant typhoid infections, highlights the necessity of monitoring the resistance characteristics of this invasive pathogen. In this study, we report a typhoid fever outbreak caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains with an ACSSxtT pattern.Read More

Resistance genes conferring these phenotypes were harbored by a large conjugative plasmid, which increases the threat of Salmonella Typhi and thus requires close surveillance for dissemination of strains containing such genes.

In this work, three different kinds of acridinium ester (AE) functionalized carbon nanomaterials, including AE functionalized carbon nanoparticles (AE-CNPs), AE functionalized graphene oxide (AE-GO) and AE functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (AE-MCNTs), were synthesized for the first time via a simple, general and non-covalent strategy. AE molecules were assembled on the surface of carbon nanomaterials by electrostatic interaction, π-π stacking interaction and amide bond. The synthesized AE-CNPs, AE-GO and AE-MCNTs with 5.Read More

0×10-8 mol·L-1 of synthetic AE concentration, which was very low compared with other CL reagents such as luminol, N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) and lucigenin at the concentration of 3.3×10-4-5.0×10-6 mol·L-1 used for the synthesis of CL functionalized nanomaterials, exhibited outstanding chemiluminescence (CL) activity and good stability. It was found that carbon nanomaterials as nanosized platforms could efficiently immobilize AE molecules and facilitate the formation of OH• and O2•-, leading to strong light emission. Moreover, the CL intensity of AE-GO was the highest, which was about 8.7 and 3.7 times higher than that of AE-CNPs and AE-MCNTs, respectively. This mainly resulted from a difference in amount of adsorbed AE molecules on the surface of different carbon nanomaterials. Additionally, the prepared AE-CNPs demonstrated excitation-dependent fluorescence property and good fluorescence stability against photo-bleaching. Based on the excellent CL and special fluorescence properties of AE-CNPs, dual-mode array strategy has been proposed for the first time and seven kinds of transition metal ions could be successfully discriminated.

J. Nucl. Med.
J Nucl Med 2016 May 21;57(5):715-20. Epub 2016 Jan 21.
Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

Preoperative localization of insulinoma is a clinical dilemma. We aimed to investigate whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) PET/CT with (68)Ga-NOTA-MAL-cys(40)-exendin-4 ((68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4) is efficient in detecting insulinoma.
In our prospective cohort study, patients with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia were enrolled.Read More

CT, MRI, endoscopic ultrasound, and (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT were done according to standard protocols. GLP-1R PET/CT was performed 30-60 min after the injection of (68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4. The gold standard for diagnosis was the histopathologic results after surgery.
Of 52 recruited patients, 43 patients with histopathologically proven insulinomas were included for the imaging studies. Nine patients did not undergo surgical intervention. (68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT correctly detected insulinomas in 42 of 43 patients with high tumor uptake (mean SUVavg ± SD, 10.2 ± 4.9; mean SUVmax ± SD, 23.6 ± 11.7), resulting in sensitivity of 97.7%. In contrast, (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT showed a low sensitivity of 19.5% (8/41) in this group of patients; however, it successfully localized the tumor that was false-negative with GLP-1R PET/CT. The sensitivities of CT, MR, and endoscopic ultrasonography were 74.4% (32/43), 56.0% (14/25), and 84.0% (21/25), respectively.
(68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT is a highly sensitive imaging technique for the localization of insulinoma.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2016 May 29;18(5):468-76. Epub 2016 Jan 29.
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, China.

The association between fruit and vegetables (FVs) consumption and hypertension risk remains controversial. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and the Web of Science for relevant articles published in English or Chinese up to April 2015. A total of 25 studies with 334,468 patients (41,713 cases) were included in the present meta-analysis.Read More

When comparing the highest with the lowest consumption, the pooled relative risks of hypertension were 0.812 (95% confidence interval, 0.740-0.890) for FVs, 0.732 (95% confidence interval, 0.621-0.861) for fruit, and 0.970 (95% confidence interval, 0.918-1.024) for vegetables. A significantly inverse association between fruit consumption and hypertension risk was found in studies carried out in Asia (relative risk, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.79). Influence analysis revealed that no individual study had an excessive influence on the pooled relative risks. The present meta-analysis indicates that FV consumption might be inversely associated with hypertension risk, which still needs to be confirmed by prospective cohort studies.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 May;41(5):407-9
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

A 70-year-old man was incidentally found to have an occupying lesion in the left renal pelvis by ultrasonography during a routine health examination. CT images suggested renal cell carcinoma. FDG PET/CT scan was acquired for staging.Read More

The images did not reveal any hypermetabolic metastases. However, the metabolic activity of the lesion in the right renal pelvis was not unambiguously determined because of interference of radioactive urine. C-acetate PET/CT, on the other hand, clearly revealed increased activity in the left renal pelvis. Pathological examination demonstrated solitary extraosseous plasmacytoma.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 May;41(5):366-70
From the Departments of *Neurology, and †Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The aim of this study was to describe brain metabolic changing patterns demonstrated by serial brain FDG PET/CT scans and their relationship with the clinical course in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis (ANMDARE).
Eighteen serial PET scans of 8 patients with ANMDARE were reviewed. All the 18 PET scans were divided into 4 groups according to studies timing in different clinical course: group A, the acute and subacute phase; group B, early recovery phase; group C, recovery phase; and group D, relapsing phase.Read More

Antibody levels of ANMDARE of all these patients were tested at the same time. The PET images of each group were analyzed visually and also compared with 10 age- and sex-matched normal controls using voxel-wise statistical parametric mapping analysis (SPM5).
Variable brain metabolic patterns and its association with the clinical course and the levels of NMDA antibody were demonstrated by FDG PET images. First, severe hypometabolism in bilateral occipital lobes and relatively mild hypermetabolism in the partial frontal and basal ganglia in acute and subacute phase, the level of antibody was high. Second, in early recovery phase when the symptoms was partially improved, extensive cortical hypometabolism was observed, and the level of antibody was low. Third, the patients in the recovery phase have no obvious neurological and psychiatric symptoms; PET images were nearly normal, and the antibodies tests were all negative, correspondingly. Fourth, 3 scans of relapsing phase presented heterogeneous brain metabolic abnormalities.
There existed a specific serial brain metabolic changing pattern that correlated with the clinical course and antibody level in ANMDARE.

J Ethnopharmacol
J Ethnopharmacol 2016 May 23;183:18-28. Epub 2016 Feb 23.
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, PR China. Electronic address:

YiQiFuMai Powder Injection (YQFM) is a modern preparation derived from Sheng-mai San, a traditional Chinese prescription, widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, its potential molecular mechanism remains unclear.
The present study was designed to observe the effect of YQFM on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced the brain microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction and to explore the underlying pathways in vitro.Read More

A mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) was subjected to OGD (2-9h) to examine the efficacy and molecular mechanisms in the presence or absence of YQFM (100, 200 and 400 μg/ml).
The results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) assays demonstrated that treatment with YQFM increased the cell viability and TEER value, decreased even blue (EB) albumin leakage after OGD in bEnd.3 cells. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining showed that YQFM reduced the breakage and translocation of Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 after 4h of OGD and decreased the expression of these proteins after 9h of OGD. Moreover, YQFM significantly inhibited the expression, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesionmolecule-1 (ICAM-1) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) as well as production of nitric oxide (NO). In addition, real time-PCR results revealed that YQFM suppressed the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) after 4h of OGD. Furthermore, YQFM markedly inhibited both the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and cytoskeletal reorganization and reduced the expression of cleaved-ROCK1 in bEnd.3 cells subjected to OGD.
These findings suggest that YQFM ameliorates the OGD-induced brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier disruption associated with the NF-κB/p65 and ROCK1/MLC signaling pathways. These data provide new insights into the use of this preparation for treating cerebrovascular diseases.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2016 May 24;161:33-8. Epub 2016 Feb 24.
College of Material Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China.

In this work we designed a self-assembly multilayers, in which photoluminescent graphene oxide was employed as a fluorescence probe. This multilayers film can effectively recognize captopril by resonance energy transfer from graphite oxide to silver nanoparticles. A new interfacial sensing method for captopril with high signal to noise ratio was established, by means of that multilayers was quenched by silver nanoparticles and subsequently recovered by adding captopril.Read More

The linear relation between intensity and captopril concentration was good, and the detection limit was found to be 0.1578μM. Also, this novel detection platform demonstrated intriguing reusable properties, and the sensor could be repeated more than ten times without obviously losing its sensing performance.

AIDS 2016 May;30(8):1163-74
aDepartment of Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology and The Comprehensive NeuroAIDS Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia bDepartment of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. *Kamel Khalili, Wenhui Hu and Yonggang Zhang are senior authors and have equally contributed to this manuscript.

There is an urgent need for the development of HIV-1 genome eradication strategies that lead to a permanent cure for HIV-1/AIDS. We previously reported that four guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting HIV-1 long terminal repeats (LTR) effectively eradicated the entire HIV-1 genome. In this study, we sought to identify the best gRNAs targeting HIV-1 LTR and viral structural region and optimize gRNA pairing that can efficiently eradicate the HIV-1 genome.Read More

Highly specific gRNAs were designed using bioinformatics tools, and their capacity of guiding CRISPR-associated system 9 to cleave HIV-1 proviral DNA was evaluated using high-throughput HIV-1 luciferase reporter assay and rapid Direct-PCR genotyping.
The target seed sequences for each gRNA were cloned into lentiviral vectors. HEK293T cells were cotransfected with a pEcoHIV-NL4-3-firefly-luciferase reporter vector (1 : 20) over lentiviral vectors carrying CRISPR-associated system 9 and single gRNA or various combinations of gRNAs. The EcoHIV DNA cleaving efficiency was evaluated by Direct-PCR genotyping, and the EcoHIV transcription/replication activity was examined by a luciferase reporter assay.
Most of the designed gRNAs are effective to eliminate the predicted HIV-1 genome sequence between the selected two target sites. This is evidenced by the presence of PCR genotypic deletion/insertion and the decrease of luciferase reporter activity. In particular, a combination of viral structural gRNAs with LTR gRNAs provided a higher efficiency of genome eradication and an easier approach for PCR genotyping.
Our screening strategy can specifically and effectively identify gRNAs targeting HIV-1 LTR and structural region to excise proviral HIV-1 from the host genome.

Mol Med Rep
Mol Med Rep 2016 May 4;13(5):4191-204. Epub 2016 Apr 4.
Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory, School of Basic Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong 100044, P.R. China.

The Chinese herbal formula, Shu-Yu capsule (SYC), has been successfully used to treat depression-like disorders in clinical settings. To rapidly identify the chemical constituents of SYC and its metabolites in rat serum, a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established in the present study. By comparing the retention times, MS and MSn spectra data in the literature and reference standards, a total of 73 compounds were identified from SYC.Read More

In rat serum, 62 components, including 13 prototype compounds and 49 metabolites were identified. Of these components, 14 metabolites were confirmed as novel metabolites of SYC. The results of the present study indicated that certain flavonoid glycosides and monoterpene glycosides were absorbed directly. Glucuronidation and sulfation were identified as the predominant metabolic pathways of the components in SYC. In addition, certain phase I reactions, including hydrolysis, demethylation and hydroxylation occurred in the rats. These results provide scientific evidence, which support further investigations of the pharmacology and mechanism of SYC.

Rejuvenation Res
Rejuvenation Res 2016 May 18. Epub 2016 May 18.
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM, China Pharmaceutical University , Nanjing, P.R. China .

The YiQiFuMai powder injection (YQFM), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription re-developed based on the well-known TCM formula Sheng-maisan, showed a wide range of pharmacological activities in cardiovascular diseases in clinics. However, its role in protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury has not been elucidated. The present study not only evaluated the cardioprotective effect of YQFM from MI/R injury but also investigated the potential molecular mechanisms both in vivo and in vitro.Read More

The myocardium infarct size, production of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), cardiac function, TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 activity were measured. Cell viability was determined, and cell apoptosis was measured by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured, and ATP content was quantified by bioluminescent assay. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins, including Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, AMPKα, and phospho-AMPKα, was analyzed by western blotting. AMPKα siRNA transfection was also applied to the mechanism elucidation. YQFM at a concentration of 1.06 g/kg significantly reduced myocardium infarct size and the production of LDH, CK in serum, improved the cardiac function, and also produced a significant decrease of apoptotic index. Further, combined treatment with compound C partly attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of YQFM. In addition, pretreatment with YQFM ranging from 25 to 400 μg/mL markedly improved cell viability and decreased LDH release. Moreover, YQFM inhibited H9c2 apoptosis, blocked the expression of caspase-3, and modulated Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, leading to an increased mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP content. Mechanistically, YQFM activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways whereas pretreatment with AMPK inhibitor Compound C and application of transfection with AMPKα siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of YQFM. Our results indicated that YQFM could provide significant cardioprotection against MI/R injury, and potential mechanisms might suppress cardiomyocytes apoptosis, at least in part, through activating the AMPK signaling pathways.

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.
Photochem Photobiol Sci 2016 May 22;15(5):666-72. Epub 2016 Apr 22.
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

A BiOI/BiOBr composite was successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The BiOI/BiOBr composite exhibited enhanced photocatalytic bacteriostatic activity towards E.Read More

coli compared to the pure BiOI or BiOBr under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the improved separation efficiency of the photogenerated holes because of its heterojunction structure. In addition, the possible bacteriostatic mechanism of the BiOI/BiOBr composite under visible light irradiation is discussed. The hierarchical microsphere BiOI/BiOBr showed enhanced photocatalytic bacteriostasis towards Escherichia coli under visible light.

Neuroreport 2016 May;27(8):610-6
aDepartment of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University bDepartment of Neurology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Acidosis impairs brain functions. Neuron-specific mechanisms underlying acidosis-induced brain dysfunction remain elusive. We studied the sensitivity of cortical GABAergic neurons and glutamatergic neurons to acidosis by whole-cell recording in brain slices.Read More

The acidification to the neurons was induced by perfusing artificial cerebral spinal fluid with lower pH. This acidification impairs excitability and synaptic transmission in the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Acidosis impairs spiking capacity in the GABAergic neurons more than in the glutamatergic neurons. Acidosis also strengthens glutamatergic synaptic transmission and attenuates GABAergic synaptic transmission on the GABAergic neurons more than the glutamatergic neurons, which results in the functional impairment of these GABAergic neurons. This acidosis-induced dysfunction predominantly in the cortical GABAergic neurons drives the homeostasis of neuronal networks toward overexcitation and exacerbates neuronal impairment.

J Chromatogr A
J Chromatogr A 2016 May 16;1448:1-8. Epub 2016 Apr 16.
Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China. Electronic address:

A solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup method was developed to purify the sample extracts for the analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). Monodisperse magnesium oxide (MgO) microspheres and basic alumina were used as SPE adsorbents. Important parameters of the SPE procedure were optimized, including the amount of basic alumina and the type and volume of the washing and elution solvents.Read More

The optimized SPE cleanup method exhibited excellent purification performance for the removal of organochlorinated compounds, lipid compounds, sulfur, and pigments. Additionally, it was found that the retention activities of congeners differed with the number and position of the chlorine substituents in PCNs. In this study, an analytical method based on a combination of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with SPE cleanup and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is proposed for the analysis of PCNs and dl-PCBs in complex samples (sediment, pine needle, and scallop samples). The analytical method demonstrates good linearity, acceptable recovery (63-148%) and precision (relative standard deviations less than 26%). The limits of detection (LODs) of PCN and dl-PCB congeners were in the range of 0.6-19.1pgg(-1) and 0.4-8.6pgg(-1), respectively. The PCNs and dl-PCBs levels in these samples ranged from 0.16 to 3.07ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and from undetectable to 0.07ngg(-1) dw, respectively.

Top Stroke Rehabil
Top Stroke Rehabil 2016 May 4:1-10. Epub 2016 May 4.
c Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences , The Hong Kong Polytechnic University , Hong Kong , China.

Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers another method of non-invasive brain stimulation in post-stroke rehabilitation. Because it is not known if tACS over bilateral mastoids (tACSbm) can promote the functional recovery in subacute post-stroke patients, we wish to learn the effect of tACSbm on improving neurological function and intracranial hemodynamics of subacute post-stroke patients.
Sixty subacute post-stroke patients (mean age: 65.Read More

4 ± 9.8 years), 15 to 60 days after the onset, were randomly assigned to receiving 15 sessions of usual rehabilitation program without (n = 30) or with tACSbm (20 Hz and < 400 μA for 30-min; n = 30). The outcome measures included the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and measures of intracranial hemodynamics before and after treatment.
At the fifteenth session, when compared with the baseline, the mean NIHSS scores of the patients in the tACSbm group had significantly a larger decrease [18.3 ± 2.6 vs. 10.8 ± 2.7; p < 0.001] than that of the control group [19.1 ± 2.7 vs. 13.0 ± 2.4] [F(1,54) = 4.29, p = 0.043]. After both the first and fifteenth sessions, compared with the control group, the mean blood flow velocity (MFVs) of the tACSbm group had significantly larger increase in the MCA, ACA, and PCA (p < 0.001), the Gosling pulsatility index (PI) of the tACSbm group had also significantly larger decline in the MCA, ACA, and PCA than that of the control group (p < 0.001). The best predictor of the changes in the NIHSS scores was the decline in the pulsatility index in the vascular territory of both lesional and non-lesional MCA measured by the end of the last treatment session.
tACSbm appeared to be effective for enhancing patients' functional recovery and cerebral hemodynamics in the subacute phase. The extent of recovery seems to be associated with the decline of the resistance in vascular bed of the main cerebral arteries. The mechanisms behind this effect should be explored further through research.

PPAR Res 2016 11;2016:6042162. Epub 2016 Apr 11.
Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China; The Advanced Institute for Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China.

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon ligand binding, PPARs activate target gene transcription and regulate a variety of important physiological processes such as lipid metabolism, inflammation, and wound healing. Here, we describe the first database of PPAR target genes, PPARgene.Read More

Among the 225 experimentally verified PPAR target genes, 83 are for PPARα, 83 are for PPARβ/δ, and 104 are for PPARγ. Detailed information including tissue types, species, and reference PubMed IDs was also provided. In addition, we developed a machine learning method to predict novel PPAR target genes by integrating in silico PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) analysis with high throughput gene expression data. Fivefold cross validation showed that the performance of this prediction method was significantly improved compared to the in silico PPRE analysis method. The prediction tool is also implemented in the PPARgene database.

Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2016 7;50(3):172-9. Epub 2016 Mar 7.
Department of Neurosurgery, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, No. 9 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou 510623, China. Electronic address:

Radiation induced brain injury ranges from acute reversible edema to late, irreversible radiation necrosis. Radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis is associated with permanent neurological deficits and occasionally progresses to death.
We present our experience with surgery on radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis (RTLN) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with special consideration of clinical presentation, surgical technique, and outcomes.Read More

This retrospective study includes 12 patients with RTLN treated by the senior author between January 2010 and December 2014. Patients initially sought medical treatment due to headache; other symptoms were hearing loss, visual deterioration, seizure, hemiparesis, vertigo, memory loss and agnosia. A temporal approach through a linear incision was performed for all cases. RTLN was found in one side in 7 patients, and bilaterally in 5. 4 patients underwent resection of necrotic tissue bilaterally and 8 patients on one side.
No death occurred in this series of cases. There were no post-operative complications, except 1 patient who developed aseptic meningitis. All 12 patients were free from headache. No seizure occurred in patients with preoperative epilepsy. Other symptoms such as hemiparesis and vertigo improved in all patients. Memory loss, agnosia and hearing loss did not change post-operatively in all cases. The follow-up MR images demonstrated no recurrence of necrotic lesions in all 12 patients.
Neurosurgical intervention through a temporal approach with linear incision is warranted in patients with radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis with significant symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure, minimum space occupying effect on imaging, or neurological deterioration despite conservative management.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 May 7. Epub 2016 May 7.
From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine, and †Pulmonary Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People's Republic of China.

A 59-year-old man presented cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath for 2 weeks and fever for 4 days. A contrast chest CT revealed a large right pulmonary artery filling defect, suggestive of pulmonary embolism that failed to respond to anticoagulation therapy. FDG PET/CT was performed to evaluate possible malignancy, which revealed intense activity in the right main pulmonary artery without any extrathoracic abnormality.Read More

The ratio of the SUVmax of this lesion to the liver was significantly increased in the delayed PET images. The pathological examination demonstrated primary pulmonary artery sarcoma.

J. Int. Med. Res.
J Int Med Res 2016 May 17. Epub 2016 May 17.
Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory on Haematology, Department of Haematology, Fujian Institute of Haematology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China

To investigate the cytotoxic effects of suberanilohydroxamic acid (vorinostat) in combination with arsenic trioxide (ATO) on the human NB4 cell line in vitro.
The rates of cell proliferation following treatment with vorinostat with or without ATO were measured. Flow cytometry of Annexin-V/propidium iodide double-stained cells was used to measure apoptosis.Read More

Acridine Orange and ethidium bromide staining was used to observe morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to measure protein levels.
Vorinostat and ATO, alone and in combination, inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and the effect was additive. NB4 cells treated with vorinostat + ATO demonstrated greater levels of apoptosis compared with cells treated with either drug alone. Both vorinostat and ATO alone and in combination resulted in lower levels of promyelocytic leukaemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion protein and increased levels of acetyl-histone H3 and acetyl-histone H4 proteins compared with controls. Vorinostat + ATO resulted in lower levels of Akt protein compared with either drug alone.
The combination of vorinostat and ATO inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and enhanced the chemosensitivity of NB4 cells. The mechanism might be associated with increasing histone acetylation levels as well as downregulation of the Akt signalling pathway.

Infection 2016 May 17. Epub 2016 May 17.
Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Refractory infection caused by bacterial biofilm is an important clinical problem. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen responsible for persistent and chronic biofilm infections. We aimed to explore the in vitro and in vivo activity of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with antibacterial agents against mucoid P.Read More

aeruginosa biofilm.
The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration of ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and ampicillin alone or with EDTA against P. aeruginosa were determined in vitro. Extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and structural parameters of the biofilm were monitored. P. aeruginosa was aerosolized and delivered into the lungs of guinea pigs, which were treated with ciprofloxacin with or without EDTA. The colony-forming units (CFUs) of P. aeruginosa were determined from the lungs.
EDTA reduced the MIC of ciprofloxacin and ampicillin by about 30-fold and that of gentamicin by twofold. EDTA reduced the biofilm EPS and the proportion of viable bacteria. The thickness, average diffusion distance, and textural entropy of EDTA-treated biofilm were significantly decreased. EDTA plus antibiotics reduced the colony counting from 10(7) to 10(3) CFU/mL. In vivo, EDTA plus ciprofloxacin had a significantly lower mean CFU/g of lung tissue (EDTA + ciprofloxacin 1.3 ± 0.19; EDTA 4.4 ± 0.57; ciprofloxacin 4.2 ± 0.47), and lung lesions were less severe compared with the single treatment groups.
EDTA can destroy the biofilm structures of mucoid P. aeruginosa in vitro. Moreover, EDTA and ciprofloxacin had a significant bactericidal effect against biofilm in vivo.

Oxid Med Cell Longev
Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016 21;2016:5380319. Epub 2016 Apr 21.
Department of Cardiology, Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Elderly patients are susceptible to sepsis. LPS induced myocardial injury is a widely used animal model to assess sepsis induced cardiac dysfunction. The age dependent mechanisms behind sepsis susceptibility were not studied.Read More

We analyzed age associated changes to cardiac function, cell death, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy in LPS induced myocardial injury. Both young and aged C57BL/6 mice were used for LPS administration. The results demonstrated that LPS induced more cardiac injury (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponin I, and cardiac myosin-light chains 1), cardiac dysfunction (left ventricular inner dimension, LVID, and ejection fraction (EF)), cell death, inflammation, and oxidative stress in aged mice compared to young mice. However, a significant age dependent decline in autophagy was observed. Translocation of Transcription Factor EB (TFEB) to nucleus and formation of LC3-II were significantly reduced in LPS administered aged mice compared to young ones. In addition to that, downstream effector of TFEB, LAMP-1, was induced in response to LPS challenge in young mice. The present study newly demonstrates that TFEB mediated autophagy is crucial for protection against LPS induced myocardial injury particularly in aging senescent heart. Targeting this autophagy-oxidative stress-inflammation-cell death axis may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for cardioprotection in the elderly.

J Clin Nurs
J Clin Nurs 2016 May 27. Epub 2016 May 27.
Department of Foreign Languages, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

This study was to investigate bullying among hospital nurses and its correlates.
Chinese people were unlikely to express their opinions or pursue individual rights. Workplace bullying took place more easily among the educated people within Chinese culture.Read More

However, studies related to workplace bullying among hospital nurses in Taiwan were still limited.
A cross-sectional design.
Two hundred and eighty-five nurses who worked in the regional teaching hospital in south Taiwan were recruited. The significant predictors of workplace bullying were identified by using linear regression analysis.
The mean of overall bullying was 1·47, showing that the frequency of the nurses having experienced workplace bullying was between 'never' and 'now and then'. The most frequent bullying item was 'being yelled at or being the target of anger', followed by 'being the objects of untruthful criticism' and 'having views ignored'. Hospital nurses working in the Emergency room would gain 10·888 points more in the overall bullying scale compared with those who worked in operation rooms or haemodialysis rooms. They were more likely to be bullied. Hospital nurses with one year increase in nursing experience were 0·207 points less likely to be bullied.
Reducing workplace bullying among hospital nurses was an essential method to provide quality assurance to health care. Nurse managers should build up zero tolerance policy to decrease nurses' exposure to workplace bullying.
Training programmes related to bullying prevention are suggested to avoid workplace bullying. The contents of the educational training programmes or workshops should incorporate the characteristics and consequences of the workplace bullying, and the strategies to deal with bullying.

Neurotoxicology 2016 May 31;55:112-121. Epub 2016 May 31.
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Laboratory Sciences, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China; Center for Experimental Research, Kunshan Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University, Kunshan, Jiangsu 215132, China. Electronic address:

This study explored the protective effects of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress preconditioning induced by 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) or oxidized dithiothreitol (DTTox) on acrylonitrile (AN)-induced cytotocity in primary rat astrocytes. Cells were pretreated with 2-DG or DTTox for different times at various concentration. Next, astrocytes were treated with 2.Read More

5mM AN for an additional 12h. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined. Expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phosphorylated-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), P62, and Beclin1 were used to assess autophagy. In addition, 3-methyadenine (3-MA), an autophagy-specific inhibitor, was used to assess the role of autophagy in ER stress preconditioning-induced protection against AN cytotoxicity. The results showed that AN alone significantly decreased astrocytic viability and enhanced cytotoxicity. Compared to the AN-alone group, preconditioning with 2-DG or DTTox significantly increased cell viability and reduced cytotoxicity to indistinguishable levels. Decreased ROS generation and increased ΔΨm were also inherent to ER stress preconditioning with these compounds. Furthermore, autophagy was activated by both 2-DG and DTTox. Blockage of autophagy attenuated the protection afforded by 2-DG or DTTox preconditioning in AN-treated astrocytes. These results establish that ER stress preconditioning affords cellular protection against AN, and that activation of autophagy mediates the cytoprotection. Modulation of ER stress and resultant activation of autophagy may be a novel target for to ameliorate AN toxicity.

Mol Cell Oncol
Mol Cell Oncol 2016 May 10;3(3):e1054550. Epub 2015 Jun 10.
Department of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Pharmacology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

In a recent study we reported that mammalian cells exposed to stress such as ionizing radiation can survive with activation of caspase-3 or caspase-7. We found that sublethal activation of the executioner caspases promotes chemical- and radiation-induced genetic instability and carcinogenesis, in contrast to their perceived roles as tumor suppressors.Read More

Environ. Pollut.
Environ Pollut 2016 Apr 14;211:226-32. Epub 2016 Jan 14.
Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China. Electronic address:

The occurrence and spatial distribution of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were investigated in sediments, upland and paddy soils from the Liaohe River Basin. Concentrations of ΣPCNs were in the range of 0.33-12.Read More

49 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments and 0.61-6.60 ng g(-1) dw in soils, respectively. Tri-CNs and tetra-CNs were the dominating homologues. An increasing trend of PCNs contamination was found in sediments with the rivers flowing through industrial areas and cities. Soils collected near cities exhibited higher abundance of PCNs than that of rural areas. The distribution of PCNs was related to the local industrial activities, rather than total organic carbon. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used for the source apportionment of PCNs in sediments and paddy soils. The result of PMF indicated that PCNs in sediments and paddy soils were mainly from the industrial processes, with additional contributions from the historical use of Halowax 1014 and atmospheric deposition.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 Apr;41(4):302-8
From the *Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College; †Department of Nuclear Medicine, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China; and ‡Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Potentials of Ga-NEB as a PET tracer in the evaluation of a variety of lymphatic drainage disorders were analyzed.
Ga-NEB was injected subcutaneously, and the PET/CT images were acquired in 13 patients with different suspected lymphatic drainage abnormality. The Ga-NEB PET/CT findings were compared with Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy.Read More

Ga-NEB activity could be clearly observed in the lymphatic route on the PET/CT images from all the patients. In 5 (38.5%) of 13 patients tested, Ga-NEB PET/CT provided more information than the Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy.
Ga-NEB PET/CT can be used as an alternative of Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy in the evaluation of lymphatic disorders, which enables fast results and might be more accurate than the conventional Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy.

Int J Mol Sci
Int J Mol Sci 2016 31;17(4). Epub 2016 Mar 31.
Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 200025, China.

Recent advances have suggested that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are differentially expressed in ocular tissues and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of different types of eye diseases. Here, we summarize the functions and mechanisms of known aberrantly-expressed lncRNAs and present a brief overview of relevant reports about lncRNAs in such ocular diseases as glaucoma, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), diabeticretinopathy (DR), and ocular tumors. We intend to highlight comprehensive studies that provide detailed data about the mechanisms of lncRNAs, their applications as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and their potential therapeutic targets.Read More

Although our understanding of lncRNAs is still in its infancy, these examples may provide helpful insights into the methods by which lncRNAs interfere with ocular diseases.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Apr 13;8(16):10212-9. Epub 2016 Apr 13.
State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology , Wuhan 430070, P. R. China.

Biocompatible, biodegradable, and luminescent nano material can be used as an alternative bioimaging agent for early cancer diagnosis, which is crucial to achieve successful treatment. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocyrstals have good biocompatibility and biodegradability, and can be used as an excellent host for luminescent rare earth elements. In this study, based on the energy transfer from Gd(3+) to Eu(3+), the luminescence enhanced imaging agent of Eu/Gd codoping HAP (HAP:Eu/Gd) nanocrystals are obtained via coprecipitation with plate-like shape and no change in crystal phase composition.Read More

The luminescence can be much elevated (up to about 120%) with a nonlinear increase versus Gd doping content, which is due to the energy transfer ((6)PJ of Gd(3+) → (5)HJ of Eu(3+)) under 273 nm and the possible combination effect of the cooperative upconversion and the successive energy transfer under 394 nm, respectively. Results demonstrate that the biocompatible HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystals can successfully perform cell labeling and in vivo imaging. The intracellular HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystals display good biodegradability with a cumulative degradation of about 65% after 72 h. This biocompatible, biodegradable, and luminescence enhanced HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystal has the potential to act as a fluorescent imaging agent in vitro and in vivo.

Primates 2016 Apr 7. Epub 2016 Apr 7.
Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, People's Republic of China.

Age-sex differences in diet have been reported in many nonhuman primates, and body size, reproductive costs, and growth are three mutually non-exclusive factors often proposed to explain such differences. Smaller animals tend to feed on high quality foods (high in protein/energy) more often than larger animals due to their higher metabolic requirements per body weight. Animals of different sizes tend to use different substrate levels, leading to dietary differences if food resources are unevenly distributed along substrate levels.Read More

Adult females and juveniles experience additional metabolic requirements for reproduction and growth, respectively, and tend to feed on high quality foods more frequently than adult males. We conducted an age-sex analysis for the diet of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia, China. In spite of general age-sex similarities, we found that adult males ate herbs more frequently than juveniles and adult females, most likely because they were more terrestrial. As predicted, juveniles ate high quality foods (young leaves, fruits, seeds, and buds) more frequently, and meanwhile ate low quality foods (barks and lichens) less frequently than adult males across the study year or in some seasons when these food types were eaten. However, we found high similarities in diet between adult females and adult males. The most likely reason was that the low diversity of food sources and strong phenological synchrony did not allow adult females to select foods based on quality to cope with their higher metabolic constraints compared to adult males. Surprisingly, the only sex difference in diet except herbs was that adult females ate lichens more frequently in autumn. One plausible reason was that lactating females experienced their highest metabolic requirements in the middle period of infant care (autumn), and had to disproportionately increase the intake of lichens due to the limited availability of plant foods.

Community Ment Health J
Community Ment Health J 2016 Apr 9. Epub 2016 Apr 9.
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Capitol Healthcare Network (VISN 5), Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC), 10 North Greene Street (BT/MIRECC), Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Adherence to recommendations for monitoring of metabolic side effects of antipsychotic medications has been historically low. This randomized controlled trial tested whether a computerized, patient-centered intervention that educated Veterans with serious mental illness about these side effects and encouraged them to advocate for receipt of monitoring would increase rates of monitoring compared to enhanced treatment as usual. The mean proportion of days adherent to monitoring guidelines over the 1-year study was similarly high and did not differ between the intervention (range 0.Read More

81-0.98) and comparison (range 0.76-0.96) groups. Many individuals in both groups had persistent abnormal metabolic parameter values despite high rates of monitoring, contact with medical providers, and receipt of cardiometabolic medications. Participants exposed to the intervention were interested in receiving personalized information about their cardiometabolic status, demonstrating the preliminary feasibility of brief interventions for enhancing involvement of individuals with serious mental illness in health care decision making.

J Prosthet Dent
J Prosthet Dent 2016 Apr 6. Epub 2016 Apr 6.
Associate Professor, State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

The passive film on the surface of titanium can be destroyed by immersion in a fluoridated acidic medium. Coating with titanium nitride (TiN) may improve the corrosion resistance of titanium.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of duplex treatment with plasma nitriding and TiN coating on the corrosion resistance of cast titanium.Read More

Cast titanium was treated with plasma nitriding and TiN coating. The corrosion resistance of the duplex-treated titanium in fluoride-containing artificial saliva was then investigated through electrochemical and immersion tests. The corroded surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy surface scan analysis. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=.05) RESULTS: Duplex treatment generated a dense and uniform TiN film with a thickness of 4.5 μm. Compared with untreated titanium, the duplex-treated titanium displayed higher corrosion potential (Ecorr) values (P<.001) and lower corrosion current density (Icorr) values (P<.001). SEM results showed that the surface of untreated titanium was more heavily corroded than that of duplex-treated titanium. Surface scan analysis of duplex-treated titanium that had been immersed in artificial saliva containing 2 g/L fluoride revealed fluorine on the titanium surface, whereas fluorine was not observed on the surface of untreated titanium after immersion in fluoride-containing artificial saliva. The concentration of titanium ions released from the treated titanium was less than the amount released from untreated titanium (P<.001).
Duplex treatment by plasma nitriding and TiN coating significantly improved the corrosion resistance of cast titanium in a fluoride-containing environment.

Exp. Dermatol.
Exp Dermatol 2016 Apr 27. Epub 2016 Apr 27.
The Stem Cell and Biomedical Material Key Laboratory of Jiangsu Province (the State Key Laboratory Incubation Base), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, P.R.China.

After patients suffer severe full-thickness burn injuries, the current treatments cannot lead to the complete self-regeneration of the sweat gland structure and function. Therefore, it is important to identify new methods for acquiring sufficient functional sweat gland cells to restore skin function. In this study, we induced CD117+ human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS) cells to differentiate into sweat gland-like (hAFS-SG) cells based on use of conditioned medium (CM) from the human sweat gland (hSG) cells.Read More

Real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining were used to confirm the expression of the sweat gland-related genes Ectodysplasin-A (EDA), Ectodysplasin-A receptor (EDAR), keratin 8 (K8) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that microvilli, the cellular structures that are typical for hSG cells, can also be observed on the membrane of the hAFS-SG cells. Our test for the calcium response to acetylcholine (Ach) proved that hAFS-SG cells have the potential to respond to Ach in a manner similar to normal sweat glands. A three-dimensional culture is an effective approach that stimulates the hAFS-SG cells to form tubular structures and drives hAFS-SG cells to mature into higher stage. We also found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances the efficiency of differentiation and that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is an important factor of the CM that influences sweat gland differentiation. Our study provides the basis for further investigations into novel methods of inducing stem cells to differentiate into sweat gland-like cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PLoS One 2016 28;11(4):e0154252. Epub 2016 Apr 28.
Wuhan Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Wuhan, China.

Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China.
Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45) from Wuhan were analyzed.Read More

The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design.
16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only), 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only). Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation). Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p < .05). Stratified analysis by separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants.
Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.

J. Bone Miner. Res.
J Bone Miner Res 2016 Apr 29. Epub 2016 Apr 29.
Life Sciences Institute and Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, Zhejiang University, 388 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a pivotal role and is essentially required for the osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here in this study, we found Ubiquitin Specific Peptidase 4 (USP4) to strongly inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling by removing Lysine-63 linked poly-ubiquitin chain from Dishevelled (Dvl). Ectopic expression of USP4 promoted β-catenin poly-ubiquitination thus inhibited Wnt-induced accumulation of cytosolic β-catenin and counteracted Wnt-induced transcriptional activity.Read More

Moreover, USP4 knock-down or USP4 knock-out led to an increase in the active β-catenin levels and in activation of Wnt/β-catenin-induced transcription. Functional studies in C2C12 myoblasts and KS483 osteoprogenitor cells showed that ectopic expression of USP4 resulted in impaired activation of endogenous Wnt3a-induced genes and decreased osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, whereas USP4 depletion showed the opposite effect. These results identify USP4 as a novel regulator of Dvl in Wnt/β-catenin signal and show its involvement in Wnt3a induced osteoblast differentiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Nutrition 2016 Mar 30;32(3):296-302. Epub 2015 Sep 30.
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Epidemiologic investigations evaluating the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with depression risk have yielded controversial results. Therefore, a meta-analysis was carried out to qualitatively summarize the evidence regarding association of fruit and vegetable intake with risk of depression in the general population.
PubMed, Embase, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant articles published up to June 2015.Read More

To evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable intake with depression risk, combined relative risks were calculated with the fixed or random effects model. Meta-regression was conducted to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was estimated by the Egger's test and the funnel plot.
Ten studies involving 227 852 participants for fruit intake and eight studies involving 218 699 participants for vegetable intake were finally included in this study. The combined relative risk (95% confidence interval) of depression for the highest versus lowest category of fruit and vegetable intake was 0.86 (0.81, 0.91; P < 0.01) and 0.89 (0.83, 0.94; P < 0.01), respectively. In subgroup analyses stratified by study design, the inverse association of fruit (0.83 [0.77, 0.91; P = 0.006]) and vegetable (0.88 [0.79, 0.96; P = 0.007]) intake with risk of depression was also observed in the cohort study.
This meta-analysis indicated that fruit and vegetable consumption might be inversely associated with the risk of depression, respectively.

Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2016 Mar 1;295:85-93. Epub 2016 Feb 1.
Laboratory of Environment and Health, College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Studies demonstrated that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) tends to accumulate in the liver and is capable to cause hepatomegaly. In the present study, we investigated the roles of miR-155 in PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity in SD rats and HepG2 cells. Male SD rats were orally administrated with PFOS at 1 or 10mg/kg/day for 28days while HepG2 cells were treated with 0-50μM of PFOS for 24h or 50μM of PFOS for 1, 3, 6, 12 or 24h, respectively.Read More

We found that PFOS significantly increased the liver weight and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) levels in rats. Morphologically, PFOS caused actin filament remodeling and endothelial permeability changes in the liver. Moreover, PFOS triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and induced apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro assays. Immunoblotting data showed that NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression and activation and its target genes were all suppressed by PFOS in the liver and HepG2 cells. However, PFOS significantly increased miR-155 expression. Further studies showed that pretreatment of HepG2 cells with catalase significantly decreased miR-155 expression and substantially increased Nrf2 expression and activation, resulting in reduction of PFOS-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Taken together, these results indicated that miR-155 plays an important role in the PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity by disrupting Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

Neuroepidemiology 2016 9;46(3):182-90. Epub 2016 Feb 9.
Evidence-Based Medical Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

The Cardiovascular and Cognitive Health Study (CCHS-Beijing) is a population-based study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment in adults aged 55 and older in Beijing. The main aims of the study are to investigate the prevalence rates of CVD, asymptomatic atherosclerosis, and cognitive impairment, as well as validate the risk factors related to the onset and development of CVD, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The study was designed to detect the traditional and new risk factors in this age group.Read More

Participants were recruited randomly from residential regions in the greater Beijing municipality area based on the average levels of development in Beijing, China in 2012 (based on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical characteristics). Thorough physical and laboratory examination were performed at baseline (also the cross-sectional survey) to identify the risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, as well as newly defined risk factors like elevated homocysteine, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and urine micro-albumin. Subclinical disease of the cerebral vasculature included atherosclerosis of carotid arteries, intracranial arteries, and retinal vessels. Subclinical cardiac diseases included left ventricular enlargement, arrhythmias, chamber hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Blood pressure was documented using the ankle-arm method. In addition, neuropsychological assessments were performed for all subjects aged 65 and above. Baseline evaluation began during the period August 2013 to December 2014. Follow-up examination will occur in 5 years. The initial and recurrent CVD, AD and MCI events will be verified and validated during the follow-up period.

Nucl. Med. Biol.
Nucl Med Biol 2016 Mar 4;43(3):206-14. Epub 2015 Dec 4.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730, China. Electronic address:

The noninvasive imaging of bacterial infections is critical in order to reduce mortality and morbidity caused by these diseases. The recently reported (18)F-FDS ((18)F-2-fluorodeoxy sorbitol) as a PET (positron emission tomography) tracer can be used to image Enterobacteriaceae-specific infections and provides a potential alternative to this problem compared with other probes for imaging infections. In this study, automatic synthesis, validation of (18)F-FDS and a first-in-human study were performed and discussed.Read More

A multifunctional synthesis module was employed for the radiosynthesis of (18)F-FDG ((18)F-2-fluorodeoxy glucose) and (18)F-FDS starting from (18)F ion using two-pot three-step fully automated reactions. The behavior of (18)F-FDS as an in vivo imaging probe for infections was evaluated in an Escherichia coli mouse infection model. The first detailed pharmacokinetic and biodistribution parameters were obtained from healthy human volunteers.
The uptake of (18)F-FDS in an E. coli mouse-myositis infection model was easily differentiated from other organs and normal muscle. Intensive lesion uptake declined after antibiotic treatment. In the pilot human study, no adverse effects due to (18)F-FDS were observed up to 24h post-injection. The radiotracer was rapidly cleared from the circulation and excreted mainly through the urinary system.
We conclude that (18)F-FDS PET holds great potential for appropriate and effective for the imaging of bacterial infections in vivo. These preliminary results indicate that further clinical studies are warranted.

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Mar;32(3):364-8
Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038, China.

Objective To investigate the mechanism of hypercoagulable state based on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Thirty-five RA patients were enrolled as well as 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, IL-4, IL-17, NF-κB activator 1 (Act1), p50, p65, IκBα, platelet activating factor (PAF), PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) were detected using ELISA.Read More

The number of platelet (PLT) was detected using Sysmex XT-2000i automated hematology analyzer. The levels of D-dimer (D-D), fibrinogen (FBG), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were detected using Sysmex CA-1500 automatic coagulation analyzer. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was detected using Westergren method. C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor (RF) were detected using Hitachi 7060 automatic biochemical analyzer. Meanwhile, the mRNA expressions of Act1, p65, p50, IκBα and IκB kinase α (IKKα) were detected using semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The expressions of p65, p50 and IκBα proteins were examined using Western blotting. The correlations of the above indexes were analyzed by Spearman correlation test. Results Compared with the normal group, the levels of DD, FBG, PLT significantly increased in the peripheral blood of RA patients, TT decreased, while APTT and PT were not significantly changed. IL-4, IL-10 and PAF-AH were significantly reduced in the sera of RA patients, while IL-6, IL-17, Act1, p50, p65, IκBα, IKKα and PAF were significantly elevated. Spearman correlation analysis showed that coagulant and fibrinolytic indexes were significantly correlated with cytokines, NF-κB, activity indexes and clinical symptoms and signs. Conclusion The hypercoagulable state is common in the peripheral blood of RA patients, and it is closely related to inflammatory factors, activity indexes and abnormal activation of NF-κB.

Med Phys
Med Phys 2016 Mar;43(3):1401
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China and Beijing Key Lab of Precision/Ultra-Precision Manufacturing Equipments and Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking can be used for motion management. However, on account of mechanical constraints, it is a crucial challenge for conventional MLCs (3-4 cm/s in leaf speed) to track fast targets, especially moving in 2D in the beam's eye view (BEV). Our group has recently developed a "high-speed" MLC (HS-MLC) prototype with a maximum leaf speed of 40 cm/s, which makes it possible to track the vast majority of moving targets without violation of mechanical constraints.Read More

The major innovation of the HS-MLC design is that it employs linear motors instead of rotary motors to drive leaves. This paper mainly aims to evaluate the performance of the HS-MLC in real-time intensity-modulated radiation therapy delivery to targets moving in 2D in the BEV.
A 2D real-time tracking algorithm was proposed first based on a previous superimposing leaf sequencing method. Then, simulations were performed to evaluate the delivery performance including fluence accuracy, efficiency, delivery time, and number of monitor units under various settings of limiting coefficient and dose rate for four clinical fluence maps and two target speeds. The comparisons between the HS-MLC with a "medium-speed" MLC (MS-MLC, 10 cm/s) and a "low-speed" MLC (LS-MLC, 5 cm/s) were also made. For validation, experiments were carried out on the HS-MLC prototype in the lab environment. A camera-based measurement system was set up to detect actual leaf trajectories.
Simulation results indicate that a limiting coefficient of 0.5 and a dose rate of 400 MU/min are "optimal" in the sense of getting best compromise between delivery time and number of monitor units. Under the optimal parameters, the HS-MLC achieved 100% in efficiency, 18.1 s in delivery time, and 121.2 MU in number of monitor units on average for the "fast" target speed, compared to 94%, 20.6 s, and 129.9 MU with the MS-MLC, and to 53%, 40.2 s, and 141.1 MU with the LS-MLC. The benefits of increased leaf speed were demonstrated. The experimental results agreed with the simulation ones, which further confirmed the efficacy of the HS-MLC.
The HS-MLC is superior to conventional MLCs when used for tracking, benefiting from its high leaf speed. These results indicate that the novel HS-MLC is feasible for high-accuracy and high-efficiency motion management. It also offers guidance for future MLC design.

Oncotarget 2016 Mar 5. Epub 2016 Mar 5.
Department of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

Necroptotic factors are generally assumed to play a positive role in tumor therapy by eliminating damaged tumor cells. Here we show that, contrary to expectation, necroptotic factors RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL promote tumor growth. We demonstrate that genetic knockout of necroptotic genes RIPK1, RIPK3, or MLKL in cancer cells significantly attenuated their abilities to grow in an anchorage-independent manner.Read More

In addition, they exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity. The knockout cells also showed greatly reduced ability to form tumors in mice. Moreover, necrosulfonamide (NSA), a previously identified chemical inhibitor of necroptosis, could significantly delay tumor growth in a xenograft model. Mechanistically, we show that necroptoic factors play a significant role in maintaining the activity of NF-κB. Finally, we found that high levels of phosphorylated MLKL in human esophageal and colon cancers are associated with poor overall survival. Taken together, we conclude that pro-necroptic factors such as RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL may play a role in supporting tumor growth, and MLKL may be a promising target for cancer treatment.

BMC Biotechnol.
BMC Biotechnol 2016 22;16:30. Epub 2016 Mar 22.
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7613, Raleigh, NC, 27695-7613, USA.

Diabetes and its concurrent complications impact a significant proportion of the population of the US and create a large financial burden on the American health care system. FDA-approved maggot debridement therapy (MDT), the application of sterile laboratory-reared Lucilia sericata (green bottle fly) larvae to wounds, is a cost-effective and successful treatment for diabetic foot ulcers and other medical conditions. Human platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is a secreted dimeric peptide growth factor that binds the PDGF receptor.Read More

PDGF-BB stimulates cell proliferation and survival, promotes wound healing, and has been investigated as a possible topical treatment for non-healing wounds. Genetic engineering has allowed for expression and secretion of human growth factors and other proteins in transgenic insects. Here, we present a novel concept in MDT technology that combines the established benefits of MDT with the power of genetic engineering to promote healing. The focus of this study is to create and characterize strains of transgenic L. sericata that express and secrete PDGF-BB at detectable levels in adult hemolymph, whole larval lysate, and maggot excretions/ secretions (ES), with potential for clinical utility in wound healing.
We have engineered and confirmed transgene insertion in several strains of L. sericata that express human PDGF-BB. Using a heat-inducible promoter to control the pdgf-b gene, pdgf-b mRNA was detected via semi-quantitative PCR upon heat shock. PDGF-BB protein was also detectable in larval lysates and adult hemolymph but not larval ES. An alternative, tetracycline-repressible pdgf-b system mediated expression of pdgf-b mRNA when maggots were raised on diet that lacked tetracycline. Further, PDGF-BB protein was readily detected in whole larval lysate as well as larval ES.
Here we show robust, inducible expression and production of human PDGF-BB protein from two conditional expression systems in transgenic L. sericata larvae. The tetracycline-repressible system appears to be the most promising as PDGF-BB protein was detectable in larval ES following induction. Our system could potentially be used to deliver a variety of growth factors and anti-microbial peptides to the wound environment with the aim of enhancing wound healing, thereby improving patient outcome in a cost-effective manner.

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2016 Mar 23. Epub 2016 Mar 23.
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, People's Republic of China.

The development of effective and stable carriers of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is important for treating cancer with multidrug resistance (MDR). We developed a new gene and drug co-delivery system and checked its characteristics. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was coupled with N-succinyl chitosan (NSC) Lipoic acid (LA) micelles and co-delivered MDR1 siRNA and paclitaxel (PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA) to enhance antitumor effects by silencing the MDR gene of tumors (Li et al.Read More

, Adv Mater 2014;26:8217-8224). In our study, we developed a new type of containing paclitaxel-loaded micelles and siRNA-loaded LDL nanoparticle. This "binary polymer" is pH and reduction dual-sensitive core-crosslinked micelles. PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA had an average particle size of (171.6 ± 6.42) nm, entrapment efficiency of (93.92 ± 1.06) %, and drug-loading amount of (12.35% ± 0.87) %. In vitro, MCF-7 cells, high expressed LDL receptor, were more sensitive to this delivery system than to taxol(®) and cell activity was inhibited significantly. Fluorescence microscopy showed that PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA was uptaken very conveniently and played a key role in antitumor activity. PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA protected the siRNA from degradation by macrophage phagocytosis and evidently down-regulated the level of mdr1 mRNA as well as the expression of P-gp. We tested the target ability of PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA in vivo in tumor-bearing nude mice. Results showed that this system could directly deliver siRNA and PTX to cancer cells. Thus, new co-delivering siRNA and antitumor drugs should be explored for solving MDR in cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

Oncotarget 2016 Mar 18. Epub 2016 Mar 18.
IVF Michigan, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.

Accurate markers and molecular mechanisms of stem cell dormancy and activation are poorly understood. In this study, the anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil, was used to selectively kill proliferating cells of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line. This method can enrich and purify stem cell population.Read More

The dormant versus active status of stem cells was determined by phosphorylation of RNAp II Ser2. The surviving stem cells were cultured to form stem cell spheres expressing stem cell markers and transplanted into nude mice to form a teratoma. The results demonstrated the properties of stem cells and potential for multi-directional differentiation. Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter by 5-FU resulted in Sox2 expression in the dormant stem cells. This study shows that the dormancy and activation of HBE stem cells is closely related to epigenetic modification.

Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) are a type of fetal stem cell whose stemness encompasses both embryonic and adult stem cells, suggesting that they may be easily and efficiently reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To further simplify the reprogramming process, the creation of AFSC-derived iPSCs using a single factor is desirable. Here we report the generation of one-factor human AFSC-iPSCs (AiPSCs) from human AFSCs by ectopic expression of the transcription factor OCT4.Read More

Just like human embryonic stem cells, AiPSCs exhibited similar epigenetic status, global gene expression profiles, teratoma formation and in vitro & in vivo pluripotency. Our results indicate that the OCT4 is necessary and sufficient to directly reprogram human AFSCs into pluripotent AiPSCs. Moreover, reflecting the similar memory characteristics of AFSCs and neural stem cells, we show that AiPSC membrane-derived vesicles (MVs) repair cerebral ischemia damage. We anticipate that the successful generation of one-factor AiPSCs will facilitate the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need for transgenic expression of oncogenes. Moreover, MVs from tissue-specific AiPSCs have potential in tissue repair, representing a novel application of iPSCs.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016 25;2016:2601830. Epub 2016 Feb 25.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China.

The dysregulation of TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway has been postulated to contribute to the development of ulcerative colitis (UC) and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Kuijie Granule is a prescription medicine used clinically in China to alleviate the symptoms associated with UC. To evaluate whether the clinical benefit of Kuijie Granule is associated with TGF-β/Smads signaling, we measured the expression levels of TGF-β/Smads signaling proteins (TGF-β1, TGF-βRII, Smad2, Smad4, Smad6, and Smad7) in the intestinal mucosa of 72 patients with UC treated with Kuijie Granule for 60 days.Read More

Colonic tissues were obtained by a virtual colonoscopy guided biopsy before and after Kuijie Granule treatment followed by pathological analysis and quantitative analysis of TGF-β/Smads using immunohistochemistry. Kuijie Granule treatment significantly improved symptoms associated with UC, which include diarrhea, mucus production, pus and blood in stool, abdominal pain and distention, and tenesmus. The clinical benefit of Kuijie Granule treatment correlated with decreased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad7 and increased expression of TGF-βRII and Smad4. These clinical results indicate that Kuijie Granule can alleviate the symptoms associated with UC and modulate TGF-β/Smads signaling.

Mol Imaging Biol
Mol Imaging Biol 2016 Mar 28. Epub 2016 Mar 28.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 1# Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China.

[(18)F]fluorodeoxysorbitol ([(18)F]FDS) is the first radiopharmaceutical specific for a category of bacteria and has the potential to specifically detect Enterobacteriaceae infections. The purpose of this study was to testify the safety and investigate the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [(18)F]FDS in healthy human bodies.
Six healthy subjects were intravenously injected with 320-520 MBq [(18)F]FDS.Read More

On each subject, 21 whole-body emission scans and a brain scan were conducted at settled time points within the next 4 h. Residence time for each source organ was determined by multi-exponential regression. Absorbed doses for target organs and effective dose were calculated via OLINDA/EXM.
No adverse events due to [(18)F]FDS injection were observed in the study. The tracer was cleared rapidly from the blood pool through the urinary system. A small portion was cleared into the gut through the hepatobiliary system. The effective dose (ED) was estimated to be 0.021 ± 0.001 mSv/MBq. The organ receiving the highest absorbed dose was the urinary bladder wall (0.25 ± 0.03 mSv/MBq).
[(18)F]FDS is safe and well tolerated. The effective dose was comparable to that of other F-18 labeled radiotracers. [(18)F]FDS is suitable for human use from a radiation dosimetry perspective.

Oncotarget 2016 Mar 28. Epub 2016 Mar 28.
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) are involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study examined the associations of PD1 and TIM3 polymorphisms with the overall survival (OS) of a prospective cohort of 258 HBV-related HCC patients. Results showed that PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes or TIM3 -1516 genotype GG were significantly associated with longer OS (P < 0.Read More

001 and P = 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes and TIM3 -1516 genotype GG were independently associated with longer OS (hazard ratio (HR), 1.835; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.342-2.509; P < 0.001 and HR, 2.070; 95%CI, 1.428-3.002; P < 0.001, respectively). PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes were significantly associated with longer OS in patients receiving surgical (resection or radiofrequency) treatment, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) or supportive and symptomatic treatment. TIM3 -1516 genotype GG was significantly associated with longer OS in TACE patients. In multivariate analysis, PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes were independently associated with longer OS in each treatment population. TIM3 -1516 genotype GG was independently associated with longer OS in patients receiving surgical treatment or TACE. These findings suggest that PD1 +8669 A/G and TIM3 -1516 G/T polymorphisms may affect the prognosis of HBV-related HCC and may be new predictors of prognosis for HCC patients.

Mol Med Rep
Mol Med Rep 2016 Feb 17;13(2):1765-73. Epub 2015 Dec 17.
Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001, P.R. China.

Myocardial fibrosis is the predominant pathological characteristic of diabetic myocardial damage. Previous studies have indicated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has beneficial effects in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases. However, there is little research investigating the effect of H2S on myocardial fibrosis in diabetes.Read More

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of H2S on the progression of myocardial fibrosis induced by diabetes. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used as an exogenous donor of H2S. After 8 weeks, expression levels of cystathionine-γ-lyase were determined by western blot analysis and morphological changes in the myocardium were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson staining. The hydroxyproline content and fibrosis markers were determined by a basic hydrolysis method and western blot analysis, respectively. Autophagosomes were observed under transmission electron microscopy. Expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins and their upstream signaling molecules were also evaluated by western blotting. The results of the current study indicated that diabetes induced marked myocardial fibrosis, enhanced myocardial autophagy and suppressed the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase (PI3K/AKT1) signaling pathway. By contrast, following treatment with NaHS, myocardial fibrosis was ameliorated, myocardial autophagy was decreased and the PI3K/AKT1 pathway suppression was reversed. The results of the present study demonstrated that the protective effect of H2S against diabetes-induced myocardial fibrosis may be associated with the attenuation of autophagy via the upregulation of the PI3K/AKT1 signaling pathway.

J. Med. Chem.
J Med Chem 2016 Feb 29;59(3):1207-16. Epub 2016 Jan 29.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona , Tucson, Arizona 85721, United States.

With the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 and H5N1 strains, there is a pressing need to develop direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to combat such deadly viruses. The M2-S31N proton channel of the influenza A virus (A/M2) is one of the validated and most conserved proteins encoded by the current circulating influenza A viruses; thus, it represents a high-profile drug target for therapeutic intervention. We recently discovered a series of S31N inhibitors with the general structure of adamantyl-1-NH2(+)CH2-aryl, but they generally had poor physical properties and some showed toxicity in vitro.Read More

In this study, we sought to optimize both the adamantyl as well as the aryl/heteroaryl group. Several compounds from this study exhibited submicromolar EC50 values against S31N-containing A/WSN/33 influenza viruses in antiviral plaque reduction assays with a selectivity index greater than 100, indicating that these compounds are promising candidates for in-depth preclinical pharmacology.

Sci China Life Sci
Sci China Life Sci 2016 Feb 23;59(2):183-93. Epub 2016 Jan 23.
Key Laboratory of Biotechnology and Crop Quality Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture/Biotechnology Research Center, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716, China.

Phytosterols play an important role in plant growth and development, including cell division, cell elongation, embryogenesis, cellulose biosynthesis, and cell wall formation. Cotton fiber, which undergoes synchronous cell elongation and a large amount of cellulose synthesis, is an ideal model for the study of plant cell elongation and cell wall biogenesis. The role of phytosterols in fiber growth was investigated by treating the fibers with tridemorph, a sterol biosynthetic inhibitor.Read More

The inhibition of phytosterol biosynthesis resulted in an apparent suppression of fiber elongation in vitro or in planta. The determination of phytosterol quantity indicated that sitosterol and campesterol were the major phytosterols in cotton fibers; moreover, higher concentrations of these phytosterols were observed during the period of rapid elongation of fibers. Furthermore, the decrease and increase in campesterol:sitosterol ratio was associated with the increase and decease in speed of elongation, respectively, during the elongation stage. The increase in the ratio was associated with the transition from cell elongation to secondary cell wall synthesis. In addition, a number of phytosterol biosynthetic genes were down-regulated in the short fibers of ligon lintless-1 mutant, compared to its near-isogenic wild-type TM-1. These results demonstrated that phytosterols play a crucial role in cotton fiber development, and particularly in fiber elongation.


Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis, is mainly caused by exposure to asbestos or other organic fibers, but the underlying genetic mechanism is not fully understood. Genetic alterations and causes for multiple primary cancer development including MPM are unknown. We used whole exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in a patient with MPM and two additional primary cancers who had no evidence of venous, arterial, lymphovascular, or perineural invasion indicating dissemination of a primary lung cancer to the pleura.Read More

We found that the MPM had R282W, a key TP53 mutation, and genome-wide allelic loss or loss of heterozygosity, a distinct genomic alteration not previously described in MPM. We identified frequent inactivating SETDB1 mutations in this patient and in 68 additional MPM patients (mutation frequency: 10%, 7/69) by targeted deep sequencing. Our observations suggest the possibility of a new genetic mechanism in the development of either MPM or multiple primary cancers. The frequent SETDB1 inactivating mutations suggest there could be new diagnostic or therapeutic options for MPM.

ACS Nano
ACS Nano 2016 Feb 5;10(2):2910-21. Epub 2016 Feb 5.
MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou 310027, China.

Artificial superamphiphobic surfaces, which could repel both water and low surface tension organic liquids, have been limited to particular kinds of materials or surfaces thus far. In this work, a kind of microscale porous coating was developed. Taking dopamine and hydrophilic fumed silica nanoparticles as initial building blocks, microscale porous coating was constructed via ice templation.Read More

Polydopamine bound silica nanoparticles together to form a porous structure network and rendered the coating to have potential for further postfunctionalization. After two-step CVD, the microscale porous coating changes from superhydrophilic to superamphiphobic, exhibiting super-repellency to droplets with surface tension of 73-23 mN/m. The influences of concentration of initial dopamine, hydrophilic fumed silica nanoparticles, and dry conditions on the formation of the porous structure have been studied to optimize the conditions. Coatings with different pore sizes and pore heights have been fabricated to discover the relationship between the structure parameters and the repellency of the porous coatings. Only with optimal pore size and pore height can the porous coating display superamphiphobicity. Compared with nanoscale, the microscale structure favors the achievement of superamphiphobicity. Given the outstanding adhesive ability of polydopamine, the superamphiphobic coatings have been successfully applied to various materials including artificial materials and natural materials.

Int J Nanomedicine
Int J Nanomedicine 2016 19;11:325-36. Epub 2016 Jan 19.
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, People's Republic of China.

In this study, harmine liposomes (HM-lip) were prepared through the thin-film hydration-pH-gradient method and then coated with N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC). Particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release of HM-lip and TMC-coated harmine liposomes (TMC-HM-lip) were also determined. Sprague Dawley rats were further used to investigate the pharmacokinetics in vivo.Read More

Retention behavior in mouse gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was studied through high-performance liquid chromatography and near-infrared imaging. Degradation was further evaluated through incubation with Caco-2 cell homogenates, and a Caco-2 monolayer cell model was used to investigate the uptake and transport of drugs. HM-lip and TMC-HM-lip with particle size of 150-170 nm, an entrapment efficiency of about 81%, and a zeta potential of negative and positive, respectively, were prepared. The release of HM from HM-lip and TMC-HM-lip was slower than that from HM solution and was sensitive to pH. TMC-HM-lip exhibited higher oral bioavailability and had prolonged retention time in GIT. HM-lip and TMC-HM-lip could also protect HM against degradation in Caco-2 cell homogenates. The uptake amount of TMC-HM-lip was higher than that of HM and HM-lip. TMC-HM-lip further demonstrated higher apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) from the apical to the basolateral side than HM and HM-lip because of its higher uptake and capability to open tight junctions in the cell monolayers. TMC-HM-lip can prolong the retention time in the GIT, protect HM against enzyme degradation, and improve transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers, thus enhancing the oral bioavailability of HM.

Sci Rep
Sci Rep 2016 10;6:20914. Epub 2016 Feb 10.
Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory for Human Disease Gene Study, School of Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences &Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are leading causes of blindness in aging populations. This study was conducted to investigate the associations of chromosome 6p21.3 region, including CFB-SKIV2L-TNXB-FKBPL-NOTCH4 genes, with both neovascular AMD and PCV.Read More

Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this region and two known AMD-associated SNPs in CFH (rs800292) and HTRA1 (rs11200638) were genotyped in a Han Chinese cohort composed of 490 neovascular AMD patients, 419 PCV patients and 1316 controls. Among the SNPs, TNXB rs12153855 and FKBPL rs9391734 conferred an increased susceptibility to neovascular AMD (P = 2.8 × 10(-4) and 0.001, OR = 1.80 and 1.76, respectively), while SKIV2L exerted a protective effect on neovascular AMD (P = 2.2 × 10(-4), OR = 0.49). Rs12153855C and rs9391734A alleles could further increase the susceptibility to AMD in subjects with rs800292, rs11200638 and rs429608 risk alleles. However, only the association of SKIV2L rs429608 remained significant after adjusting for rs800292, rs11200638 and the other 5 SNPs. The protective haplotype AATGAG exhibited significant association with neovascular AMD (permutation P = 0.015, OR = 0.34). None of the SNPs in this region was associated with PCV. Association profiles of 6p21.3 region showed discrepancy between neovascular AMD and PCV, indicating possible molecular and pathological differences between these two retinal disorders.

Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother 2016 Feb 26;35(1):32-6. Epub 2016 Jan 26.
1 Zoology Institute, Shandong Agricultural University , Shandong Province, China .

To produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against NS1 protein of duck Tembusu virus (TMUV), the NS1 gene sequence was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+). The prokaryotic protein NS1 was successfully expressed in BL21 (DE3) and used as the immunogen in mice. Six MAbs against NS1 protein were obtained by using the standard hybridoma technique.Read More

All MAbs can react with the denatured NS1 protein in the Western blot assay and the native NS1 protein from the TMUV-infected BHK-21 cells in the immunofluorescence assay. The ELISA titers of the cell supernatants and ascites of MAbs were at a high level. The subtypes of the MAbs were determined by the Rapid Mouse Isotyping Kit-Gold series. Six MAbs possessed higher specificity and sensitivity, which indicated that MAbs against NS1 protein of TMUV may be used as valuable tools for analysis of the protein functions and pathogenesis of TMUV.

Dig. Dis. Sci.
Dig Dis Sci 2016 Feb 15. Epub 2016 Feb 15.
Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, 3500 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.

The contractility of colonic smooth muscle is dysregulated due to immune/inflammatory responses in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflammation in vitro induces up-regulation of regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) expression in colonic smooth muscle cells.
To characterize the immune/inflammatory responses and RGS4 expression pattern in colonic smooth muscle after induction of colitis.Read More

Colitis was induced in rabbits by intrarectal instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Innate/adaptive immune response RT-qPCR array was performed using colonic circular muscle strips. At 1-9 weeks after colonic intramuscular microinjection of lentivirus, the distal and proximal colons were collected, and muscle strips and dispersed muscle cells were prepared from circular muscle layer. Expression levels of RGS4 and NFκB signaling components were determined by Western blot analysis. The biological consequences of RGS4 knockdown were assessed by measurement of muscle contraction and phospholipase C (PLC)-β activity in response to acetylcholine (ACh).
Contraction in response to ACh was significantly inhibited in the inflamed colonic circular smooth muscle cells. RGS4, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, CCL3, CD1D, and ITGB2 were significantly up-regulated, while IL-18, CXCR4, CD86, and C3 were significantly down-regulated in the inflamed muscle strips. RGS4 protein expression in the inflamed smooth muscles was dramatically increased. RGS4 stable knockdown in vivo augmented ACh-stimulated PLC-β activity and contraction in colonic smooth muscle cells.
Inflamed smooth muscle exhibits up-regulation of IL-1-related signaling components, Th1 cytokines and RGS4, and inhibition of contraction. Stable knockdown of endogenous RGS4 in colonic smooth muscle increases PLC-β activity and contractile responses.

The NAP (NAC-like, activated by AP3/P1) transcription factor belongs to a subfamily of the NAC transcription factor family, and is believed to have an important role in regulating plant growth and development. However, there is very little information about this subfamily in Rosaceous plants. We identified seven NAP genes in the peach genome.Read More

PpNAP2 was categorized in the NAP I group, and contained a conserved transcription activation region. The other PpNAP genes belonged to the NAP II group. The expression patterns of the PpNAP genes differed in various organs and developmental stages. PpNAP1 and PpNAP2 were highly expressed in mature and senescing flowers, but not in leaves, fruits, and flower buds. PpNAP3 and PpNAP5 were only expressed in leaves. The PpNAP4 expression level was high in mature and senescing fruits, while PpNAP6 and PpNAP7 expression was up-regulated in mature and senescent leaves and flowers. During the fruit development period, the PpNAP4 and PpNAP6 expression levels rapidly increased during the S1 and S4 stages, which suggests these genes are involved in the first exponential growth phase and fruit ripening. During the fruit ripening and softening period, the PpNAP1, PpNAP4, and PpNAP6 expression levels were high during the early storage period, which was accompanied by a rapid increase in ethylene production. PpNAP1, PpNAP4, and PpNAP6 expression slowly increased during the middle or late storage periods, and peaked at the end of the storage period. Additionally, abscisic acid (ABA)-treated fruits were softer and produced more ethylene than the controls. Furthermore, the PpNAP1, PpNAP4, and PpNAP6 expression levels were higher in ABA-treated fruits. These results suggest that PpNAP1, PpNAP4, and PpNAP6 are responsive to ABA and may regulate peach fruit ripening.

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2016 Feb;24(2):130-2
Department of Infectious Diseases, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601, China.
Ren Fail
Ren Fail 2016 16;38(1):50-6. Epub 2015 Dec 16.
a Department of Nephrology , 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University , Nanjing, Jiangsu Province , China and.

Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is an important complication in patients with end-stage renal disease. Since recent studies have shown that magnesium (Mg) disturbance plays an important role in CKD-MBD and cardiovascular mortality, the interest on magnesium has grown recently. Although much concern focused on the effect of Mg on parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, however, the influence of PTH on serum Mg levels is nearly unexplored.Read More

To evaluate the effect of PTH on serum Mg levels, we first described the relationship between serum Mg and PTH in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Besides, we also monitored the changes of serum Mg concentration after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in 23 patients. In our study, we found that hypermagnesemia (>2.5 mg/dL) occurred in up to 44% of cases and hypomagnesemia did not present. No statistically significant correlations were found between serum Mg levels and PTH (r = -0.143, p = 0.134). Correlation analysis and regression analysis suggested that the derangement of magnesium homeostasis was consistent with the derangement of calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. However, after PTX, serum magnesium levels dropped immediately after the surgery, minimally at the first day and gradually restored from the third day. The changes of serum Mg after surgery was positive correlated with the changes of serum phosphate (r = 0.558, p = 0.003). Taken altogether, our data suggested that the therapeutic strategies to achieve optimum serum magnesium levels in CKD-MBD should take into account the varying stages of disease development since PTH could also influence magnesium metabolism and this problem might be important in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 Jan 22;469(4):911-6. Epub 2015 Dec 22.
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7613, Raleigh 27695-7613, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Drosophila suzukii (commonly called spotted wing Drosophila) is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruit (e.g. blueberries, strawberries).Read More

A high quality reference genome sequence is available but functional genomic tools, such as used in Drosophila melanogaster, remain to be developed. In this study we have used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to introduce site-specific mutations in the D. suzukii white (w) and Sex lethal (Sxl) genes. Hemizygous males with w mutations develop white eyes and the mutant genes are transmissible to the next generation. Somatic mosaic females that carry mutations in the Sxl gene develop abnormal genitalia and reproductive tissue. The D. suzukii Sxl gene could be an excellent target for a Cas9-mediated gene drive to suppress populations of this highly destructive pest.

Anal Bioanal Chem
Anal Bioanal Chem 2016 Jan 11. Epub 2016 Jan 11.
CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, China.

Sensitive, specific, simple, fast, and low-cost DNA detection methods are extremely important in clinical diagnostics, gene therapy, and a variety of biomedical studies. In this work, we developed a general method for the detection of specific DNA sequences from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (v-myc) using gold nanoparticles bifunctionalized with both a chemiluminescent (CL) reagent and a catalytic metal complex as signal reporters and a DNA strand complementary to the target as the capture probe. In this CL method, a biotinylated single-strand DNA capture probe was immobilized in a streptavidin-coated microwell.Read More

Upon the addition of the target single-strand DNA, the capture probe hybridized with the target DNA. After adding the bifunctionalized gold nanoparticles and H2O2, a well-defined CL signal was obtained, and the CL intensity was observed to change as the target DNA concentration was increased. It was possible to determine the concentration of the target TB single-strand DNA in the range 1.0 × 10(-13)-1.0 × 10(-8) M with a detection limit of 4.8 × 10(-14) M. HBV single-strand DNA and v-myc single-strand DNA could also be determined in the range 1.0 × 10(-11)-1.0 × 10(-8) M with detection limits of 5.9 × 10(-12) M and 8.0 × 10(-12) M, respectively, using this CL technique. The method reported in this paper is the first label-free CL method for the determination of specific DNA sequences to utilize gold nanoparticles bifunctionalized with both a CL reagent and a catalytic metal complex. The sensitivity of this CL method is superior to those of most previously reported label-free methods. Compared with methods that use polymerase chain reaction amplification, this label-free CL method is much simpler, faster, and more economic. This work has thus demonstrated a simple and fast scanning strategy for the detection of specific DNA sequences related to diseases. Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration of label-free CL method for detection of specific DNA sequences.

BMC Neurosci
BMC Neurosci 2016 11;17. Epub 2016 Jan 11.
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Tongzipo Road 172, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, China.

In highly complex social settings, an animal's motivational drive to pursue an object depends not only on the intrinsic properties of the object, but also on whether the decision-making animal perceives an object as being the most desirable among others. Mimetic desire refers to a subject's preference for objects already possessed by another subject. To date, there are no appropriate animal models for studying whether mimetic desire is at play in guiding the decision-making process.Read More

Furthermore, the neuropharmacological bases of decision-making processes are not well understood. In this study, we used an animal model (rat) to investigate a novel food-foraging paradigm for decision-making, with or without a mimetic desire paradigm.
Faced with the choice of foraging in a competitive environment, rats preferred foraging for the desirable object, indicating the rats' ability for decision-making. Notably, treatment with the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801, but not with the dopamine D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, SCH23390 and haloperidol, respectively, suppressed the food foraging preference when there was a competing resident rat in the cage. None of these three antagonists affected the food-foraging preference for palatable food. Moreover, MK-801 and SCH23390, but not haloperidol, were able to abolish the desirable environment effect on standard food-foraging activities in complex social settings.
These results highlight the concept that mimetic desire exerts a powerful influence on food-foraging decision-making in rats and, further, illustrate the various roles of the glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems in mediating these processes.

Reprod Sci
Reprod Sci 2016 Jan 13. Epub 2016 Jan 13.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China

The increasing use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in clinic has raised concerns regarding the reliable reference range for this test. However, the reference range for AMH in normal Chinese female population has not been established. Furthermore, relationship between AMH and other clinical markers such as body mass index (BMI) and antral follicle counts (AFCs) and other sex-related hormones have not been examined in normal population-based women.Read More

We aimed to determine the age-specific reference range for serum AMH in healthy Chinese women throughout reproductive age to menopause and to estimate relationship between AMH and other clinical markers in healthy women.
In this multicenter and nationwide study, advertisements were used to recruit 2055 women, aged 20 to 55 years, from 6 different regions in China; 1590 (77.37%) women met the inclusion criteria for the reference range population. We measured the baseline serum AMH levels using new Beckman Coulter Gen II assay. Serum concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), and AFCs were also determined in the follicular phase.
The AMH-Age nomogram and AMH levels of different age-groups and the relationship between AMH and other clinical markers.
Serum AMH concentrations declined progressively with age. A quadratic model defined as log (AMH) = (-1.970 + 0.296 × Age - 0.006 × Age(2)) fitted best the decline of AMH with age. The median AMH levels were 6.23, 5.65, 4.55, 3.74, 2.78, and 1.09 ng/mL for the 20 ≤ age < 25, 25 ≤ age < 30, 30 ≤ age < 33, 33 ≤ age < 37, 37 ≤ age < 40, and 40 ≤ age < 55 groups, respectively. The 5th to 95th percentiles of the AMH levels, as the reference range, were 2.06 to 12.66, 1.77 to 13.83, 1.48 to 11.45, 0.87 to 9.76, 0.56 to 9.49, and 0.08 to 5.70 ng/mL for each age-group. The AMH levels were positively correlated with AFCs and T, LH, PRL and PRG levels and negatively correlated with BMI and FSH levels and were not significantly correlated with E2 levels. The relationship between AMH and other variables remain unchanged except for PRL, which was not significantly correlated with AMH levels after controlling for both age and BMI.
This study determined the normal reference ranges for serum AMH levels in a large population-based sample of healthy Chinese women.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal, chronic, progressive disease characterized by formation of scar tissue within the lungs. Because it is a disease of unknown etiology, it is difficult to diagnose, to predict disease course and to devise treatment strategies. Recent evidence suggests that activated macrophages play key roles in the pathology of IPF.Read More

Therefore, imaging probes that specifically recognize these pools of activated immune cells could provide valuable information about how these cells contribute to the pathobiology of the disease. Here we demonstrate that cysteine cathepsin-targeted imaging probes can be used to monitor the contribution of macrophages to fibrotic disease progression in the bleomycin-induced murine model of pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, we show that the probes highlight regions of macrophage involvement in fibrosis in human biopsy tissues from IPF patients. Finally, we present first-in-human results demonstrating non-invasive imaging of active cathepsins in fibrotic lesions of patients with IPF. Together, our findings validate small molecule cysteine cathepsin probes for clinical PET imaging and suggest that they have the potential to be used to generate mechanistically-informative molecular information regarding cellular drivers of IPF disease severity and progression.

Korean J Radiol
Korean J Radiol 2016 Jan-Feb;17(1):69-78. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

To determine whether an optimal blood suppression inversion time (BSP TI) can boost arterial visibility and whether the optimal BSP TI is related to breathing rate (BR) and heart rate (HR) for hypertension subjects in spatial labeling with multiple inversion pulses (SLEEK).
This prospective study included 10 volunteers and 93 consecutive hypertension patients who had undergone SLEEK at 1.5T MRI system.Read More

Firstly, suitable BSP TIs for displaying clearly renal artery were determined in 10 volunteers. Secondly, non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography with the suitable BSP TIs were performed on those hypertension patients. Then, renal artery was evaluated and an optimal BSP TI to increase arterial visibility was determined for each patient. Patients' BRs and HRs were recorded and their relationships with the optimal BSP TI were analyzed.
The optimal BSP TI was negatively correlated with BR (r1 = -0.536, P1 < 0.001; and r2 = -0.535, P2 < 0.001) and HR (r1 = -0.432, P1 = 0.001; and r2 = -0.419, P2 = 0.001) for 2 readers (κ = 0.93). For improving renal arterial visibility, BSP TI = 800 ms could be applied as the optimal BSP TI when the 95% confidence interval were 17-19/min (BR1) and 74-82 bpm (HR1) for reader#1 and 17-19/min (BR2) and 74-83 bpm (HR2) for reader#2; BSP TI = 1100 ms while 14-15/min (BR1, 2) and 71-76 bpm (HR1, 2) for both readers; and BSP TI = 1400 ms when 13-16/min (BR1) and 63-68 bpm (HR1) for reader#1 and 14-15/min (BR2) and 64-70 bpm (HR2) for reader#2.
In SLEEK, BSP TI is affected by patients' BRs and HRs. Adopting the optimal BSP TI based on BR and HR can improve the renal arterial visibility and consequently the working efficiency.

PLoS One 2016 22;11(1):e0147424. Epub 2016 Jan 22.
Department of Immunology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China.

Cytokine-like protein 1 (Cytl1), originally described as a protein expressed in CD34+ cells, was recently identified as a functional secreted protein involved in chondrogenesis and cartilage development. However, our knowledge of Cytl1 is still limited. Here, we determined the Cytl1 expression pattern regulated by ovarian hormones at both the mRNA and protein levels.Read More

We found that the endometrial expression of Cytl1 in mice was low before or on the first day of gestation, significantly increased during embryo implantation, and then decreased at the end of implantation. We investigated the effects of Cytl1 on endometrial cell proliferation, and the effects on the secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF). We also explored the effect of Cytl1 on endometrial adhesion properties in cell-cell adhesion assays. Our findings demonstrated that Cytl1 is an ovarian hormone-dependent protein expressed in the endometrium that enhances the proliferation of HEC-1-A and RL95-2 cells, stimulates endometrial secretion of LIF and HB-EGF, and enhances the adhesion of HEC-1-A and RL95-2 cells to JAR spheroids. This study suggests that Cytl1 plays an active role in the regulation of embryo implantation.

APMIS 2016 Jan-Feb;124(1-2):52-66
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) comprise 8% of the human genome and can be classified into at least 31 families. A typical HERV provirus consists of internal gag, pol and env genes, flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTRs). No single provirus is capable of engendering infectious particles.Read More

HERV are by nature repetitive and have with few notable exceptions lost their protein-coding capacity. Therefore, HERV have consistently been excluded from array-based expression studies and hence little is known of their expression, regulation, and potential functional significance. An increasing number of studies have, however, observed expression of the W family of HERV in various human tissues and cells, predominantly in placenta. HERV-W LTRs act as promoters in directing transcription of HERV-W members, contribute to their tissue-specific and highly diversified expression pattern. Furthermore, leaky transcription originating from adjacent genes plays a role in the transcription initiation of HERV-W psudoelements. It has been reported that HERV-W elements, including ERVWE1 (the so far only known HERV-W locus harboring a gene (env) functionally adopted by the human host to critically participate in placenta biogenesis), can become transactivated in a range of human non-placental cell-lines during exogenous virus infections. Aberrant expression of HERV-W has been associated with human diseases, such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Based on published reports, transcriptional activities of HERV-W appear to be influenced by several mechanisms; binding of transcription factors to LTR promoters and enhancers outside of LTRs, genetic variation and alteration in DNA methylation and histone modification. Emerging mechanistic studies support the notion that HERV-W represents a potential marker or mediator of environmental exposures (e.g., virus infection) in the development of chronic complex diseases.

Tumour Biol.
Tumour Biol 2016 Jan 28. Epub 2016 Jan 28.
Department of Oncology, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing, 100853, China.

This study is aimed to investigate the differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer and its potential biological function. Colorectal adenoma is the precancerous lesions of colorectal cancer, so in this study, we used colorectal adenoma as negative control. The global lncRNA expression profile in colorectal cancer and adenoma was evaluated by bioinformatics.Read More

The biological functions and potential mechanism of AK027294 were investigated in HCT116, HCT8, and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. A total of 135 lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in colorectal cancer and adenoma tissues. Among them, 71 lncRNAs were up-regulated and 64 lncRNAs were down-regulated. Especially, AK027294 was found to be highly expressed in colorectal cancer tissues compared with colorectal adenoma tissues (fold change is 184.5). Our results indicated that AK027294 down-regulation significantly inhibited colorectal cancer cells proliferation and migration, but promoted cell apoptosis (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism of AK027294 might be associated with the regulation of caspase-3, caspase-8, Bcl-2, MMP12, MMP9, and TWIST. The lncRNA expression profile in colorectal cancer suggests lncRNAs may play important roles in the occurrence and progression of colorectal cancer. AK027294 is highly expressed in colorectal cancer and closely correlates with colorectal cells proliferation, migration, and apoptosis.

PLoS One 2016 29;11(1):e0148071. Epub 2016 Jan 29.
Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Army General Hospital, Beijing 100700, China.

There have been few studies comparing the clinical and radiographic outcomes between the Dynesys dynamic stabilization system and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The objective of this study is to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of Dynesys and PLIF for lumbar degenerative disease.
Of 96 patients with lumbar degenerative disease included in this retrospectively analysis, 46 were treated with the Dynesys system and 50 underwent PLIF from July 2008 to March 2011.Read More

Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. We also evaluated the occurrence of radiographic and symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration (ASD).
The mean follow-up time in the Dynesys group was 53.6 ± 5.3 months, while that in the PLIF group was 55.2 ± 6.8 months. At the final follow-up, the Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale score were significantly improved in both groups. The range of motion (ROM) of stabilized segments in Dynesys group decreased from 7.1 ± 2.2° to 4.9 ± 2.2° (P < 0.05), while that of in PLIF group decreased from 7.3 ± 2.3° to 0° (P < 0.05). The ROM of the upper segments increased significantly in both groups at the final follow-up, the ROM was higher in the PLIF group. There were significantly more radiographic ASDs in the PLIF group than in the Dynesys group. The incidence of complications was comparable between groups.
Both Dynesys and PLIF can improve the clinical outcomes for lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to PLIF, Dynesys stabilization partially preserves the ROM of the stabilized segments, limits hypermobility in the upper adjacent segment, and may prevent the occurrence of ASD.

Medicine (Baltimore)
Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Jan;95(4):e2614
From the Department of Infectious Disease, Peking University First Hospital, No.8 Xishiku Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.

The aim of the study is to explore the evolution of genotypic mutations within the reverse transcriptase region in partial virological responders (PVRs) receiving long-term entecavir (ETV) treatment. A total of 32 patients were classified as completely virological responders (CVRs) (n = 12) or PVRs (n = 20). Five partial responders were hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA positive after long-term therapy, which lasted for >3 years.Read More

A total of 71 serum samples from these 32 patients were assayed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS): 32 samples were from all patients at baseline, and 39 were from PVRs with sequential inter-treatment. Approximately 84,708 sequences were generated per sample. At baseline, the quasispecies heterogeneity did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. The frequencies of substitutions indicating pre-existence of nucleos(t)ide analog resistant (NAr) mutants ranged from 0.10% to 6.70%, which did not statistically differ between groups either. However, the substitutions associated with the NAr mutants were significantly different from those associated with the non-NAr mutants in 13 patients; 6 of these patients were PVRs and the others were CVRs. Five patients were HBV DNA positive after regular ETV monotherapy for >3 years, and 4 of these patients underwent mild NAr substitution fluctuations (<20%). One patient developed virological breakthrough while bearing single, double, and triple (rtL180 M, rtM204 V, rtS202G) substitutions. In addition to the common substitutions, unknown amino acid substitutions, such as rtL145 M/S, rtF151Y/L, rtR153Q, rtI224 V, rtN248H, rtS223A, rtS256C, need to be further verified. NAr substitutions are observed at frequencies of 0.10% to 6.7% before therapy. Long-term ETV therapy generally results in virological responses, as long as the proportion of resistance mutations remains at a relatively low level. Genotypic resistance to ETV is detected in all PVRs receiving long-term ETV therapy.

J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2016 Jan 23;17(1). Epub 2016 Mar 23.
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, China Institute of Advanced Surgical Technology and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China

Currently, there is no effective therapy available for liver fibrosis. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of renin angiotensin system inhibitors on liver fibrosis.
Full-text randomized controlled trials in patients with liver fibrosis were identified and included in the meta-analysis.Read More

The primary outcome measure was the histological fibrosis score of the liver. Secondary outcome measures included fibrosis area of the liver, serological levels of fibrosis markers, adverse events, and withdrawals.
From 6973 non-duplicated entries by systematic search, four randomized controlled trials with 210 patients were identified. The renin angiotensin system inhibitors therapy resulted in a marginally significant reduction in liver fibrosis score (MD = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.62-0.02, p = 0.05) and a significant reduction in liver fibrosis area (MD = -2.36%; 95% CI: -4.22%--0.50%, p = 0.01) as compared with control. The therapy was well tolerated and there was no significant difference in withdrawals between treatment and control groups (RD = 0.00; 95% CI: -0.06-0.06, p = 0.97).
Renin angiotensin system inhibitor therapy results in a reduction in liver fibrosis score and liver fibrosis area in patients with hepatic fibrosis with good safety profile. However, randomized controlled trials of high-quality will clarify the effectiveness of renin angiotensin system inhibitors on liver fibrosis.


To investigate the facial aging analysis of 1200 Han adult people in Dalian with iris diameter, so as to provide reference for facial rejuvenation in Han people.
1200 facial digital photographs from the second-generation ID card of China were stratified randomly selected as the research sample, excluding facial deformity, tattooing eyebrow, tattooing lid margin, ptosis, lip grain and eyebrow deformity cases, as well as the cases whose join point of upper eyelid and lower eyelid not exposed at the nasal side. These photos were divided into six cohorts: female aged 18, 38, and 68 years old; and male aged 18, 38, and 68 years old, with 200 cases in each cohort.Read More

The individual iris diameter was divided into 20 equal parts in each photograph, with each part marked one unit as individual iris diameter ruler. Ten values were made from a horizontal plane between the medial canthus to ten points at one face ( the line between two medial canthus is used as the horizontal line, circumocular and facial soft tissue were measured with individual iris diameter ruler on the photographs), then the results were analyzed with Adobe Photoshop software.
There are statistically significant differences in eyebrow height (36.42 ± 4.22 unit in 18 years old male group, 40.22 ± 6.90 unit in 38 years old male group, 34.83 ± 9.39 unit in 68 years old male group; 37.59 ± 6.72 unit in 18 years old female group, 41.09 ± 5.15 unit in 38 years old female group, 36.84 ± 9.45 unit in 68 years old female group), palpebral fissure height, physiognomic external canthus height, palpebral fissure width, pupil height and other items (P < 0.05).
(1) The brow position rises to the peak level at middle age (38 years old group), then drops down gradually with aging. (2) The physiognomic external canthus moves towards the nasal side and caudal side with aging. (3) Eyeball moves towards caudal side with aging. (4) The soft tissue around bilateral angle of mouth, nasal tip and submaxilla moves towards caudal side with aging. (5) The measurement of individual iris diameter ruler can apply to analyze the aging changes of facial soft tissue, and is more suitable for the case when facial photographs are taken at different distances.

Patterns of genetic and genomic variance are informative in inferring population history for human, model species and endangered populations.
Here the genome sequence of wild-born African cheetahs reveals extreme genomic depletion in SNV incidence, SNV density, SNVs of coding genes, MHC class I and II genes, and mitochondrial DNA SNVs. Cheetah genomes are on average 95 % homozygous compared to the genomes of the outbred domestic cat (24.Read More

08 % homozygous), Virunga Mountain Gorilla (78.12 %), inbred Abyssinian cat (62.63 %), Tasmanian devil, domestic dog and other mammalian species. Demographic estimators impute two ancestral population bottlenecks: one >100,000 years ago coincident with cheetah migrations out of the Americas and into Eurasia and Africa, and a second 11,084-12,589 years ago in Africa coincident with late Pleistocene large mammal extinctions. MHC class I gene loss and dramatic reduction in functional diversity of MHC genes would explain why cheetahs ablate skin graft rejection among unrelated individuals. Significant excess of non-synonymous mutations in AKAP4 (p<0.02), a gene mediating spermatozoon development, indicates cheetah fixation of five function-damaging amino acid variants distinct from AKAP4 homologues of other Felidae or mammals; AKAP4 dysfunction may cause the cheetah's extremely high (>80 %) pleiomorphic sperm.
The study provides an unprecedented genomic perspective for the rare cheetah, with potential relevance to the species' natural history, physiological adaptations and unique reproductive disposition.

Ann Transl Med
Ann Transl Med 2015 Dec;3(21):322
1 Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing 100142, China ; 2 People's Liberation Army (PLA) 81 Hospital, Nanjing 210002, China ; 3 Peking University International Hospital, Beijing 100089, China ; 4 Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060, China ; 5 Beijing Tongren Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China ; 6 PLA General Hospital (304 Hospital), Beijing 100048, China ; 7 Zhejiang Provincial Tumor Hospital, Hangzhou 310022, China ; 8 First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, China ; 9 Cancer Institute & Hospital, China Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021, China ; 10 Southwest Hospital & Third Military Medical University Affiliated First Hospital, Chongqing 400038, China ; 11 First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011, China ; 12 Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu 610072, China ; 13 Xi'an Jiao Tong University Affiliated First Hospital, Xi'an 710061, China ; 14 Beijing Jishuitan Hospital & Fourth Clinical College of Peking University, Beijing 100035, China ; 15 Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital Affiliated to Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310016, China ; 16 Nineth People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China ; 17 Tianjin Medical University Affiliated Tumor Hospital, Tianjin 300321, China ; 18 Jiangsu Provincial People's Hospital & First affiliated hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210036, China ; 19 Yunnan Provincial Tumor Hospital, Nanjing 210029, China ; 20 First Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006, China ; 21 General Hospital of Jinan Military Command, Jinan 250031, China ; 22 Jilin University First Hospital, Changchun 130021, China ; 23 Southern Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China ; 24 Fudan University Affiliated Tumor Hospital, Shanghai 200032, China.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2015 Nov;49(11):1016-7
Department of Infectious Disease, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Urumqi 830002, China.
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi 2015 Oct;53(10):727-30
Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021, China; Email:

To compare the short-term outcomes and pulmonary function loss between thoracoscopic anatomical partial-lobectomy and thoracoscopic lobectomy on the patients with pT1aN0M0 peripheral non-small cell lung cancer.
The clinical data of 191 patients with pT1aN0M0 peripheral non-small cell lung cancer received thoracoscopic anatomical pneumonectomy between January 2013 and July 2013 in Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences was analyze retrospectively. There were 71 patients underwent thoracoscopic anatomical partial-lobectomy and 120 patients underwent thoracoscopic lobectomy.Read More

Demographic features, operation time, blood loss, number of dissected lymph nodes, chest tube duration, drainage volume, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative complications, two-year progress and pulmonary function loss of FEV1% (percentage of the predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second) at 6 months were retrospectively reviewed and compared by t test, rank-sum test, χ² test and Fisher exact test.
There were no significant differences in operation time, blood loss, number of dissected lymph nodes, chest tube duration, drainage volume, postoperative hospital stay, and postoperative complication rate (P > 0.05). The two-year progress rate between two groups did not differ significantly either (1.4% vs. 1.7%, χ² = 0.000, P = 1.000). Pulmonary function loss of FEV1% at 6 months was significantly smaller in thoracoscopic anatomical partial lobectomy group than thoracoscopic lobectomy group (14% ± 4% vs. 16% ± 4%, t = 2.408, P = 0.017).
Thoracoscopic anatomical partial-lobectomy is safe and feasible for patients with pT1aN0M0 peripheral non-small cell lung cancer. It could achieve equal short-term effect and reserve more pulmonary function compared with thoracoscopic lobectomy.


Multi-wavelength ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) transmission spectra of bacteria combined the forward scattering and absorption properties of microbes, contains substantial information on size, shape, and the other chemical, physiological character of bacterial cells, has the bacterial species specificity, which can be applied to rapid species identification of bacterial microbes. Four different kinds of bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumonia which were commonly existed in water were researched in this paper. Their multi-wavelength UV-Vis transmission spectra were measured and analyzed.Read More

The rapid identification method and model of bacteria were built which were based on support vector machine (SVM) and multi-wavelength UV-Vis transmission spectra of the bacteria. Using the internal cross validation based on grid search method of the training set for obtaining the best penalty factor C and the kernel parameter g, which the model needed. Established the bacteria fast identification model according to the optimal parameters and one-against-one classification method included in LibSVM. Using different experimental bacteria strains of transmission spectra as a test set of classification accuracy verification of the model, the analysis results showed that the bacterial rapid identification model built in this paper can identification the four kinds bacterial which chosen in this paper as the accuracy was 100%, and the model also can identified different subspecies of E. coli test set as the accuracy was 100%, proved the model had a good stability in identification bacterial species. In this paper, the research results of this study not only can provide a method for rapid identification and early warning of bacterial microbial in drinking water sources, but also can be used as the microbes identified in biomedical a simple, rapid and accurate means.

To evaluate the accuracy of the latest BladderScan BVI9400 on measuring bladder volume.
Two bladder phantoms were selected for investigating the accuracy of BVI9400. 341 patients with the iU22 ultrasound examinations were followed by BVI 9400.Read More

The difference and correlation between BVI9400 and iU22 were contrastively analyzed.
The relative difference between results from BVI9400 and phantom volume was 2.5% and 1.36%. There was a strong correlation for patients between BVI9400 and iU22 (R = 0.96, P < 0.001). The relative difference between BVI9400 and iU22 decreased with the increasing of bladder volume and had no significant difference with patient's gender (P > 0.1).
BladderScan BVI9400 had the ability of high accuracy and good stability of measured data. In view of quick and conveniences, BVI9400 could be as auxiliary equipment on pelvic tumor to evaluate whether the bladder volume during fractional radiotherapy was consistency with that during CT positioning.

There are many influence factors in the precision and accuracy of the quantitative analysis with LIBS technology. According to approximately the same characteristics trend of background spectrum and characteristic spectrum along with the change of temperature through in-depth analysis, signal-to-background ratio (S/B) measurement and regression analysis could compensate the spectral line intensity changes caused by system parameters such as laser power, spectral efficiency of receiving. Because the measurement dates were limited and nonlinear, we used support vector machine (SVM) for regression algorithm.Read More

The experimental results showed that the method could improve the stability and the accuracy of quantitative analysis of LIBS, and the relative standard deviation and average relative error of test set respectively were 4.7% and 9.5%. Data fitting method based on signal-to-background ratio(S/B) is Less susceptible to matrix elements and background spectrum etc, and provides data processing reference for real-time online LIBS quantitative analysis technology.

This study was designed to investigate the effect of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy such as pemetrexed and carboplatin followed by maintenance bevacizumab in patients with advanced, nonsquamous nonsmall cell lung cancer.
Previously untreated patients with advanced, non-squamous nonsmall cell lung cancer received bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 and carboplatin atan area under the concentration-time curve of 6 intravenously on day 1 every 21 days. Responding or stable patients who completed 6 cycles then received bevacizumab maintenance every 21 days until disease progression.Read More

In total, 32 patients were entered on the study.
No complete responses were observed, and 16 patients (50%) had a partial response. Sixteen patients (50%) displayed disease stability. The progression-free survival was 11.92 ± 6.12 months, and the overall survival was 12.52 ± 5.56 months. Treatment-related grade adverse events were obsearved gastrointestinal reaction (68%), rash (2%), Pectoralgia (1%), headache (1%), rlopecia (1%), renal function (1%), liver function (1%), and diarrhea (1%).
Combined pemetrexed, and carboplatin followed by maintenance bevacizumab was well tolerated and displayed remarkable effect in patients with advanced, nonsquamous nonsmall cell lung cancer.

Int J Clin Exp Med
Int J Clin Exp Med 2015 15;8(12):22217-26. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University Zhengzhou 450000, Henan Province, China.

Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been widely applied to treat patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). But the effect of GCs was not ideal. This study was to observe whether erythromycin could enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of budesonide in COPD model rats and to explore the mechanism involved.Read More

In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: healthy control group (H group), COPD model group (C group), erythromycin group (E group), budesonide group (B group) and erythromycin + budesonide group (E+B group). The rats in groups of C, E, B and E+B were developed into COPD models. Different groups were given different drug interventions. The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α, IL-8, and TNF-α in BALF and serum were measured with ELISA. The protein expression levels of HDAC2, PI3K, and p-AKT in lung tissue were measured with Western-blot and immunohistochemistry. The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α, IL-8, and TNF-α in BALF and serum were lower in E+B group than those in B group and C group (all P<0.001).The protein expression level of HDAC2 was higher and PI3K and p-AKT were lower in E+B group than those in B group and C group (all P<0.001). Moreover, the expression levels of HDAC2 were negatively correlated with the levels of 8-iso-PGF2α, IL-8 and TNF-α both in serum and BALF and the expression levels of PI3K and p-AKT among the five groups, with all P<0.001. We conclude that erythromycin can enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of budesonide in COPD model rats, possibly through inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway and enhancing the activity of HDAC2.

Int J Clin Exp Med
Int J Clin Exp Med 2015 15;8(12):22382-92. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
Department of Nursing, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine Shiyan 442000, Hubei, China.

Sex-determining region Y-box protein 2 (Sox2), an embryonic transcription factor located at chromosome 3q26.33, has been frequently demonstrated to be an important prognostic marker for various tumors, including breast cancer. However, its clinicopathological role in breast cancer has not been fully elucidated.Read More

To derive a more precise evaluation, we here performed a meta-analysis focusing on the association between Sox2 expression and various clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Relevant publications were identified and retrieved using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedical databases. Ten studies with a total of 1713 patients with breast cancer were included in our meta-analysis. Reported odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were pooled to assess the strengths of the analyzed associations. Our results revealed significant positive associations between Sox2 expression and increased tumor size (pooled OR=2.61, 95% CI=1.91-3.58), histological grade (pooled OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.72-3.03), lymph node metastasis (pooled OR=4.17, 95% CI=1.20-14.45), and the highly aggressive triple-negative phenotype (pooled OR=2.64, 95% CI=1.11-6.29). However, no associations were observed for TNM stage and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 statuses. Overall, the results of this meta-analysis indicate that Sox2 may be considered as a prognostic marker for breast cancer. More well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to clarify the prognostic significance of Sox2 in breast cancer.