Fang Li - Capital Medical University
Capital Medical University
Publications Authored By Fang Li
The performance improvement is mainly attributed to the good conductivity of N-doped graphene-like nanosheets and the unique design of tremella nanostructure, which provides a void space to allow for the Si nanoparticles expanding upon lithiation. The resulting electrode delivers a capacity of 1497.3 mAh g(-1) at the current density of 0.2 A g(-1) after 100 cycles.
Abdominal ultrasonography identified uterine leiomyoma and soft tissue masses. An abdominal CT demonstrated a continuous mass extending from the right internal and external iliac vein into the common iliac vein and inferior vena cava. To distinguish the mass from malignancy, the patient underwent PET/CT scan which showed increased FDG activity in the mass. However, histopathological examination proved the mass to be IV leiomyomatosis.
Interestingly, L1 remained to have elevated FDG, although with less intensity. In contrast, there was no abnormal C-acetate activity anywhere in the body. The patient remained in remission clinically.
In addition, TL1A could promote Th17 differentiation induced by TGF-β and IL-6 and increased the production of IL-17A. In the present study, we found that TL1A could promote the expression of IL-6 on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA patients via NF-κB and JNK signaling pathway. TL1A-stimulated FLS increased the percentage of Th17 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in RA via the production of IL-6, a critical cytokine involved in the differentiation of Th17. Moreover, the blocking of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) decreased TL1A-stimulated IL-6 production by RA FLS. Our results suggest that TL1A was capable of acting on RA FLS to elevate IL-6 expression, which promoted the production of Th17. More importantly, we showed that TL1A could influence RA FLS through binding to TNFR2 rather than DR3 on FLS, which indicated that the treatment of TNF inhibitors not only blocked the TNF but also suppressed the TL1A in RA patients.
The result showed that the decline of membrane flux related to the increase of the salinity and MLSS concentration of the mixed liquid. It was concluded that the antifouling ability of modified membranes ascribed to the change of surface morphology in addition to the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity. The bioinspired surface modifications might improve the anti-adhesion for the biopolymers and biocake.
Moreover, mucoid conversion of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to poor outcomes. This conversion is mainly due to mucA gene mutation, which is thought to be induced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the reactive oxygen species they release. Ambroxol, a mucolytic agent with antioxidant characteristics, is used clinically, and this compound has recently been demonstrated to possess anti-biofilm properties. In this study, we found that ambroxol inhibits the H2 O2 -mediated conversion of P. aeruginosa from a non-mucoid to a mucoid phenotype, an effect that is due to its antioxidant property against H2 O2 . Furthermore, the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms was increased in vitro when used in combination with ambroxol.
(1) Syncopal attacks of all patients tended to occur in the morning (P=0.010); there was a statistical difference in the frequency of episodes in four periods through the day in HUTT positive patients (P=0.001), but there was no significant change of episodes within a day in HUTT negative group; and there was no statistical difference in circadian syncope distribution between HUTT negative and HUTT positive group or among patients with different HUTT responses (the orthostatic hypotension (OH) and orthostatic hypertension (OHT) patients were excluded). (2) The syncopal attacks of morning hours occurred more in males than females, but the episodes in the evening occurred more in females than males (P=0.034). (3) The younger the patients were, the chance of syncopal attacks in the morning increased; the older the patients were, they may have more episodes at night (P<0.001).
A distinct circadian variation in the frequency of syncopal episodes exists, with a peak in the morning, and there were statistical differences in circadian rhythm of syncopal episodes regarding gender and age.
This study aimed to demonstrate whether H2S exhibits protective effects on the myocardium of streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats by suppressing ER stress. In this study, diabetic models were established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 40 mg/kg STZ. The STZ‑treated mice were divided into three groups, and subsequently treated with normal saline, 30 µmol/kg or 100 µmol/kg NaHS, i.p., respectively, for 8 weeks. The extent of myocyte hypertrophy was measured using hematoxylin and eosin‑stained sections and collagen components were investigated using immunostaining. The expression of glucose-regulated protein (Grp78), C/EBP‑homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase‑12 in the heart tissue of each group was detected by western blot analysis. It was demonstrated that H2S could improve myocardial hypertrophy and myocardial collagen deposition in diabetic rats. In addition, it could reduce the expression of Grp78, caspase-12 and CHOP. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that H2S suppresses STZ‑induced ER stress in the hearts of rats, and it may serve as a novel cardioprotective agent for DC.
The autonomous DNA replication-scission-displacement reaction operated by the nicking endonuclease/KF polymerase induced the autocatalytic opening of HP, which was then specifically bound by the enzyme/gold nanoparticles for further dual-signal amplification toward target-related sensing events. A low detection limit of 0.065fM with an excellent selectivity toward target DNA could be achieved. The proposed biosensor could be also easily regenerated for target detection. The developed biosensor creates an opportunity for the effective coupling of the target replication with post-amplification strategies and thus opens a promising avenue for the detection of nucleic acid with low abundance in bioanalysis and clinical biomedicine.
spiralis larvae infect muscle cells accompanying with the infiltration of host inflammatory cells, eventually create a new type of cell known as nurse cell developing a surrounding vascular network to support the larvae development. Controlling of host inflammatory responses and angiogenesis influences both the nurse cell differentiation and the parasite larvae development. CXCL8 is a chemokine that acts on G-protein coupled receptors, of which activation contributes to fibrosis and angiogenesis. CXCL8(3-73)K11R/G31P (G31P) has been reported as a CXCL8 analogue. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of G31P in inflammatory responses and the development of T. spiralis larvae in muscle tissues of mice infected with T. spiralis. The level of inflammatory factors and the morphology of T. spiralis larvae in infected tissues were investigated through ELISA and electron-microscopy analysis. G31P up-regulated IFN-γ and down-regulated CXCL8 level, and impaired the encapsulation of T. spiralis larvae in vivo. The results showed that G31P influenced the development of T. spiralis larvae in muscle tissues.
The present study evaluated the expression and biological function of miR-214 and miR-218 in human breast cancer. Our results revealed that the expression of miR-214 and miR-218 were significantly decreased in breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent tissues. The aberrant expression of miR-214 and miR-218 were negatively associated with Ki-67, and the miR-218 expression was positively associated with progesterone receptor (PR) in breast cancer tissues. In vitro, the cell proliferation and migration were decreased, cell apoptosis was induced, and cell cycle was also disturbed in miR-214 or miR-218 overexpressed breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that miR-214 and miR-218 function as tumor suppressors in breast cancer, and may become biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer.
Aside from his father's complaint of excessive tooth loss, his mother, two sisters, son, and daughter were healthy. Blood samples of the family members were drawn for genetic analyses. The entire coding region and adjacent splice sites of the PLEKHM1 gene were sequenced. One mutation, a heterozygous deletion mutation in exon 11 (c.3051_3052delCA), was identified in the patient but not in his relatives. The mutation leads to a translation product with a highly impaired Rubicon homology domain. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses using HEK293 cells showed that overexpression of a PLEKHM1 CA-deletion mutant resulted in a dramatic decrease in the interaction between PLEKHM1 and the small GTPase Rab7 compared to wildtype PLEKHM1. The normal processes of endocytosis and autophagy were disturbed in cells expressing the mutant (transfected HEK293 and U937 cells), as indicated by EGFR degradation and an altered LC3-I/II ratio, respectively, which may lead to a defect in osteoclast function. A four-year follow-up study of the patient showed that the PLEKHM1-dependent osteopetrosis was relatively malignant, with significant symptoms of pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
quadricarinatus identified 24 proteins including a 50 kDa major capsid protein (MCP). By summing the sizes of DNA restriction endonuclease fragments, the viral genome was estimated to be ~150 kb in length. A 34 amino acid sequence deduced from a 103 bp MCP gene region amplified by PCR using degenerate primers targeted to MCP gene regions conserved among iridoviruses and chloriridoviruses was most similar (55% identity) to Sergestid iridovirus. Based on virion morphology, protein composition, DNA genome length, and MCP sequence relatedness, the virus identified has tentatively been named Cherax quadricarinatus iridovirus (CQIV). In addition, experimental infection of healthy C. quadricarinatus, Procambarus clarkii, and Litopenaeus vannamei with CQIV caused the same disease and high mortality, suggesting that CQIV poses a potential threat to cultured and wild crayfish and shrimp.
In the present study, we performed whole-exome sequencing to identify the causative mutations in Chinese families in whom oligodontia segregates with dominant inheritance. We detected a heterozygous missense mutation (c.632G>A [p.Arg211Gln]) in WNT10B in all affected family members. By Sanger sequencing a cohort of 145 unrelated individuals with non-syndromic oligodontia, we identified three additional mutations (c.569C>G [p.Pro190Arg], c.786G>A [p.Trp262(∗)], and c.851T>G [p.Phe284Cys]). Interestingly, analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed that mutations in WNT10B affect the development of permanent dentition, particularly the lateral incisors. Furthermore, a functional assay demonstrated that each of these mutants could not normally enhance the canonical Wnt signaling in HEPG2 epithelial cells, in which activity of the TOPFlash luciferase reporter was measured. Notably, these mutant WNT10B ligands could not efficiently induce endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. Our findings provide the identification of autosomal-dominant WNT10B mutations in individuals with oligodontia, which increases the spectrum of congenital tooth agenesis and suggests attenuated Wnt signaling in endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.
3 ± 0.6 vs 5.5 ± 0.6, respectively). Ovarian tissue from superovulated animals showed a 46% decrease in preantral follicles in old versus young hamsters. There was a 39% reduction in MII oocyte number in old versus young hamsters. Young ova had no collapsed CL, whereas old ova were replete with areas of collapsed, non-luminal CL. Eighty-nine per cent of young ova were expanded against the zona pellucida with a clear indentation at the polar body, compared with 58.64% for old ova; the remaining old ova had increased perivitelline space with no polar body indentation. Higher reactive oxygen species levels and lower mitochondrial membrane potentials were seen in ova from old versus young hamsters. A significant decrease in mitochondrial number (36%) and lower frequency of clear mitochondria (31%) were observed in MII oocytes from old versus young hamster. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the theory of oocyte depletion during mammalian aging, and suggest that morphological changes of mitochondria and CL in oocytes may be contributing factors in the age-related decline in fertility rates.
Resistance genes conferring these phenotypes were harbored by a large conjugative plasmid, which increases the threat of Salmonella Typhi and thus requires close surveillance for dissemination of strains containing such genes.
0×10-8 mol·L-1 of synthetic AE concentration, which was very low compared with other CL reagents such as luminol, N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) and lucigenin at the concentration of 3.3×10-4-5.0×10-6 mol·L-1 used for the synthesis of CL functionalized nanomaterials, exhibited outstanding chemiluminescence (CL) activity and good stability. It was found that carbon nanomaterials as nanosized platforms could efficiently immobilize AE molecules and facilitate the formation of OH• and O2•-, leading to strong light emission. Moreover, the CL intensity of AE-GO was the highest, which was about 8.7 and 3.7 times higher than that of AE-CNPs and AE-MCNTs, respectively. This mainly resulted from a difference in amount of adsorbed AE molecules on the surface of different carbon nanomaterials. Additionally, the prepared AE-CNPs demonstrated excitation-dependent fluorescence property and good fluorescence stability against photo-bleaching. Based on the excellent CL and special fluorescence properties of AE-CNPs, dual-mode array strategy has been proposed for the first time and seven kinds of transition metal ions could be successfully discriminated.
CT, MRI, endoscopic ultrasound, and (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT were done according to standard protocols. GLP-1R PET/CT was performed 30-60 min after the injection of (68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4. The gold standard for diagnosis was the histopathologic results after surgery.
Of 52 recruited patients, 43 patients with histopathologically proven insulinomas were included for the imaging studies. Nine patients did not undergo surgical intervention. (68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT correctly detected insulinomas in 42 of 43 patients with high tumor uptake (mean SUVavg ± SD, 10.2 ± 4.9; mean SUVmax ± SD, 23.6 ± 11.7), resulting in sensitivity of 97.7%. In contrast, (99m)Tc-hydrazinonicotinamide-TOC SPECT/CT showed a low sensitivity of 19.5% (8/41) in this group of patients; however, it successfully localized the tumor that was false-negative with GLP-1R PET/CT. The sensitivities of CT, MR, and endoscopic ultrasonography were 74.4% (32/43), 56.0% (14/25), and 84.0% (21/25), respectively.
(68)Ga-NOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT is a highly sensitive imaging technique for the localization of insulinoma.
When comparing the highest with the lowest consumption, the pooled relative risks of hypertension were 0.812 (95% confidence interval, 0.740-0.890) for FVs, 0.732 (95% confidence interval, 0.621-0.861) for fruit, and 0.970 (95% confidence interval, 0.918-1.024) for vegetables. A significantly inverse association between fruit consumption and hypertension risk was found in studies carried out in Asia (relative risk, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.79). Influence analysis revealed that no individual study had an excessive influence on the pooled relative risks. The present meta-analysis indicates that FV consumption might be inversely associated with hypertension risk, which still needs to be confirmed by prospective cohort studies.
The images did not reveal any hypermetabolic metastases. However, the metabolic activity of the lesion in the right renal pelvis was not unambiguously determined because of interference of radioactive urine. C-acetate PET/CT, on the other hand, clearly revealed increased activity in the left renal pelvis. Pathological examination demonstrated solitary extraosseous plasmacytoma.
Antibody levels of ANMDARE of all these patients were tested at the same time. The PET images of each group were analyzed visually and also compared with 10 age- and sex-matched normal controls using voxel-wise statistical parametric mapping analysis (SPM5).
Variable brain metabolic patterns and its association with the clinical course and the levels of NMDA antibody were demonstrated by FDG PET images. First, severe hypometabolism in bilateral occipital lobes and relatively mild hypermetabolism in the partial frontal and basal ganglia in acute and subacute phase, the level of antibody was high. Second, in early recovery phase when the symptoms was partially improved, extensive cortical hypometabolism was observed, and the level of antibody was low. Third, the patients in the recovery phase have no obvious neurological and psychiatric symptoms; PET images were nearly normal, and the antibodies tests were all negative, correspondingly. Fourth, 3 scans of relapsing phase presented heterogeneous brain metabolic abnormalities.
There existed a specific serial brain metabolic changing pattern that correlated with the clinical course and antibody level in ANMDARE.
A mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) was subjected to OGD (2-9h) to examine the efficacy and molecular mechanisms in the presence or absence of YQFM (100, 200 and 400 μg/ml).
The results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) assays demonstrated that treatment with YQFM increased the cell viability and TEER value, decreased even blue (EB) albumin leakage after OGD in bEnd.3 cells. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining showed that YQFM reduced the breakage and translocation of Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 after 4h of OGD and decreased the expression of these proteins after 9h of OGD. Moreover, YQFM significantly inhibited the expression, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesionmolecule-1 (ICAM-1) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) as well as production of nitric oxide (NO). In addition, real time-PCR results revealed that YQFM suppressed the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) after 4h of OGD. Furthermore, YQFM markedly inhibited both the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and cytoskeletal reorganization and reduced the expression of cleaved-ROCK1 in bEnd.3 cells subjected to OGD.
These findings suggest that YQFM ameliorates the OGD-induced brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier disruption associated with the NF-κB/p65 and ROCK1/MLC signaling pathways. These data provide new insights into the use of this preparation for treating cerebrovascular diseases.
The linear relation between intensity and captopril concentration was good, and the detection limit was found to be 0.1578μM. Also, this novel detection platform demonstrated intriguing reusable properties, and the sensor could be repeated more than ten times without obviously losing its sensing performance.
Highly specific gRNAs were designed using bioinformatics tools, and their capacity of guiding CRISPR-associated system 9 to cleave HIV-1 proviral DNA was evaluated using high-throughput HIV-1 luciferase reporter assay and rapid Direct-PCR genotyping.
The target seed sequences for each gRNA were cloned into lentiviral vectors. HEK293T cells were cotransfected with a pEcoHIV-NL4-3-firefly-luciferase reporter vector (1 : 20) over lentiviral vectors carrying CRISPR-associated system 9 and single gRNA or various combinations of gRNAs. The EcoHIV DNA cleaving efficiency was evaluated by Direct-PCR genotyping, and the EcoHIV transcription/replication activity was examined by a luciferase reporter assay.
Most of the designed gRNAs are effective to eliminate the predicted HIV-1 genome sequence between the selected two target sites. This is evidenced by the presence of PCR genotypic deletion/insertion and the decrease of luciferase reporter activity. In particular, a combination of viral structural gRNAs with LTR gRNAs provided a higher efficiency of genome eradication and an easier approach for PCR genotyping.
Our screening strategy can specifically and effectively identify gRNAs targeting HIV-1 LTR and structural region to excise proviral HIV-1 from the host genome.
In rat serum, 62 components, including 13 prototype compounds and 49 metabolites were identified. Of these components, 14 metabolites were confirmed as novel metabolites of SYC. The results of the present study indicated that certain ﬂavonoid glycosides and monoterpene glycosides were absorbed directly. Glucuronidation and sulfation were identified as the predominant metabolic pathways of the components in SYC. In addition, certain phase I reactions, including hydrolysis, demethylation and hydroxylation occurred in the rats. These results provide scientific evidence, which support further investigations of the pharmacology and mechanism of SYC.
The myocardium infarct size, production of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), cardiac function, TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 activity were measured. Cell viability was determined, and cell apoptosis was measured by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured, and ATP content was quantified by bioluminescent assay. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins, including Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, AMPKα, and phospho-AMPKα, was analyzed by western blotting. AMPKα siRNA transfection was also applied to the mechanism elucidation. YQFM at a concentration of 1.06 g/kg significantly reduced myocardium infarct size and the production of LDH, CK in serum, improved the cardiac function, and also produced a significant decrease of apoptotic index. Further, combined treatment with compound C partly attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of YQFM. In addition, pretreatment with YQFM ranging from 25 to 400 μg/mL markedly improved cell viability and decreased LDH release. Moreover, YQFM inhibited H9c2 apoptosis, blocked the expression of caspase-3, and modulated Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, leading to an increased mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP content. Mechanistically, YQFM activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways whereas pretreatment with AMPK inhibitor Compound C and application of transfection with AMPKα siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of YQFM. Our results indicated that YQFM could provide significant cardioprotection against MI/R injury, and potential mechanisms might suppress cardiomyocytes apoptosis, at least in part, through activating the AMPK signaling pathways.
coli compared to the pure BiOI or BiOBr under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the improved separation efficiency of the photogenerated holes because of its heterojunction structure. In addition, the possible bacteriostatic mechanism of the BiOI/BiOBr composite under visible light irradiation is discussed. The hierarchical microsphere BiOI/BiOBr showed enhanced photocatalytic bacteriostasis towards Escherichia coli under visible light.
The acidification to the neurons was induced by perfusing artificial cerebral spinal fluid with lower pH. This acidification impairs excitability and synaptic transmission in the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Acidosis impairs spiking capacity in the GABAergic neurons more than in the glutamatergic neurons. Acidosis also strengthens glutamatergic synaptic transmission and attenuates GABAergic synaptic transmission on the GABAergic neurons more than the glutamatergic neurons, which results in the functional impairment of these GABAergic neurons. This acidosis-induced dysfunction predominantly in the cortical GABAergic neurons drives the homeostasis of neuronal networks toward overexcitation and exacerbates neuronal impairment.
The optimized SPE cleanup method exhibited excellent purification performance for the removal of organochlorinated compounds, lipid compounds, sulfur, and pigments. Additionally, it was found that the retention activities of congeners differed with the number and position of the chlorine substituents in PCNs. In this study, an analytical method based on a combination of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with SPE cleanup and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is proposed for the analysis of PCNs and dl-PCBs in complex samples (sediment, pine needle, and scallop samples). The analytical method demonstrates good linearity, acceptable recovery (63-148%) and precision (relative standard deviations less than 26%). The limits of detection (LODs) of PCN and dl-PCB congeners were in the range of 0.6-19.1pgg(-1) and 0.4-8.6pgg(-1), respectively. The PCNs and dl-PCBs levels in these samples ranged from 0.16 to 3.07ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and from undetectable to 0.07ngg(-1) dw, respectively.
4 ± 9.8 years), 15 to 60 days after the onset, were randomly assigned to receiving 15 sessions of usual rehabilitation program without (n = 30) or with tACSbm (20 Hz and < 400 μA for 30-min; n = 30). The outcome measures included the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and measures of intracranial hemodynamics before and after treatment.
At the fifteenth session, when compared with the baseline, the mean NIHSS scores of the patients in the tACSbm group had significantly a larger decrease [18.3 ± 2.6 vs. 10.8 ± 2.7; p < 0.001] than that of the control group [19.1 ± 2.7 vs. 13.0 ± 2.4] [F(1,54) = 4.29, p = 0.043]. After both the first and fifteenth sessions, compared with the control group, the mean blood flow velocity (MFVs) of the tACSbm group had significantly larger increase in the MCA, ACA, and PCA (p < 0.001), the Gosling pulsatility index (PI) of the tACSbm group had also significantly larger decline in the MCA, ACA, and PCA than that of the control group (p < 0.001). The best predictor of the changes in the NIHSS scores was the decline in the pulsatility index in the vascular territory of both lesional and non-lesional MCA measured by the end of the last treatment session.
tACSbm appeared to be effective for enhancing patients' functional recovery and cerebral hemodynamics in the subacute phase. The extent of recovery seems to be associated with the decline of the resistance in vascular bed of the main cerebral arteries. The mechanisms behind this effect should be explored further through research.
Among the 225 experimentally verified PPAR target genes, 83 are for PPARα, 83 are for PPARβ/δ, and 104 are for PPARγ. Detailed information including tissue types, species, and reference PubMed IDs was also provided. In addition, we developed a machine learning method to predict novel PPAR target genes by integrating in silico PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) analysis with high throughput gene expression data. Fivefold cross validation showed that the performance of this prediction method was significantly improved compared to the in silico PPRE analysis method. The prediction tool is also implemented in the PPARgene database.
This retrospective study includes 12 patients with RTLN treated by the senior author between January 2010 and December 2014. Patients initially sought medical treatment due to headache; other symptoms were hearing loss, visual deterioration, seizure, hemiparesis, vertigo, memory loss and agnosia. A temporal approach through a linear incision was performed for all cases. RTLN was found in one side in 7 patients, and bilaterally in 5. 4 patients underwent resection of necrotic tissue bilaterally and 8 patients on one side.
No death occurred in this series of cases. There were no post-operative complications, except 1 patient who developed aseptic meningitis. All 12 patients were free from headache. No seizure occurred in patients with preoperative epilepsy. Other symptoms such as hemiparesis and vertigo improved in all patients. Memory loss, agnosia and hearing loss did not change post-operatively in all cases. The follow-up MR images demonstrated no recurrence of necrotic lesions in all 12 patients.
Neurosurgical intervention through a temporal approach with linear incision is warranted in patients with radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis with significant symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure, minimum space occupying effect on imaging, or neurological deterioration despite conservative management.
The ratio of the SUVmax of this lesion to the liver was significantly increased in the delayed PET images. The pathological examination demonstrated primary pulmonary artery sarcoma.
Acridine Orange and ethidium bromide staining was used to observe morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to measure protein levels.
Vorinostat and ATO, alone and in combination, inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and the effect was additive. NB4 cells treated with vorinostat + ATO demonstrated greater levels of apoptosis compared with cells treated with either drug alone. Both vorinostat and ATO alone and in combination resulted in lower levels of promyelocytic leukaemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion protein and increased levels of acetyl-histone H3 and acetyl-histone H4 proteins compared with controls. Vorinostat + ATO resulted in lower levels of Akt protein compared with either drug alone.
The combination of vorinostat and ATO inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and enhanced the chemosensitivity of NB4 cells. The mechanism might be associated with increasing histone acetylation levels as well as downregulation of the Akt signalling pathway.
The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration of ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and ampicillin alone or with EDTA against P. aeruginosa were determined in vitro. Extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and structural parameters of the biofilm were monitored. P. aeruginosa was aerosolized and delivered into the lungs of guinea pigs, which were treated with ciprofloxacin with or without EDTA. The colony-forming units (CFUs) of P. aeruginosa were determined from the lungs.
EDTA reduced the MIC of ciprofloxacin and ampicillin by about 30-fold and that of gentamicin by twofold. EDTA reduced the biofilm EPS and the proportion of viable bacteria. The thickness, average diffusion distance, and textural entropy of EDTA-treated biofilm were significantly decreased. EDTA plus antibiotics reduced the colony counting from 10(7) to 10(3) CFU/mL. In vivo, EDTA plus ciprofloxacin had a significantly lower mean CFU/g of lung tissue (EDTA + ciprofloxacin 1.3 ± 0.19; EDTA 4.4 ± 0.57; ciprofloxacin 4.2 ± 0.47), and lung lesions were less severe compared with the single treatment groups.
EDTA can destroy the biofilm structures of mucoid P. aeruginosa in vitro. Moreover, EDTA and ciprofloxacin had a significant bactericidal effect against biofilm in vivo.
We analyzed age associated changes to cardiac function, cell death, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy in LPS induced myocardial injury. Both young and aged C57BL/6 mice were used for LPS administration. The results demonstrated that LPS induced more cardiac injury (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponin I, and cardiac myosin-light chains 1), cardiac dysfunction (left ventricular inner dimension, LVID, and ejection fraction (EF)), cell death, inflammation, and oxidative stress in aged mice compared to young mice. However, a significant age dependent decline in autophagy was observed. Translocation of Transcription Factor EB (TFEB) to nucleus and formation of LC3-II were significantly reduced in LPS administered aged mice compared to young ones. In addition to that, downstream effector of TFEB, LAMP-1, was induced in response to LPS challenge in young mice. The present study newly demonstrates that TFEB mediated autophagy is crucial for protection against LPS induced myocardial injury particularly in aging senescent heart. Targeting this autophagy-oxidative stress-inflammation-cell death axis may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for cardioprotection in the elderly.
However, studies related to workplace bullying among hospital nurses in Taiwan were still limited.
A cross-sectional design.
Two hundred and eighty-five nurses who worked in the regional teaching hospital in south Taiwan were recruited. The significant predictors of workplace bullying were identified by using linear regression analysis.
The mean of overall bullying was 1·47, showing that the frequency of the nurses having experienced workplace bullying was between 'never' and 'now and then'. The most frequent bullying item was 'being yelled at or being the target of anger', followed by 'being the objects of untruthful criticism' and 'having views ignored'. Hospital nurses working in the Emergency room would gain 10·888 points more in the overall bullying scale compared with those who worked in operation rooms or haemodialysis rooms. They were more likely to be bullied. Hospital nurses with one year increase in nursing experience were 0·207 points less likely to be bullied.
Reducing workplace bullying among hospital nurses was an essential method to provide quality assurance to health care. Nurse managers should build up zero tolerance policy to decrease nurses' exposure to workplace bullying.
Training programmes related to bullying prevention are suggested to avoid workplace bullying. The contents of the educational training programmes or workshops should incorporate the characteristics and consequences of the workplace bullying, and the strategies to deal with bullying.
5mM AN for an additional 12h. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined. Expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phosphorylated-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), P62, and Beclin1 were used to assess autophagy. In addition, 3-methyadenine (3-MA), an autophagy-specific inhibitor, was used to assess the role of autophagy in ER stress preconditioning-induced protection against AN cytotoxicity. The results showed that AN alone significantly decreased astrocytic viability and enhanced cytotoxicity. Compared to the AN-alone group, preconditioning with 2-DG or DTTox significantly increased cell viability and reduced cytotoxicity to indistinguishable levels. Decreased ROS generation and increased ΔΨm were also inherent to ER stress preconditioning with these compounds. Furthermore, autophagy was activated by both 2-DG and DTTox. Blockage of autophagy attenuated the protection afforded by 2-DG or DTTox preconditioning in AN-treated astrocytes. These results establish that ER stress preconditioning affords cellular protection against AN, and that activation of autophagy mediates the cytoprotection. Modulation of ER stress and resultant activation of autophagy may be a novel target for to ameliorate AN toxicity.
49 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments and 0.61-6.60 ng g(-1) dw in soils, respectively. Tri-CNs and tetra-CNs were the dominating homologues. An increasing trend of PCNs contamination was found in sediments with the rivers flowing through industrial areas and cities. Soils collected near cities exhibited higher abundance of PCNs than that of rural areas. The distribution of PCNs was related to the local industrial activities, rather than total organic carbon. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used for the source apportionment of PCNs in sediments and paddy soils. The result of PMF indicated that PCNs in sediments and paddy soils were mainly from the industrial processes, with additional contributions from the historical use of Halowax 1014 and atmospheric deposition.
Ga-NEB activity could be clearly observed in the lymphatic route on the PET/CT images from all the patients. In 5 (38.5%) of 13 patients tested, Ga-NEB PET/CT provided more information than the Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy.
Ga-NEB PET/CT can be used as an alternative of Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy in the evaluation of lymphatic disorders, which enables fast results and might be more accurate than the conventional Tc-SC lymphoscintigraphy.
Although our understanding of lncRNAs is still in its infancy, these examples may provide helpful insights into the methods by which lncRNAs interfere with ocular diseases.
The luminescence can be much elevated (up to about 120%) with a nonlinear increase versus Gd doping content, which is due to the energy transfer ((6)PJ of Gd(3+) → (5)HJ of Eu(3+)) under 273 nm and the possible combination effect of the cooperative upconversion and the successive energy transfer under 394 nm, respectively. Results demonstrate that the biocompatible HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystals can successfully perform cell labeling and in vivo imaging. The intracellular HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystals display good biodegradability with a cumulative degradation of about 65% after 72 h. This biocompatible, biodegradable, and luminescence enhanced HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystal has the potential to act as a fluorescent imaging agent in vitro and in vivo.
Adult females and juveniles experience additional metabolic requirements for reproduction and growth, respectively, and tend to feed on high quality foods more frequently than adult males. We conducted an age-sex analysis for the diet of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia, China. In spite of general age-sex similarities, we found that adult males ate herbs more frequently than juveniles and adult females, most likely because they were more terrestrial. As predicted, juveniles ate high quality foods (young leaves, fruits, seeds, and buds) more frequently, and meanwhile ate low quality foods (barks and lichens) less frequently than adult males across the study year or in some seasons when these food types were eaten. However, we found high similarities in diet between adult females and adult males. The most likely reason was that the low diversity of food sources and strong phenological synchrony did not allow adult females to select foods based on quality to cope with their higher metabolic constraints compared to adult males. Surprisingly, the only sex difference in diet except herbs was that adult females ate lichens more frequently in autumn. One plausible reason was that lactating females experienced their highest metabolic requirements in the middle period of infant care (autumn), and had to disproportionately increase the intake of lichens due to the limited availability of plant foods.
81-0.98) and comparison (range 0.76-0.96) groups. Many individuals in both groups had persistent abnormal metabolic parameter values despite high rates of monitoring, contact with medical providers, and receipt of cardiometabolic medications. Participants exposed to the intervention were interested in receiving personalized information about their cardiometabolic status, demonstrating the preliminary feasibility of brief interventions for enhancing involvement of individuals with serious mental illness in health care decision making.
Cast titanium was treated with plasma nitriding and TiN coating. The corrosion resistance of the duplex-treated titanium in fluoride-containing artificial saliva was then investigated through electrochemical and immersion tests. The corroded surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy surface scan analysis. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=.05) RESULTS: Duplex treatment generated a dense and uniform TiN film with a thickness of 4.5 μm. Compared with untreated titanium, the duplex-treated titanium displayed higher corrosion potential (Ecorr) values (P<.001) and lower corrosion current density (Icorr) values (P<.001). SEM results showed that the surface of untreated titanium was more heavily corroded than that of duplex-treated titanium. Surface scan analysis of duplex-treated titanium that had been immersed in artificial saliva containing 2 g/L fluoride revealed fluorine on the titanium surface, whereas fluorine was not observed on the surface of untreated titanium after immersion in fluoride-containing artificial saliva. The concentration of titanium ions released from the treated titanium was less than the amount released from untreated titanium (P<.001).
Duplex treatment by plasma nitriding and TiN coating significantly improved the corrosion resistance of cast titanium in a fluoride-containing environment.
Real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining were used to confirm the expression of the sweat gland-related genes Ectodysplasin-A (EDA), Ectodysplasin-A receptor (EDAR), keratin 8 (K8) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that microvilli, the cellular structures that are typical for hSG cells, can also be observed on the membrane of the hAFS-SG cells. Our test for the calcium response to acetylcholine (Ach) proved that hAFS-SG cells have the potential to respond to Ach in a manner similar to normal sweat glands. A three-dimensional culture is an effective approach that stimulates the hAFS-SG cells to form tubular structures and drives hAFS-SG cells to mature into higher stage. We also found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances the efficiency of differentiation and that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is an important factor of the CM that influences sweat gland differentiation. Our study provides the basis for further investigations into novel methods of inducing stem cells to differentiate into sweat gland-like cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design.
16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only), 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only). Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation). Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p < .05). Stratified analysis by separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants.
Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.
Moreover, USP4 knock-down or USP4 knock-out led to an increase in the active β-catenin levels and in activation of Wnt/β-catenin-induced transcription. Functional studies in C2C12 myoblasts and KS483 osteoprogenitor cells showed that ectopic expression of USP4 resulted in impaired activation of endogenous Wnt3a-induced genes and decreased osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, whereas USP4 depletion showed the opposite effect. These results identify USP4 as a novel regulator of Dvl in Wnt/β-catenin signal and show its involvement in Wnt3a induced osteoblast differentiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
To evaluate the association of fruit and vegetable intake with depression risk, combined relative risks were calculated with the fixed or random effects model. Meta-regression was conducted to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Publication bias was estimated by the Egger's test and the funnel plot.
Ten studies involving 227 852 participants for fruit intake and eight studies involving 218 699 participants for vegetable intake were finally included in this study. The combined relative risk (95% confidence interval) of depression for the highest versus lowest category of fruit and vegetable intake was 0.86 (0.81, 0.91; P < 0.01) and 0.89 (0.83, 0.94; P < 0.01), respectively. In subgroup analyses stratified by study design, the inverse association of fruit (0.83 [0.77, 0.91; P = 0.006]) and vegetable (0.88 [0.79, 0.96; P = 0.007]) intake with risk of depression was also observed in the cohort study.
This meta-analysis indicated that fruit and vegetable consumption might be inversely associated with the risk of depression, respectively.
We found that PFOS significantly increased the liver weight and serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) levels in rats. Morphologically, PFOS caused actin filament remodeling and endothelial permeability changes in the liver. Moreover, PFOS triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and induced apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro assays. Immunoblotting data showed that NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression and activation and its target genes were all suppressed by PFOS in the liver and HepG2 cells. However, PFOS significantly increased miR-155 expression. Further studies showed that pretreatment of HepG2 cells with catalase significantly decreased miR-155 expression and substantially increased Nrf2 expression and activation, resulting in reduction of PFOS-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Taken together, these results indicated that miR-155 plays an important role in the PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity by disrupting Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.
Participants were recruited randomly from residential regions in the greater Beijing municipality area based on the average levels of development in Beijing, China in 2012 (based on socioeconomic, demographic, and geographical characteristics). Thorough physical and laboratory examination were performed at baseline (also the cross-sectional survey) to identify the risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, as well as newly defined risk factors like elevated homocysteine, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and urine micro-albumin. Subclinical disease of the cerebral vasculature included atherosclerosis of carotid arteries, intracranial arteries, and retinal vessels. Subclinical cardiac diseases included left ventricular enlargement, arrhythmias, chamber hypertrophy and myocardial ischemia. Blood pressure was documented using the ankle-arm method. In addition, neuropsychological assessments were performed for all subjects aged 65 and above. Baseline evaluation began during the period August 2013 to December 2014. Follow-up examination will occur in 5 years. The initial and recurrent CVD, AD and MCI events will be verified and validated during the follow-up period.
A multifunctional synthesis module was employed for the radiosynthesis of (18)F-FDG ((18)F-2-fluorodeoxy glucose) and (18)F-FDS starting from (18)F ion using two-pot three-step fully automated reactions. The behavior of (18)F-FDS as an in vivo imaging probe for infections was evaluated in an Escherichia coli mouse infection model. The first detailed pharmacokinetic and biodistribution parameters were obtained from healthy human volunteers.
The uptake of (18)F-FDS in an E. coli mouse-myositis infection model was easily differentiated from other organs and normal muscle. Intensive lesion uptake declined after antibiotic treatment. In the pilot human study, no adverse effects due to (18)F-FDS were observed up to 24h post-injection. The radiotracer was rapidly cleared from the circulation and excreted mainly through the urinary system.
We conclude that (18)F-FDS PET holds great potential for appropriate and effective for the imaging of bacterial infections in vivo. These preliminary results indicate that further clinical studies are warranted.
The number of platelet (PLT) was detected using Sysmex XT-2000i automated hematology analyzer. The levels of D-dimer (D-D), fibrinogen (FBG), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were detected using Sysmex CA-1500 automatic coagulation analyzer. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was detected using Westergren method. C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor (RF) were detected using Hitachi 7060 automatic biochemical analyzer. Meanwhile, the mRNA expressions of Act1, p65, p50, IκBα and IκB kinase α (IKKα) were detected using semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The expressions of p65, p50 and IκBα proteins were examined using Western blotting. The correlations of the above indexes were analyzed by Spearman correlation test. Results Compared with the normal group, the levels of DD, FBG, PLT significantly increased in the peripheral blood of RA patients, TT decreased, while APTT and PT were not significantly changed. IL-4, IL-10 and PAF-AH were significantly reduced in the sera of RA patients, while IL-6, IL-17, Act1, p50, p65, IκBα, IKKα and PAF were significantly elevated. Spearman correlation analysis showed that coagulant and fibrinolytic indexes were significantly correlated with cytokines, NF-κB, activity indexes and clinical symptoms and signs. Conclusion The hypercoagulable state is common in the peripheral blood of RA patients, and it is closely related to inflammatory factors, activity indexes and abnormal activation of NF-κB.
The major innovation of the HS-MLC design is that it employs linear motors instead of rotary motors to drive leaves. This paper mainly aims to evaluate the performance of the HS-MLC in real-time intensity-modulated radiation therapy delivery to targets moving in 2D in the BEV.
A 2D real-time tracking algorithm was proposed first based on a previous superimposing leaf sequencing method. Then, simulations were performed to evaluate the delivery performance including fluence accuracy, efficiency, delivery time, and number of monitor units under various settings of limiting coefficient and dose rate for four clinical fluence maps and two target speeds. The comparisons between the HS-MLC with a "medium-speed" MLC (MS-MLC, 10 cm/s) and a "low-speed" MLC (LS-MLC, 5 cm/s) were also made. For validation, experiments were carried out on the HS-MLC prototype in the lab environment. A camera-based measurement system was set up to detect actual leaf trajectories.
Simulation results indicate that a limiting coefficient of 0.5 and a dose rate of 400 MU/min are "optimal" in the sense of getting best compromise between delivery time and number of monitor units. Under the optimal parameters, the HS-MLC achieved 100% in efficiency, 18.1 s in delivery time, and 121.2 MU in number of monitor units on average for the "fast" target speed, compared to 94%, 20.6 s, and 129.9 MU with the MS-MLC, and to 53%, 40.2 s, and 141.1 MU with the LS-MLC. The benefits of increased leaf speed were demonstrated. The experimental results agreed with the simulation ones, which further confirmed the efficacy of the HS-MLC.
The HS-MLC is superior to conventional MLCs when used for tracking, benefiting from its high leaf speed. These results indicate that the novel HS-MLC is feasible for high-accuracy and high-efficiency motion management. It also offers guidance for future MLC design.
In addition, they exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity. The knockout cells also showed greatly reduced ability to form tumors in mice. Moreover, necrosulfonamide (NSA), a previously identified chemical inhibitor of necroptosis, could significantly delay tumor growth in a xenograft model. Mechanistically, we show that necroptoic factors play a significant role in maintaining the activity of NF-κB. Finally, we found that high levels of phosphorylated MLKL in human esophageal and colon cancers are associated with poor overall survival. Taken together, we conclude that pro-necroptic factors such as RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL may play a role in supporting tumor growth, and MLKL may be a promising target for cancer treatment.
PDGF-BB stimulates cell proliferation and survival, promotes wound healing, and has been investigated as a possible topical treatment for non-healing wounds. Genetic engineering has allowed for expression and secretion of human growth factors and other proteins in transgenic insects. Here, we present a novel concept in MDT technology that combines the established benefits of MDT with the power of genetic engineering to promote healing. The focus of this study is to create and characterize strains of transgenic L. sericata that express and secrete PDGF-BB at detectable levels in adult hemolymph, whole larval lysate, and maggot excretions/ secretions (ES), with potential for clinical utility in wound healing.
We have engineered and confirmed transgene insertion in several strains of L. sericata that express human PDGF-BB. Using a heat-inducible promoter to control the pdgf-b gene, pdgf-b mRNA was detected via semi-quantitative PCR upon heat shock. PDGF-BB protein was also detectable in larval lysates and adult hemolymph but not larval ES. An alternative, tetracycline-repressible pdgf-b system mediated expression of pdgf-b mRNA when maggots were raised on diet that lacked tetracycline. Further, PDGF-BB protein was readily detected in whole larval lysate as well as larval ES.
Here we show robust, inducible expression and production of human PDGF-BB protein from two conditional expression systems in transgenic L. sericata larvae. The tetracycline-repressible system appears to be the most promising as PDGF-BB protein was detectable in larval ES following induction. Our system could potentially be used to deliver a variety of growth factors and anti-microbial peptides to the wound environment with the aim of enhancing wound healing, thereby improving patient outcome in a cost-effective manner.
, Adv Mater 2014;26:8217-8224). In our study, we developed a new type of containing paclitaxel-loaded micelles and siRNA-loaded LDL nanoparticle. This "binary polymer" is pH and reduction dual-sensitive core-crosslinked micelles. PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA had an average particle size of (171.6 ± 6.42) nm, entrapment efficiency of (93.92 ± 1.06) %, and drug-loading amount of (12.35% ± 0.87) %. In vitro, MCF-7 cells, high expressed LDL receptor, were more sensitive to this delivery system than to taxol(®) and cell activity was inhibited significantly. Fluorescence microscopy showed that PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA was uptaken very conveniently and played a key role in antitumor activity. PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA protected the siRNA from degradation by macrophage phagocytosis and evidently down-regulated the level of mdr1 mRNA as well as the expression of P-gp. We tested the target ability of PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA in vivo in tumor-bearing nude mice. Results showed that this system could directly deliver siRNA and PTX to cancer cells. Thus, new co-delivering siRNA and antitumor drugs should be explored for solving MDR in cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.
The dormant versus active status of stem cells was determined by phosphorylation of RNAp II Ser2. The surviving stem cells were cultured to form stem cell spheres expressing stem cell markers and transplanted into nude mice to form a teratoma. The results demonstrated the properties of stem cells and potential for multi-directional differentiation. Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter by 5-FU resulted in Sox2 expression in the dormant stem cells. This study shows that the dormancy and activation of HBE stem cells is closely related to epigenetic modification.
Just like human embryonic stem cells, AiPSCs exhibited similar epigenetic status, global gene expression profiles, teratoma formation and in vitro & in vivo pluripotency. Our results indicate that the OCT4 is necessary and sufficient to directly reprogram human AFSCs into pluripotent AiPSCs. Moreover, reflecting the similar memory characteristics of AFSCs and neural stem cells, we show that AiPSC membrane-derived vesicles (MVs) repair cerebral ischemia damage. We anticipate that the successful generation of one-factor AiPSCs will facilitate the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need for transgenic expression of oncogenes. Moreover, MVs from tissue-specific AiPSCs have potential in tissue repair, representing a novel application of iPSCs.
Colonic tissues were obtained by a virtual colonoscopy guided biopsy before and after Kuijie Granule treatment followed by pathological analysis and quantitative analysis of TGF-β/Smads using immunohistochemistry. Kuijie Granule treatment significantly improved symptoms associated with UC, which include diarrhea, mucus production, pus and blood in stool, abdominal pain and distention, and tenesmus. The clinical benefit of Kuijie Granule treatment correlated with decreased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad7 and increased expression of TGF-βRII and Smad4. These clinical results indicate that Kuijie Granule can alleviate the symptoms associated with UC and modulate TGF-β/Smads signaling.
On each subject, 21 whole-body emission scans and a brain scan were conducted at settled time points within the next 4 h. Residence time for each source organ was determined by multi-exponential regression. Absorbed doses for target organs and effective dose were calculated via OLINDA/EXM.
No adverse events due to [(18)F]FDS injection were observed in the study. The tracer was cleared rapidly from the blood pool through the urinary system. A small portion was cleared into the gut through the hepatobiliary system. The effective dose (ED) was estimated to be 0.021 ± 0.001 mSv/MBq. The organ receiving the highest absorbed dose was the urinary bladder wall (0.25 ± 0.03 mSv/MBq).
[(18)F]FDS is safe and well tolerated. The effective dose was comparable to that of other F-18 labeled radiotracers. [(18)F]FDS is suitable for human use from a radiation dosimetry perspective.
001 and P = 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes and TIM3 -1516 genotype GG were independently associated with longer OS (hazard ratio (HR), 1.835; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.342-2.509; P < 0.001 and HR, 2.070; 95%CI, 1.428-3.002; P < 0.001, respectively). PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes were significantly associated with longer OS in patients receiving surgical (resection or radiofrequency) treatment, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) or supportive and symptomatic treatment. TIM3 -1516 genotype GG was significantly associated with longer OS in TACE patients. In multivariate analysis, PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes were independently associated with longer OS in each treatment population. TIM3 -1516 genotype GG was independently associated with longer OS in patients receiving surgical treatment or TACE. These findings suggest that PD1 +8669 A/G and TIM3 -1516 G/T polymorphisms may affect the prognosis of HBV-related HCC and may be new predictors of prognosis for HCC patients.
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of H2S on the progression of myocardial fibrosis induced by diabetes. Diabetes was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used as an exogenous donor of H2S. After 8 weeks, expression levels of cystathionine-γ-lyase were determined by western blot analysis and morphological changes in the myocardium were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson staining. The hydroxyproline content and fibrosis markers were determined by a basic hydrolysis method and western blot analysis, respectively. Autophagosomes were observed under transmission electron microscopy. Expression levels of autophagy-associated proteins and their upstream signaling molecules were also evaluated by western blotting. The results of the current study indicated that diabetes induced marked myocardial fibrosis, enhanced myocardial autophagy and suppressed the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase (PI3K/AKT1) signaling pathway. By contrast, following treatment with NaHS, myocardial fibrosis was ameliorated, myocardial autophagy was decreased and the PI3K/AKT1 pathway suppression was reversed. The results of the present study demonstrated that the protective effect of H2S against diabetes-induced myocardial fibrosis may be associated with the attenuation of autophagy via the upregulation of the PI3K/AKT1 signaling pathway.
In this study, we sought to optimize both the adamantyl as well as the aryl/heteroaryl group. Several compounds from this study exhibited submicromolar EC50 values against S31N-containing A/WSN/33 influenza viruses in antiviral plaque reduction assays with a selectivity index greater than 100, indicating that these compounds are promising candidates for in-depth preclinical pharmacology.
The inhibition of phytosterol biosynthesis resulted in an apparent suppression of fiber elongation in vitro or in planta. The determination of phytosterol quantity indicated that sitosterol and campesterol were the major phytosterols in cotton fibers; moreover, higher concentrations of these phytosterols were observed during the period of rapid elongation of fibers. Furthermore, the decrease and increase in campesterol:sitosterol ratio was associated with the increase and decease in speed of elongation, respectively, during the elongation stage. The increase in the ratio was associated with the transition from cell elongation to secondary cell wall synthesis. In addition, a number of phytosterol biosynthetic genes were down-regulated in the short fibers of ligon lintless-1 mutant, compared to its near-isogenic wild-type TM-1. These results demonstrated that phytosterols play a crucial role in cotton fiber development, and particularly in fiber elongation.
We found that the MPM had R282W, a key TP53 mutation, and genome-wide allelic loss or loss of heterozygosity, a distinct genomic alteration not previously described in MPM. We identified frequent inactivating SETDB1 mutations in this patient and in 68 additional MPM patients (mutation frequency: 10%, 7/69) by targeted deep sequencing. Our observations suggest the possibility of a new genetic mechanism in the development of either MPM or multiple primary cancers. The frequent SETDB1 inactivating mutations suggest there could be new diagnostic or therapeutic options for MPM.
Polydopamine bound silica nanoparticles together to form a porous structure network and rendered the coating to have potential for further postfunctionalization. After two-step CVD, the microscale porous coating changes from superhydrophilic to superamphiphobic, exhibiting super-repellency to droplets with surface tension of 73-23 mN/m. The influences of concentration of initial dopamine, hydrophilic fumed silica nanoparticles, and dry conditions on the formation of the porous structure have been studied to optimize the conditions. Coatings with different pore sizes and pore heights have been fabricated to discover the relationship between the structure parameters and the repellency of the porous coatings. Only with optimal pore size and pore height can the porous coating display superamphiphobicity. Compared with nanoscale, the microscale structure favors the achievement of superamphiphobicity. Given the outstanding adhesive ability of polydopamine, the superamphiphobic coatings have been successfully applied to various materials including artificial materials and natural materials.
Retention behavior in mouse gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was studied through high-performance liquid chromatography and near-infrared imaging. Degradation was further evaluated through incubation with Caco-2 cell homogenates, and a Caco-2 monolayer cell model was used to investigate the uptake and transport of drugs. HM-lip and TMC-HM-lip with particle size of 150-170 nm, an entrapment efficiency of about 81%, and a zeta potential of negative and positive, respectively, were prepared. The release of HM from HM-lip and TMC-HM-lip was slower than that from HM solution and was sensitive to pH. TMC-HM-lip exhibited higher oral bioavailability and had prolonged retention time in GIT. HM-lip and TMC-HM-lip could also protect HM against degradation in Caco-2 cell homogenates. The uptake amount of TMC-HM-lip was higher than that of HM and HM-lip. TMC-HM-lip further demonstrated higher apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) from the apical to the basolateral side than HM and HM-lip because of its higher uptake and capability to open tight junctions in the cell monolayers. TMC-HM-lip can prolong the retention time in the GIT, protect HM against enzyme degradation, and improve transport across Caco-2 cell monolayers, thus enhancing the oral bioavailability of HM.
Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this region and two known AMD-associated SNPs in CFH (rs800292) and HTRA1 (rs11200638) were genotyped in a Han Chinese cohort composed of 490 neovascular AMD patients, 419 PCV patients and 1316 controls. Among the SNPs, TNXB rs12153855 and FKBPL rs9391734 conferred an increased susceptibility to neovascular AMD (P = 2.8 × 10(-4) and 0.001, OR = 1.80 and 1.76, respectively), while SKIV2L exerted a protective effect on neovascular AMD (P = 2.2 × 10(-4), OR = 0.49). Rs12153855C and rs9391734A alleles could further increase the susceptibility to AMD in subjects with rs800292, rs11200638 and rs429608 risk alleles. However, only the association of SKIV2L rs429608 remained significant after adjusting for rs800292, rs11200638 and the other 5 SNPs. The protective haplotype AATGAG exhibited significant association with neovascular AMD (permutation P = 0.015, OR = 0.34). None of the SNPs in this region was associated with PCV. Association profiles of 6p21.3 region showed discrepancy between neovascular AMD and PCV, indicating possible molecular and pathological differences between these two retinal disorders.
All MAbs can react with the denatured NS1 protein in the Western blot assay and the native NS1 protein from the TMUV-infected BHK-21 cells in the immunofluorescence assay. The ELISA titers of the cell supernatants and ascites of MAbs were at a high level. The subtypes of the MAbs were determined by the Rapid Mouse Isotyping Kit-Gold series. Six MAbs possessed higher specificity and sensitivity, which indicated that MAbs against NS1 protein of TMUV may be used as valuable tools for analysis of the protein functions and pathogenesis of TMUV.
Colitis was induced in rabbits by intrarectal instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Innate/adaptive immune response RT-qPCR array was performed using colonic circular muscle strips. At 1-9 weeks after colonic intramuscular microinjection of lentivirus, the distal and proximal colons were collected, and muscle strips and dispersed muscle cells were prepared from circular muscle layer. Expression levels of RGS4 and NFκB signaling components were determined by Western blot analysis. The biological consequences of RGS4 knockdown were assessed by measurement of muscle contraction and phospholipase C (PLC)-β activity in response to acetylcholine (ACh).
Contraction in response to ACh was significantly inhibited in the inflamed colonic circular smooth muscle cells. RGS4, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, CCL3, CD1D, and ITGB2 were significantly up-regulated, while IL-18, CXCR4, CD86, and C3 were significantly down-regulated in the inflamed muscle strips. RGS4 protein expression in the inflamed smooth muscles was dramatically increased. RGS4 stable knockdown in vivo augmented ACh-stimulated PLC-β activity and contraction in colonic smooth muscle cells.
Inflamed smooth muscle exhibits up-regulation of IL-1-related signaling components, Th1 cytokines and RGS4, and inhibition of contraction. Stable knockdown of endogenous RGS4 in colonic smooth muscle increases PLC-β activity and contractile responses.
PpNAP2 was categorized in the NAP I group, and contained a conserved transcription activation region. The other PpNAP genes belonged to the NAP II group. The expression patterns of the PpNAP genes differed in various organs and developmental stages. PpNAP1 and PpNAP2 were highly expressed in mature and senescing flowers, but not in leaves, fruits, and flower buds. PpNAP3 and PpNAP5 were only expressed in leaves. The PpNAP4 expression level was high in mature and senescing fruits, while PpNAP6 and PpNAP7 expression was up-regulated in mature and senescent leaves and flowers. During the fruit development period, the PpNAP4 and PpNAP6 expression levels rapidly increased during the S1 and S4 stages, which suggests these genes are involved in the first exponential growth phase and fruit ripening. During the fruit ripening and softening period, the PpNAP1, PpNAP4, and PpNAP6 expression levels were high during the early storage period, which was accompanied by a rapid increase in ethylene production. PpNAP1, PpNAP4, and PpNAP6 expression slowly increased during the middle or late storage periods, and peaked at the end of the storage period. Additionally, abscisic acid (ABA)-treated fruits were softer and produced more ethylene than the controls. Furthermore, the PpNAP1, PpNAP4, and PpNAP6 expression levels were higher in ABA-treated fruits. These results suggest that PpNAP1, PpNAP4, and PpNAP6 are responsive to ABA and may regulate peach fruit ripening.
To evaluate the effect of PTH on serum Mg levels, we first described the relationship between serum Mg and PTH in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Besides, we also monitored the changes of serum Mg concentration after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in 23 patients. In our study, we found that hypermagnesemia (>2.5 mg/dL) occurred in up to 44% of cases and hypomagnesemia did not present. No statistically signiﬁcant correlations were found between serum Mg levels and PTH (r = -0.143, p = 0.134). Correlation analysis and regression analysis suggested that the derangement of magnesium homeostasis was consistent with the derangement of calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. However, after PTX, serum magnesium levels dropped immediately after the surgery, minimally at the first day and gradually restored from the third day. The changes of serum Mg after surgery was positive correlated with the changes of serum phosphate (r = 0.558, p = 0.003). Taken altogether, our data suggested that the therapeutic strategies to achieve optimum serum magnesium levels in CKD-MBD should take into account the varying stages of disease development since PTH could also influence magnesium metabolism and this problem might be important in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.
A high quality reference genome sequence is available but functional genomic tools, such as used in Drosophila melanogaster, remain to be developed. In this study we have used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to introduce site-specific mutations in the D. suzukii white (w) and Sex lethal (Sxl) genes. Hemizygous males with w mutations develop white eyes and the mutant genes are transmissible to the next generation. Somatic mosaic females that carry mutations in the Sxl gene develop abnormal genitalia and reproductive tissue. The D. suzukii Sxl gene could be an excellent target for a Cas9-mediated gene drive to suppress populations of this highly destructive pest.
Upon the addition of the target single-strand DNA, the capture probe hybridized with the target DNA. After adding the bifunctionalized gold nanoparticles and H2O2, a well-defined CL signal was obtained, and the CL intensity was observed to change as the target DNA concentration was increased. It was possible to determine the concentration of the target TB single-strand DNA in the range 1.0 × 10(-13)-1.0 × 10(-8) M with a detection limit of 4.8 × 10(-14) M. HBV single-strand DNA and v-myc single-strand DNA could also be determined in the range 1.0 × 10(-11)-1.0 × 10(-8) M with detection limits of 5.9 × 10(-12) M and 8.0 × 10(-12) M, respectively, using this CL technique. The method reported in this paper is the first label-free CL method for the determination of specific DNA sequences to utilize gold nanoparticles bifunctionalized with both a CL reagent and a catalytic metal complex. The sensitivity of this CL method is superior to those of most previously reported label-free methods. Compared with methods that use polymerase chain reaction amplification, this label-free CL method is much simpler, faster, and more economic. This work has thus demonstrated a simple and fast scanning strategy for the detection of specific DNA sequences related to diseases. Graphical Abstract Schematic illustration of label-free CL method for detection of specific DNA sequences.
Furthermore, the neuropharmacological bases of decision-making processes are not well understood. In this study, we used an animal model (rat) to investigate a novel food-foraging paradigm for decision-making, with or without a mimetic desire paradigm.
Faced with the choice of foraging in a competitive environment, rats preferred foraging for the desirable object, indicating the rats' ability for decision-making. Notably, treatment with the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801, but not with the dopamine D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, SCH23390 and haloperidol, respectively, suppressed the food foraging preference when there was a competing resident rat in the cage. None of these three antagonists affected the food-foraging preference for palatable food. Moreover, MK-801 and SCH23390, but not haloperidol, were able to abolish the desirable environment effect on standard food-foraging activities in complex social settings.
These results highlight the concept that mimetic desire exerts a powerful influence on food-foraging decision-making in rats and, further, illustrate the various roles of the glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems in mediating these processes.
We aimed to determine the age-specific reference range for serum AMH in healthy Chinese women throughout reproductive age to menopause and to estimate relationship between AMH and other clinical markers in healthy women.
In this multicenter and nationwide study, advertisements were used to recruit 2055 women, aged 20 to 55 years, from 6 different regions in China; 1590 (77.37%) women met the inclusion criteria for the reference range population. We measured the baseline serum AMH levels using new Beckman Coulter Gen II assay. Serum concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (PRG), and AFCs were also determined in the follicular phase.
The AMH-Age nomogram and AMH levels of different age-groups and the relationship between AMH and other clinical markers.
Serum AMH concentrations declined progressively with age. A quadratic model defined as log (AMH) = (-1.970 + 0.296 × Age - 0.006 × Age(2)) fitted best the decline of AMH with age. The median AMH levels were 6.23, 5.65, 4.55, 3.74, 2.78, and 1.09 ng/mL for the 20 ≤ age < 25, 25 ≤ age < 30, 30 ≤ age < 33, 33 ≤ age < 37, 37 ≤ age < 40, and 40 ≤ age < 55 groups, respectively. The 5th to 95th percentiles of the AMH levels, as the reference range, were 2.06 to 12.66, 1.77 to 13.83, 1.48 to 11.45, 0.87 to 9.76, 0.56 to 9.49, and 0.08 to 5.70 ng/mL for each age-group. The AMH levels were positively correlated with AFCs and T, LH, PRL and PRG levels and negatively correlated with BMI and FSH levels and were not significantly correlated with E2 levels. The relationship between AMH and other variables remain unchanged except for PRL, which was not significantly correlated with AMH levels after controlling for both age and BMI.
This study determined the normal reference ranges for serum AMH levels in a large population-based sample of healthy Chinese women.
Therefore, imaging probes that specifically recognize these pools of activated immune cells could provide valuable information about how these cells contribute to the pathobiology of the disease. Here we demonstrate that cysteine cathepsin-targeted imaging probes can be used to monitor the contribution of macrophages to fibrotic disease progression in the bleomycin-induced murine model of pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, we show that the probes highlight regions of macrophage involvement in fibrosis in human biopsy tissues from IPF patients. Finally, we present first-in-human results demonstrating non-invasive imaging of active cathepsins in fibrotic lesions of patients with IPF. Together, our findings validate small molecule cysteine cathepsin probes for clinical PET imaging and suggest that they have the potential to be used to generate mechanistically-informative molecular information regarding cellular drivers of IPF disease severity and progression.
Firstly, suitable BSP TIs for displaying clearly renal artery were determined in 10 volunteers. Secondly, non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography with the suitable BSP TIs were performed on those hypertension patients. Then, renal artery was evaluated and an optimal BSP TI to increase arterial visibility was determined for each patient. Patients' BRs and HRs were recorded and their relationships with the optimal BSP TI were analyzed.
The optimal BSP TI was negatively correlated with BR (r1 = -0.536, P1 < 0.001; and r2 = -0.535, P2 < 0.001) and HR (r1 = -0.432, P1 = 0.001; and r2 = -0.419, P2 = 0.001) for 2 readers (κ = 0.93). For improving renal arterial visibility, BSP TI = 800 ms could be applied as the optimal BSP TI when the 95% confidence interval were 17-19/min (BR1) and 74-82 bpm (HR1) for reader#1 and 17-19/min (BR2) and 74-83 bpm (HR2) for reader#2; BSP TI = 1100 ms while 14-15/min (BR1, 2) and 71-76 bpm (HR1, 2) for both readers; and BSP TI = 1400 ms when 13-16/min (BR1) and 63-68 bpm (HR1) for reader#1 and 14-15/min (BR2) and 64-70 bpm (HR2) for reader#2.
In SLEEK, BSP TI is affected by patients' BRs and HRs. Adopting the optimal BSP TI based on BR and HR can improve the renal arterial visibility and consequently the working efficiency.
We found that the endometrial expression of Cytl1 in mice was low before or on the first day of gestation, significantly increased during embryo implantation, and then decreased at the end of implantation. We investigated the effects of Cytl1 on endometrial cell proliferation, and the effects on the secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF). We also explored the effect of Cytl1 on endometrial adhesion properties in cell-cell adhesion assays. Our findings demonstrated that Cytl1 is an ovarian hormone-dependent protein expressed in the endometrium that enhances the proliferation of HEC-1-A and RL95-2 cells, stimulates endometrial secretion of LIF and HB-EGF, and enhances the adhesion of HEC-1-A and RL95-2 cells to JAR spheroids. This study suggests that Cytl1 plays an active role in the regulation of embryo implantation.
HERV are by nature repetitive and have with few notable exceptions lost their protein-coding capacity. Therefore, HERV have consistently been excluded from array-based expression studies and hence little is known of their expression, regulation, and potential functional significance. An increasing number of studies have, however, observed expression of the W family of HERV in various human tissues and cells, predominantly in placenta. HERV-W LTRs act as promoters in directing transcription of HERV-W members, contribute to their tissue-specific and highly diversified expression pattern. Furthermore, leaky transcription originating from adjacent genes plays a role in the transcription initiation of HERV-W psudoelements. It has been reported that HERV-W elements, including ERVWE1 (the so far only known HERV-W locus harboring a gene (env) functionally adopted by the human host to critically participate in placenta biogenesis), can become transactivated in a range of human non-placental cell-lines during exogenous virus infections. Aberrant expression of HERV-W has been associated with human diseases, such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Based on published reports, transcriptional activities of HERV-W appear to be influenced by several mechanisms; binding of transcription factors to LTR promoters and enhancers outside of LTRs, genetic variation and alteration in DNA methylation and histone modification. Emerging mechanistic studies support the notion that HERV-W represents a potential marker or mediator of environmental exposures (e.g., virus infection) in the development of chronic complex diseases.
The biological functions and potential mechanism of AK027294 were investigated in HCT116, HCT8, and SW480 colorectal cancer cells. A total of 135 lncRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in colorectal cancer and adenoma tissues. Among them, 71 lncRNAs were up-regulated and 64 lncRNAs were down-regulated. Especially, AK027294 was found to be highly expressed in colorectal cancer tissues compared with colorectal adenoma tissues (fold change is 184.5). Our results indicated that AK027294 down-regulation significantly inhibited colorectal cancer cells proliferation and migration, but promoted cell apoptosis (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism of AK027294 might be associated with the regulation of caspase-3, caspase-8, Bcl-2, MMP12, MMP9, and TWIST. The lncRNA expression profile in colorectal cancer suggests lncRNAs may play important roles in the occurrence and progression of colorectal cancer. AK027294 is highly expressed in colorectal cancer and closely correlates with colorectal cells proliferation, migration, and apoptosis.
Clinical and radiographic outcomes were evaluated. We also evaluated the occurrence of radiographic and symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration (ASD).
The mean follow-up time in the Dynesys group was 53.6 ± 5.3 months, while that in the PLIF group was 55.2 ± 6.8 months. At the final follow-up, the Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale score were significantly improved in both groups. The range of motion (ROM) of stabilized segments in Dynesys group decreased from 7.1 ± 2.2° to 4.9 ± 2.2° (P < 0.05), while that of in PLIF group decreased from 7.3 ± 2.3° to 0° (P < 0.05). The ROM of the upper segments increased significantly in both groups at the final follow-up, the ROM was higher in the PLIF group. There were significantly more radiographic ASDs in the PLIF group than in the Dynesys group. The incidence of complications was comparable between groups.
Both Dynesys and PLIF can improve the clinical outcomes for lumbar degenerative disease. Compared to PLIF, Dynesys stabilization partially preserves the ROM of the stabilized segments, limits hypermobility in the upper adjacent segment, and may prevent the occurrence of ASD.
A total of 71 serum samples from these 32 patients were assayed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS): 32 samples were from all patients at baseline, and 39 were from PVRs with sequential inter-treatment. Approximately 84,708 sequences were generated per sample. At baseline, the quasispecies heterogeneity did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. The frequencies of substitutions indicating pre-existence of nucleos(t)ide analog resistant (NAr) mutants ranged from 0.10% to 6.70%, which did not statistically differ between groups either. However, the substitutions associated with the NAr mutants were significantly different from those associated with the non-NAr mutants in 13 patients; 6 of these patients were PVRs and the others were CVRs. Five patients were HBV DNA positive after regular ETV monotherapy for >3 years, and 4 of these patients underwent mild NAr substitution fluctuations (<20%). One patient developed virological breakthrough while bearing single, double, and triple (rtL180 M, rtM204 V, rtS202G) substitutions. In addition to the common substitutions, unknown amino acid substitutions, such as rtL145 M/S, rtF151Y/L, rtR153Q, rtI224 V, rtN248H, rtS223A, rtS256C, need to be further verified. NAr substitutions are observed at frequencies of 0.10% to 6.7% before therapy. Long-term ETV therapy generally results in virological responses, as long as the proportion of resistance mutations remains at a relatively low level. Genotypic resistance to ETV is detected in all PVRs receiving long-term ETV therapy.
The primary outcome measure was the histological fibrosis score of the liver. Secondary outcome measures included fibrosis area of the liver, serological levels of fibrosis markers, adverse events, and withdrawals.
From 6973 non-duplicated entries by systematic search, four randomized controlled trials with 210 patients were identified. The renin angiotensin system inhibitors therapy resulted in a marginally significant reduction in liver fibrosis score (MD = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.62-0.02, p = 0.05) and a significant reduction in liver fibrosis area (MD = -2.36%; 95% CI: -4.22%--0.50%, p = 0.01) as compared with control. The therapy was well tolerated and there was no significant difference in withdrawals between treatment and control groups (RD = 0.00; 95% CI: -0.06-0.06, p = 0.97).
Renin angiotensin system inhibitor therapy results in a reduction in liver fibrosis score and liver fibrosis area in patients with hepatic fibrosis with good safety profile. However, randomized controlled trials of high-quality will clarify the effectiveness of renin angiotensin system inhibitors on liver fibrosis.
The individual iris diameter was divided into 20 equal parts in each photograph, with each part marked one unit as individual iris diameter ruler. Ten values were made from a horizontal plane between the medial canthus to ten points at one face ( the line between two medial canthus is used as the horizontal line, circumocular and facial soft tissue were measured with individual iris diameter ruler on the photographs), then the results were analyzed with Adobe Photoshop software.
There are statistically significant differences in eyebrow height (36.42 ± 4.22 unit in 18 years old male group, 40.22 ± 6.90 unit in 38 years old male group, 34.83 ± 9.39 unit in 68 years old male group; 37.59 ± 6.72 unit in 18 years old female group, 41.09 ± 5.15 unit in 38 years old female group, 36.84 ± 9.45 unit in 68 years old female group), palpebral fissure height, physiognomic external canthus height, palpebral fissure width, pupil height and other items (P < 0.05).
(1) The brow position rises to the peak level at middle age (38 years old group), then drops down gradually with aging. (2) The physiognomic external canthus moves towards the nasal side and caudal side with aging. (3) Eyeball moves towards caudal side with aging. (4) The soft tissue around bilateral angle of mouth, nasal tip and submaxilla moves towards caudal side with aging. (5) The measurement of individual iris diameter ruler can apply to analyze the aging changes of facial soft tissue, and is more suitable for the case when facial photographs are taken at different distances.
08 % homozygous), Virunga Mountain Gorilla (78.12 %), inbred Abyssinian cat (62.63 %), Tasmanian devil, domestic dog and other mammalian species. Demographic estimators impute two ancestral population bottlenecks: one >100,000 years ago coincident with cheetah migrations out of the Americas and into Eurasia and Africa, and a second 11,084-12,589 years ago in Africa coincident with late Pleistocene large mammal extinctions. MHC class I gene loss and dramatic reduction in functional diversity of MHC genes would explain why cheetahs ablate skin graft rejection among unrelated individuals. Significant excess of non-synonymous mutations in AKAP4 (p<0.02), a gene mediating spermatozoon development, indicates cheetah fixation of five function-damaging amino acid variants distinct from AKAP4 homologues of other Felidae or mammals; AKAP4 dysfunction may cause the cheetah's extremely high (>80 %) pleiomorphic sperm.
The study provides an unprecedented genomic perspective for the rare cheetah, with potential relevance to the species' natural history, physiological adaptations and unique reproductive disposition.
Demographic features, operation time, blood loss, number of dissected lymph nodes, chest tube duration, drainage volume, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative complications, two-year progress and pulmonary function loss of FEV1% (percentage of the predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second) at 6 months were retrospectively reviewed and compared by t test, rank-sum test, χ² test and Fisher exact test.
There were no significant differences in operation time, blood loss, number of dissected lymph nodes, chest tube duration, drainage volume, postoperative hospital stay, and postoperative complication rate (P > 0.05). The two-year progress rate between two groups did not differ significantly either (1.4% vs. 1.7%, χ² = 0.000, P = 1.000). Pulmonary function loss of FEV1% at 6 months was significantly smaller in thoracoscopic anatomical partial lobectomy group than thoracoscopic lobectomy group (14% ± 4% vs. 16% ± 4%, t = 2.408, P = 0.017).
Thoracoscopic anatomical partial-lobectomy is safe and feasible for patients with pT1aN0M0 peripheral non-small cell lung cancer. It could achieve equal short-term effect and reserve more pulmonary function compared with thoracoscopic lobectomy.
The rapid identification method and model of bacteria were built which were based on support vector machine (SVM) and multi-wavelength UV-Vis transmission spectra of the bacteria. Using the internal cross validation based on grid search method of the training set for obtaining the best penalty factor C and the kernel parameter g, which the model needed. Established the bacteria fast identification model according to the optimal parameters and one-against-one classification method included in LibSVM. Using different experimental bacteria strains of transmission spectra as a test set of classification accuracy verification of the model, the analysis results showed that the bacterial rapid identification model built in this paper can identification the four kinds bacterial which chosen in this paper as the accuracy was 100%, and the model also can identified different subspecies of E. coli test set as the accuracy was 100%, proved the model had a good stability in identification bacterial species. In this paper, the research results of this study not only can provide a method for rapid identification and early warning of bacterial microbial in drinking water sources, but also can be used as the microbes identified in biomedical a simple, rapid and accurate means.
The difference and correlation between BVI9400 and iU22 were contrastively analyzed.
The relative difference between results from BVI9400 and phantom volume was 2.5% and 1.36%. There was a strong correlation for patients between BVI9400 and iU22 (R = 0.96, P < 0.001). The relative difference between BVI9400 and iU22 decreased with the increasing of bladder volume and had no significant difference with patient's gender (P > 0.1).
BladderScan BVI9400 had the ability of high accuracy and good stability of measured data. In view of quick and conveniences, BVI9400 could be as auxiliary equipment on pelvic tumor to evaluate whether the bladder volume during fractional radiotherapy was consistency with that during CT positioning.
The experimental results showed that the method could improve the stability and the accuracy of quantitative analysis of LIBS, and the relative standard deviation and average relative error of test set respectively were 4.7% and 9.5%. Data fitting method based on signal-to-background ratio(S/B) is Less susceptible to matrix elements and background spectrum etc, and provides data processing reference for real-time online LIBS quantitative analysis technology.
In total, 32 patients were entered on the study.
No complete responses were observed, and 16 patients (50%) had a partial response. Sixteen patients (50%) displayed disease stability. The progression-free survival was 11.92 ± 6.12 months, and the overall survival was 12.52 ± 5.56 months. Treatment-related grade adverse events were obsearved gastrointestinal reaction (68%), rash (2%), Pectoralgia (1%), headache (1%), rlopecia (1%), renal function (1%), liver function (1%), and diarrhea (1%).
Combined pemetrexed, and carboplatin followed by maintenance bevacizumab was well tolerated and displayed remarkable effect in patients with advanced, nonsquamous nonsmall cell lung cancer.
In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: healthy control group (H group), COPD model group (C group), erythromycin group (E group), budesonide group (B group) and erythromycin + budesonide group (E+B group). The rats in groups of C, E, B and E+B were developed into COPD models. Different groups were given different drug interventions. The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α, IL-8, and TNF-α in BALF and serum were measured with ELISA. The protein expression levels of HDAC2, PI3K, and p-AKT in lung tissue were measured with Western-blot and immunohistochemistry. The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α, IL-8, and TNF-α in BALF and serum were lower in E+B group than those in B group and C group (all P<0.001).The protein expression level of HDAC2 was higher and PI3K and p-AKT were lower in E+B group than those in B group and C group (all P<0.001). Moreover, the expression levels of HDAC2 were negatively correlated with the levels of 8-iso-PGF2α, IL-8 and TNF-α both in serum and BALF and the expression levels of PI3K and p-AKT among the five groups, with all P<0.001. We conclude that erythromycin can enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of budesonide in COPD model rats, possibly through inhibiting the PI3K/AKT pathway and enhancing the activity of HDAC2.
To derive a more precise evaluation, we here performed a meta-analysis focusing on the association between Sox2 expression and various clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer. Relevant publications were identified and retrieved using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedical databases. Ten studies with a total of 1713 patients with breast cancer were included in our meta-analysis. Reported odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were pooled to assess the strengths of the analyzed associations. Our results revealed significant positive associations between Sox2 expression and increased tumor size (pooled OR=2.61, 95% CI=1.91-3.58), histological grade (pooled OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.72-3.03), lymph node metastasis (pooled OR=4.17, 95% CI=1.20-14.45), and the highly aggressive triple-negative phenotype (pooled OR=2.64, 95% CI=1.11-6.29). However, no associations were observed for TNM stage and estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 statuses. Overall, the results of this meta-analysis indicate that Sox2 may be considered as a prognostic marker for breast cancer. More well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to clarify the prognostic significance of Sox2 in breast cancer.