Fang Li - Capital Medical University

Fang Li
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Fang Li
Capital Medical University

Publications Authored By Fang Li

Food Chem
Food Chem 2017 Feb 21;217:59-64. Epub 2016 Aug 21.
School of Food Science and Technology, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China; Key Laboratory of the Deep Processing of Bulk Grain and Oil Authorized by Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430023, China. Electronic address:

This work successfully investigated the effects of different influential factors and hydrophobic cavities of cyclodextrins (CDs) on α-galactosidase (α-Gal) by detecting α-Gal activity. The highest inhibitory concentration of three kinds of CDs (α-, β-, and γ-CD) on α-Gal was 10mM. Moreover, the highest inhibition of α-Gal was obtained under the following conditions: reaction time of 90min, temperature of 30°C, and pH 6.Read More

0. Compared with other CDs, β-CD showed more ability to interact with α-Gal due to its appropriate cavity geometric dimensions. From circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance it was observed that β-CD changed the secondary structure of α-Gal and formed a hydrogen bond with this enzyme.

Nanoscale Res Lett
Nanoscale Res Lett 2016 Dec 16;11(1):204. Epub 2016 Apr 16.
Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518060, People's Republic of China.

Graphene coating is receiving discernable attention to overcome the significant challenges associated with large volume changes and poor conductivity of silicon nanoparticles as anodes for lithium-ion batteries. In this work, a tremella-like nanostructure of silicon@void@graphene-like nanosheets (Si@void@G) composite was successfully synthesized and employed as a high-performance anode material with high capacity, cycling stability, and rate capacity. The Si nanoparticles were first coated with a sacrificial SiO2 layer; then, the nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene-like nanosheets were formed on the surface of Si@SiO2 through a one-step carbon-thermal method, and the SiO2 layer was removed subsequently to obtain the Si@void@G composite.Read More

The performance improvement is mainly attributed to the good conductivity of N-doped graphene-like nanosheets and the unique design of tremella nanostructure, which provides a void space to allow for the Si nanoparticles expanding upon lithiation. The resulting electrode delivers a capacity of 1497.3 mAh g(-1) at the current density of 0.2 A g(-1) after 100 cycles.


[(18)F]fluorodeoxysorbitol ([(18)F]FDS) is the first radiopharmaceutical specific for a category of bacteria and has the potential to specifically detect Enterobacteriaceae infections. The purpose of this study was to testify the safety and investigate the biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of [(18)F]FDS in healthy human bodies.
Six healthy subjects were intravenously injected with 320-520 MBq [(18)F]FDS.Read More

On each subject, 21 whole-body emission scans and a brain scan were conducted at settled time points within the next 4 h. Residence time for each source organ was determined by multi-exponential regression. Absorbed doses for target organs and effective dose were calculated via OLINDA/EXM.
No adverse events due to [(18)F]FDS injection were observed in the study. The tracer was cleared rapidly from the blood pool through the urinary system. A small portion was cleared into the gut through the hepatobiliary system. The effective dose (ED) was estimated to be 0.021 ± 0.001 mSv/MBq. The organ receiving the highest absorbed dose was the urinary bladder wall (0.25 ± 0.03 mSv/MBq).
[(18)F]FDS is safe and well tolerated. The effective dose was comparable to that of other F-18 labeled radiotracers. [(18)F]FDS is suitable for human use from a radiation dosimetry perspective.

Primates 2016 Oct 7;57(4):479-87. Epub 2016 Apr 7.
Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, People's Republic of China.

Age-sex differences in diet have been reported in many nonhuman primates, and body size, reproductive costs, and growth are three mutually non-exclusive factors often proposed to explain such differences. Smaller animals tend to feed on high quality foods (high in protein/energy) more often than larger animals due to their higher metabolic requirements per body weight. Animals of different sizes tend to use different substrate levels, leading to dietary differences if food resources are unevenly distributed along substrate levels.Read More

Adult females and juveniles experience additional metabolic requirements for reproduction and growth, respectively, and tend to feed on high quality foods more frequently than adult males. We conducted an age-sex analysis for the diet of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia, China. In spite of general age-sex similarities, we found that adult males ate herbs more frequently than juveniles and adult females, most likely because they were more terrestrial. As predicted, juveniles ate high quality foods (young leaves, fruits, seeds, and buds) more frequently, and meanwhile ate low quality foods (barks and lichens) less frequently than adult males across the study year or in some seasons when these food types were eaten. However, we found high similarities in diet between adult females and adult males. The most likely reason was that the low diversity of food sources and strong phenological synchrony did not allow adult females to select foods based on quality to cope with their higher metabolic constraints compared to adult males. Surprisingly, the only sex difference in diet except herbs was that adult females ate lichens more frequently in autumn. One plausible reason was that lactating females experienced their highest metabolic requirements in the middle period of infant care (autumn), and had to disproportionately increase the intake of lichens due to the limited availability of plant foods.

Int. J. Cardiol.
Int J Cardiol 2016 Oct 27;220:414-6. Epub 2016 Jun 27.
Department of Pediatric Cardiovasology, Children's Medical Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University; Institute of Pediatrics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China. Electronic address:

To discuss ventricular late potentials (VLPs) in children with vasodepressor response of vasovagal syncope (VVS-V).
184 children diagnosed as VVS-V by head-up tilt test (HUTT) were enrolled as VVS-V group, 105 age and gender matched healthy individuals without syncope were used as control group, then signal-averaged electrocardiogram was measured.
HR was decreased [(83.Read More

98±12.27) vs (87.28±13.75)bpm, P<0.05] in VVS-V group compared with control group. The prevalence of positive VLPs was not significantly different between the two groups. However the absolute values of TQRS [(84.89±12.05) vs (81.21±8.23)ms, P<0.01], RMS40 [(28.73±7.23) vs (26.89±7.36)μV, P<0.05] and LAS40 [(62.43±19.17) vs (56.79±1.83)ms, P<0.05] were significantly prolonged in VVS-V group compared with control group, and more patients in VVS-V group had abnormal prolonged LAS40 (94.57% vs 83.80%, P<0.01).
The prevalence of positive VLPs was not significantly different, TQRS, RMS40, LAS40 were longer in children with VVS-V in comparison with healthy individuals, and the abnormal LAS40 occurred in a higher proportion of VVS-V group.

Int. J. Cardiol.
Int J Cardiol 2016 Oct 5;221:194-7. Epub 2016 Jul 5.
Department of Pediatric Cardiovasology, Children's Medical Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Institute of Pediatrics, Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan, China.

To investigate the familial genetic characteristics of syncope in children.
A detailed medical history was taken from four twin pairs of children complaining of dizziness, headache, chest tightness, chest pain, prodromal symptoms of syncope or syncope, meanwhile, these patients were given routine physical examination, 12-lead ECG, echocardiography, Holter ECG, EEG, MRI of the head and other tests to exclude cardio-cerebrovascular and pulmonary diseases, with those with unknown origin for syncope undergoing head-up tilt test (HUTT) and inquiry of detailed family history.
The four pairs of twins with syncope beginning at 7-12years and induced mostly by standing position (4/5), and positive family history was noted in two pairs.Read More

Vasovagal syncope (VVS)-vasoinhibitory response pattern was predominant in HUTT (4/5). The results and the response pattern in HUTT might diversify between two members within same twin pair: one appeared as vasoinhibitory response pattern and one postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) pattern in the first pair, one vasoinhibitory response pattern and one negative response pattern in the second pair, vasoinhibitory response pattern in the third pair and negative response pattern in the fourth pair.
The hereditary factors may play a more important role in younger children with syncope. Environment and psychological factors may induced syncope attack. The results and the response pattern in HUTT are diversified and which might different between two members within twin pair.

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Oct;32(10):1366-1371
Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038, China.

Objective To explore the relationship between Xinfeng Capsule (XFC) improving the hypercoagulative state in patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and miR-155/suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Methods Sixty-six SS patients were randomly divided into XFC-treated group and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)-treated control group (n=33 per group), which were respectively treated with XFC and HCQ. In addition, 20 healthy volunteers were enrolled as a normal control group.Read More

The levels of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIG), thrombin time (TT) and D-dimer (D-D) were detected using automatic coagulation analyzer. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-4, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), P50, P65, inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) were tested using ELISA. Meanwhile, the mRNA expressions of p50, p65 and IκBα were determined using quantitative real-time PCR, and the level of microRNA-155 (miR-155) was examined by one-step fluorescence quantitative PCR. The protein levels of P50, P65 and SOCS1 were detected using Western blotting. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was evaluated by Westergren method. Hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was detected using automatic biochemical analyzer. Results Compared with the normal control group, the levels of D-D and FIB significantly increased in SS group; simultaneously, the serum levels of miR-155, IL-1β, TNF-α, P50, P65, IκBα, hs-CRP, ESR were significantly elevated in SS patients, while IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly reduced. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the coagulation parameters were remarkably correlated with cytokines, NF-κB and activity indexes. In the two treated groups, coagulation parameters and related indexes were demonstrated having some improvement, especially in the XFC group, which had a much higher efficiency, and better outcomes in reducing the levels of FIB, D-D, miR-155, TNF-α, IL-1β, P50, P65, ESR and hs-CRP, as well as increasing the expressions of SOCS1, IL-4 and IL-10. Conclusion XFC can significantly alleviate the hypercoagulative state of patients with SS, and the mechanisms may be related to the inhibition of miR-155/SOCS1/NF-κB signaling pathway.

J Prosthet Dent
J Prosthet Dent 2016 Sep 7;116(3):450-6. Epub 2016 Apr 7.
Associate Professor, State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

The passive film on the surface of titanium can be destroyed by immersion in a fluoridated acidic medium. Coating with titanium nitride (TiN) may improve the corrosion resistance of titanium.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of duplex treatment with plasma nitriding and TiN coating on the corrosion resistance of cast titanium.Read More

Cast titanium was treated with plasma nitriding and TiN coating. The corrosion resistance of the duplex-treated titanium in fluoride-containing artificial saliva was then investigated through electrochemical and immersion tests. The corroded surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectroscopy surface scan analysis. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (α=.05) RESULTS: Duplex treatment generated a dense and uniform TiN film with a thickness of 4.5 μm. Compared with untreated titanium, the duplex-treated titanium displayed higher corrosion potential (Ecorr) values (P<.001) and lower corrosion current density (Icorr) values (P<.001). SEM results showed that the surface of untreated titanium was more heavily corroded than that of duplex-treated titanium. Surface scan analysis of duplex-treated titanium that had been immersed in artificial saliva containing 2 g/L fluoride revealed fluorine on the titanium surface, whereas fluorine was not observed on the surface of untreated titanium after immersion in fluoride-containing artificial saliva. The concentration of titanium ions released from the treated titanium was less than the amount released from untreated titanium (P<.001).
Duplex treatment by plasma nitriding and TiN coating significantly improved the corrosion resistance of cast titanium in a fluoride-containing environment.

Exp. Dermatol.
Exp Dermatol 2016 Sep 13;25(9):714-20. Epub 2016 Jul 13.
The Stem Cell and Biomedical Material Key Laboratory of Jiangsu Province (The State Key Laboratory Incubation Base), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

After patients suffer severe full-thickness burn injuries, the current treatments cannot lead to the complete self-regeneration of the sweat gland structure and function. Therefore, it is important to identify new methods for acquiring sufficient functional sweat gland cells to restore skin function. In this study, we induced CD117+ human amniotic fluid stem (hAFS) cells to differentiate into sweat glandlike (hAFS-SG) cells based on the use of conditioned medium (CM) from the human sweat gland (hSG) cells.Read More

Real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining were used to confirm the expression of the sweat gland-related genes Ectodysplasin-A (EDA), Ectodysplasin-A receptor (EDAR), keratin 8 (K8) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA). Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that microvilli, the cellular structures that are typical for hSG cells, can also be observed on the membrane of the hAFS-SG cells. Our test for the calcium response to acetylcholine (Ach) proved that hAFS-SG cells have the potential to respond to Ach in a manner similar to normal sweat glands. A three-dimensional culture is an effective approach that stimulates the hAFS-SG cells to form tubular structures and drives hAFS-SG cells to mature into higher stage. We also found that epidermal growth factor enhances the efficiency of differentiation and that Sonic hedgehog is an important factor of the CM that influences sweat gland differentiation. Our study provides the basis for further investigations into novel methods of inducing stem cells to differentiate into sweat glandlike cells.

J Clin Nurs
J Clin Nurs 2016 Sep 27;25(17-18):2450-6. Epub 2016 May 27.
Department of Foreign Languages, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

This study was to investigate bullying among hospital nurses and its correlates.
Chinese people were unlikely to express their opinions or pursue individual rights. Workplace bullying took place more easily among the educated people within Chinese culture.Read More

However, studies related to workplace bullying among hospital nurses in Taiwan were still limited.
A cross-sectional design.
Two hundred and eighty-five nurses who worked in the regional teaching hospital in south Taiwan were recruited. The significant predictors of workplace bullying were identified by using linear regression analysis.
The mean of overall bullying was 1·47, showing that the frequency of the nurses having experienced workplace bullying was between 'never' and 'now and then'. The most frequent bullying item was 'being yelled at or being the target of anger', followed by 'being the objects of untruthful criticism' and 'having views ignored'. Hospital nurses working in the Emergency room would gain 10·888 points more in the overall bullying scale compared with those who worked in operation rooms or haemodialysis rooms. They were more likely to be bullied. Hospital nurses with one year increase in nursing experience were 0·207 points less likely to be bullied.
Reducing workplace bullying among hospital nurses was an essential method to provide quality assurance to health care. Nurse managers should build up zero tolerance policy to decrease nurses' exposure to workplace bullying.
Training programmes related to bullying prevention are suggested to avoid workplace bullying. The contents of the educational training programmes or workshops should incorporate the characteristics and consequences of the workplace bullying, and the strategies to deal with bullying.

Cancer Res.
Cancer Res 2016 Sep 30;76(17):5143-50. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
Department of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are thought to drive brain cancer, but their cellular and molecular origins remain uncertain. Here, we report the successful generation of induced CSC (iCSC) from primary human astrocytes through the expression of defined genetic factors. Combined transduction of four factors, Myc, Oct-4, p53DD, and Ras, induced efficient transformation of primary human astrocytes into malignant cells with powerful tumor-initiating capabilities.Read More

Notably, transplantation of 100 transduced cells into nude mice was sufficient for tumor formation. The cells showed unlimited self-renewal ability with robust telomerase activities. In addition, they expressed typical glioma stem-like cell markers, such as CD133, CD15, and CD90. Moreover, these cells could form spheres in culture and differentiate into neuron-like, astrocyte-like, and oligodendrocyte-like cells. Finally, they also displayed resistance to the widely used brain cancer drug temozolomide. These iCSCs could provide important tools for studies of glioma biology and therapeutics development. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5143-50. ©2016 AACR.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 Sep;41(9):734-6
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Tc-labeled red cell (Tc-RBC) scintigraphy is commonly used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding. Gallbladder visualization on Tc-RBC scintigraphy is not common. We present a case of gallbladder visualization on Tc-RBC scintigraphy confirmed by SPECT/CT imaging in a patient with chronic renal failure and anemia.Read More

Apoptosis 2016 Sep;21(9):1045-55
School of Pharmacy, Central South University, Changsha, 410023, People's Republic of China.

Palmitic acid (PA), a type of saturated fatty acids, induces cardiovascular diseases by causing cardiomyocyte apoptosis with unclear mechanisms. Akt participates in PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. GSK-3β is a substrate of Akt, we investigated its role in PA-induced apoptosis.Read More

We reveal that PA inhibits GSK-3β phosphorylation accompanied by inactivation of Akt in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. We also reveal that inhibition the activity of GSK-3β by its inhibitor LiCl or knockdown by siRNA significantly attenuates PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, this suggesting that GSK-3β plays a pro-apoptotic role. To detect its downstream factors, we analyzed the roles of JNK, p38 MAPK and β-arrestin 2 (β-Arr2). Here, we report that GSK-3β regulate PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by affecting the distribution of β-Arr2. PA diminishes the protein level of β-Arr2 and changes its distribution from nucleus to cytoplasm. Either inhibition of β-Arr2 by its siRNA or overexpression of its protein level by transfection of β-Arr2 full-length plasmid promotes PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which remind us to focus on the changes of its location. β-Arr2 siRNA decreased the background level of β-Arr2 in nucleus in normal H9c2 cells. Overexpression of β-Arr2 increased cytoplasm level of β-Arr2 as PA did. While LiCl, the inhibitor of GSK-3β decreased PA-induced apoptosis, accompany with increased nucleus level of β-Arr2. Then we concluded that GSK-3β is closely associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by PA, it performs its pro-apoptotic function by affecting the location of β-Arr2. LiCl inhibits PA-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which might provide novel therapeutic for cardiovascular diseases induced by metabolic syndrome.

Biosci Trends
Biosci Trends 2016 Sep 26;10(4):265-76. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.

Numerous studies have reported that human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) therapy can rescue the structure and function of injured tissues. The aims of this study were to explore the protective role of hUCMSC transplantation in a model of accelerated ovarian aging and to compare 2 methods of transplanting hUCMSCs, i.e.Read More

i) via intravenous injection (IV) and ii) in situ ovarian micro injection (MI). Female mice were subjected to superovulation and ozone inhalation to create a model of accelerated ovarian aging with a decline in both the quantity and quality of oocytes. Cells were transplanted via IV or MI, and ovaries were removed after 2 weeks or 1 month of treatment. Ovarian reserve and function were evaluated based on the follicle counts, hormone levels, the estrous cycle, and reproductive performance. Cell tracking, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Western blot analysis were used to assess the inner mechanisms of injury and repair. Results indicated that ovarian function increased significantly after treatment with hUCMSCs. Immunofluorescence revealed reduced TUNEL staining and a decreased percentage of apoptotic cells. A higher level of expression of anti-apoptotic and antioxidant enzymes was noted in the ovaries of groups treated with hUCMSCs. These parameters were enhanced more when mice were treated with hUCMSCs for 1 month than when they treated with hUCMSCs for 2 weeks. IV was better able to restore ovarian function than MI. These results suggest that both methods of transplantation may improve ovarian function and that IV transplantation of hUCMSCs can significantly improve ovarian function and structural parameters more than MI transplantation of hUCMSCs can.

Antiviral Res.
Antiviral Res 2016 Sep 28;133:62-72. Epub 2016 Jul 28.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States; BIO5 Institute, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States. Electronic address:

As the number of drug-resistant influenza viruses continues to increase, antivirals with novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Among the two classes of FDA-approved antiviral drugs, neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir, are currently the only choice for the prevention and treatment of influenza virus infection. Due to the antigenic drift and antigenic shift, it will only be a matter of time before influenza viruses become completely resistant to these NA inhibitors.Read More

In pursuing the next generation of antiviral drugs with complementary mechanisms of action to those of the NA inhibitors, we have identified a natural product, cyclosporine A (CsA) (1), as a desired drug candidate. In this study, we discovered that CsA (1) and its analogs have broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple influenza A and B strains, including strains that are resistant to either NA or M2 inhibitors or both. Moreover, CsA (1) displays a high in vitro genetic barrier of drug resistance than oseltamivir carboxylate Mechanistic studies revealed that CsA (1) acts at the intermediate step of viral replication post viral fusion. Its antiviral mechanism is independent of inhibiting the isomerase activity of cyclophilin A (CypA), and CsA (1) has no effect on the viral polymerase activity The potent antiviral efficacy of CsA (1), coupled with the high in vitro genetic barrier of drug resistance and novel mechanism of action, renders CsA (1) a promising anti-influenza drug candidate for further development.

Int J Pharm
Int J Pharm 2016 Sep 30;511(2):728-40. Epub 2016 Jul 30.
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Internal stimuli, such as intracellular lysosomal pH, enzyme, redox and reduction, can be applied to improve biological specificity of chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy. Thus, functionalized copolymers based on their response to specific microenvironment of tumor regions have been designed as smart drug vesicles for enhanced anti-cancer efficiency and reduced side effects. Herein, we reported dually pH/reduction-responsive novel micelles based on self-assembly of carboxymethyl chitosan-cysteamine-N-acetyl histidine (CMCH-SS-NA) and doxorubicin (DOX).Read More

The tailor-made dually responsive micelles demonstrated favorable stability in normal physiological environment and triggered rapid drug release in acidic and/or reduction environment. Additionally, the nanocarriers responded to the intracellular environment in an ultra-fast manner within several minutes, which led to the pinpointed release of DOX in tumor cells effectively and ensured higher DOX concentrations within tumor areas with the aid of targeted delivery, thereby leading to enhanced tumor ablation. Thus, this approach with sharp drug release behavior represented a versatile strategy to provide a promising paradigm for cancer therapy.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 Sep;41(9):737-9
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Beijing Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

A 28-year-old woman presented gradually worsening intermittent right groin pain for 10 months. FDG PET/CT was performed to evaluate the suspected renal malignancy. The images demonstrated a large hypermetabolic tumor occupying the entire right kidney.Read More

Pathological examination demonstrated a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the kidney.

J Environ Sci (China)
J Environ Sci (China) 2016 Sep 25;47:219-29. Epub 2016 Mar 25.
Laboratory of Atmospheric Physico-Chemistry, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China. Electronic address:

Aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from OH- initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in the presence of high mass (100-300μg/m(3)) concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol was investigated in a home-made smog chamber in this study. The chemical composition of aged ethylbenzene SOA particles was measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) coupled with a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Experimental results showed that nitrophenol, ethyl-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, methyl glyoxylic acid, 5-ethyl-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-ethyl-2,4-hexadiendioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-5-ethyl-6-oxo-4-hexenoic acid, 1H-imidazole, hydrated N-glyoxal substituted 1H-imidazole, hydrated glyoxal dimer substituted imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde, N-glyoxal substituted hydrated 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde and high-molecular-weight (HMW) components were the predominant products in the aged particles.Read More

Compared to the previous aromatic SOA aging studies, imidazole compounds, which can absorb solar radiation effectively, were newly detected in aged ethylbenzene SOA in the presence of high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol. These findings provide new information for discussing aromatic SOA aging mechanisms.

Neuroimage Clin
Neuroimage Clin 2016 24;12:415-9. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids can exert a neurotoxic effect in patients, possibly manifesting as molecular imaging alterations in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between brain metabolism and elevated hormone level using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. We retrospectively enrolled 92 consecutive patients with confirmed diagnosis of Cushing's disease.Read More

A voxel-based analysis was performed to investigate the association between cerebral (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and serum cortisol level. Relatively impaired metabolism of specific brain regions correlated with serum cortisol level was found. Specifically, notable correlations were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum, regions considered to be involved in the regulation and central action of glucocorticoids. Moreover, some hormone-associated regions were found in the frontal and occipital cortex, possibly mediating the cognitive changes seen in Cushing's disease. Our findings link patterns of perturbed brain metabolism relates to individual hormone level, thus presenting a substrate for cognitive disturbances seen in Cushing's disease patients, as well as in other conditions with abnormal cortisol levels.

J. Hypertens.
J Hypertens 2016 Sep;34 Suppl 1:e238
1School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080, P.R. China 2JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 3General Practice and Primary Care, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 9LX, UK 4School of Public Health, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182, P.R. China 5Centre for Research Excellence in the Prevention of Chronic Conditions in Rural & Remote Populations, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia.

Multimorbidity (having ≥2 chronic conditions within an individual) is a rapidly increasing problem particularly among hypertensive patients. This study compared the prevalence of hypertension and those with multimorbidity in three study populations.
We used cross-sectional data from three self-report surveys in China [N = 162,464], Scotland [N = 36,921], and Hong Kong [N = 29,187].Read More

A consistent methodology was adopted to select representative samples of the household resident population of all ages by multi-stage stratified random sampling in each area. Chronic conditions were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases-10.
Scotland showed the highest prevalence of self-reported hypertension (20.8% [n = 7,694]), followed by Hong Kong (11.0% [n = 3,206]) and China (9.6% [n = 15,675]). The proportion of people with multimorbidity among hypertension patients were 57.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 55.9-58.3) in Scotland, 57.3% (95% CI 54.1-60.4) in China, and 60.8% (95% CI 59.1-62.5) in Hong Kong. Chronic conditions in musculoskeletal system, and endocrine and metabolic system were most common among all multimorbid subjects. Female, ageing, and smoking were independent factors associated with multimorbidity across the three study populations. There was a dramatic increase in the proportion of patients with multimorbidity among middle-aged adults (aged 45-64) in China. The prevalence of multimorbidity was higher in deprived population in both Scotland and Hong Kong, while in China multimorbidity was more slightly common among those living in more affluent households (adjusted odds ratio = 1.15, 95% CI 1.12-1.18).
All three study population had shared risk factors for multimorbidity. Unlike Scotland, both Hong Kong and China lack gate-keeper system, especially in China wherein social medical insurance coverage varies and individual's ability to pay for health care is dominant. The absence of a consistent source of care with high co-payments might reduce diagnosis and awareness of chronic diseases - and thus may contribute to the disparities in the prevalence of hypertension.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 Sep 16. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

A 14-year-old girl underwent a Tc MDP bone scan to evaluate multiple fractures. The images showed not only expected increased activity at the fracture sites of lower extremities but also intense activity in both sides of the maxilla and mandible. Microscopic examination of the mandible was consistent with a diagnosis of gigantiform cementoma.Read More

ACS Infect Dis
ACS Infect Dis 2016 Sep 22. Epub 2016 Sep 22.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, and BIO5 Institute, The University of Arizona , Tucson, Arizona 85721, United States.

Despite the existence of flu vaccines and small-molecule antiviral drugs, influenza virus infection remains a public health concern that warrants immediate attention. As resistance to the only orally bioavailable drug, oseltamivir, has been continuously reported, there is a clear need to develop the next-generation of anti-influenza drugs. We chose the influenza A virus M2-S31N mutant proton channel as the drug target to address this need as it is one of the most conserved viral proteins and persist in >95% of currently circulating influenza A viruses.Read More

In this study, we report the development of a late-stage diversification strategy for the expeditious synthesis of M2-S31N inhibitors. The channel blockage and antiviral activity of the synthesized compounds were tested in two-electrode voltage clamp assays and antiviral assays, respectively. Several M2-S31N inhibitors were identified to have potent M2-S31N channel blockage and micromolar antiviral efficacy against several M2-S31N-containing influenza A viruses.

Bioinformatics 2016 Sep 25. Epub 2016 Sep 25.
Roche Sequencing Solutions, Belmont, CA, USA 94002

LongISLND is a software package designed to simulate sequencing data according to the characteristics of third generation, single-molecule sequencing technologies. The general software architecture is easily extendable, as demonstrated by the emulation of Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) multipass sequencing with P5 and P6 chemistries, producing data in FASTQ, H5, and the latest PacBio BAM format. We demonstrate its utility by downstream processing with consensus building and variant calling.Read More

LongISLND is implemented in Java and available at CONTACT: SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 Aug;41(8):656-8
From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine, and †Pulmonary Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, People's Republic of China.

A 59-year-old man presented cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath for 2 weeks and fever for 4 days. A contrast chest CT revealed a large right pulmonary artery filling defect, suggestive of pulmonary embolism that failed to respond to anticoagulation therapy. FDG PET/CT was performed to evaluate possible malignancy, which revealed intense activity in the right main pulmonary artery without any extrathoracic abnormality.Read More

The ratio of the SUVmax of this lesion to the liver was significantly increased in the delayed PET images. The pathological examination demonstrated primary pulmonary artery sarcoma.

J. Int. Med. Res.
J Int Med Res 2016 Aug 17;44(4):882-92. Epub 2016 May 17.
Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory on Haematology, Department of Haematology, Fujian Institute of Haematology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China

To investigate the cytotoxic effects of suberanilohydroxamic acid (vorinostat) in combination with arsenic trioxide (ATO) on the human NB4 cell line in vitro.
The rates of cell proliferation following treatment with vorinostat with or without ATO were measured. Flow cytometry of Annexin-V/propidium iodide double-stained cells was used to measure apoptosis.Read More

Acridine Orange and ethidium bromide staining was used to observe morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. Western blot analysis was used to measure protein levels.
Vorinostat and ATO, alone and in combination, inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and the effect was additive. NB4 cells treated with vorinostat + ATO demonstrated greater levels of apoptosis compared with cells treated with either drug alone. Both vorinostat and ATO alone and in combination resulted in lower levels of promyelocytic leukaemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion protein and increased levels of acetyl-histone H3 and acetyl-histone H4 proteins compared with controls. Vorinostat + ATO resulted in lower levels of Akt protein compared with either drug alone.
The combination of vorinostat and ATO inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and enhanced the chemosensitivity of NB4 cells. The mechanism might be associated with increasing histone acetylation levels as well as downregulation of the Akt signalling pathway.

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Aug;32(8):1094-8
Anhui university of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038, China.

Objective To observe the effect of Xinfeng capsule (XFC) on miR-155, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathway, and indexes related to hypercoagulative state in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and investigate the possible mechanism. Methods Fifty-six cases in active AS were randomly divided into XFC group and sulfasalazine (SASP) group. All cases in the XFC group took three capsules three times daily for twelve consecutive weeks.Read More

The ones in the SASP group took four tablets two times daily for twelve consecutive weeks. The expression of miR-155 was detected by real-time PCR. The mRNA expressions of nuclear factor κB activator 1(Act1), NF-κB inhibitor-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor of kappa-B kinase beta (IKKβ), NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 were tested by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Meanwhile, the protein expressions of NF-κB P65 and NF-κB P50 were determined by Western blotting. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, thromboxane B2 (TXB2), 6-ketone-prostaglandin F1 (6-keto-PGF1), platelet granular membrane protein 140 (GMP140), platelet activation factor (PAF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) were determined by ELISA. Clinical efficacy was evaluated in the two groups. Results Compared with the SASP group, 50% Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI50) was significantly higher in the XFC group. Compared with the SASP group after treatment, platelet (PLT), fibrinogen (FBG) and D-D dimer (D-D), TXB2, GMP140, PAF, PAI-2, IL-17, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), visual analog scale (VAS), BASDAI, BASFI, and BAS-G were reduced more obviously in the XFC group after treatment; meanwhile, 6-keto-PGF1, IL-4, and IL-10 significantly increased. Compared with the SASP group after treatment, the expressions of IKKβ mRNA, IκBα mRNA, NF-κB p65 mRNA, NF-κB p50 mRNA, NF-κB P65 protein, NF-κB P50 protein, and miR-155 were lower in the XFC group after treatment. Conclusion XFC could effectively improve hypercoagulative state in active AS patients. The potential mechanism may be associated with the inhibition of miR-155 and NF-κB signal pathway.

This study aims to document the first-in-human application of a (68)Ga-labeled heterodimeric peptide BBN-RGD (bombesin-RGD) that targets both integrin αvβ3 and gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR). We evaluated the safety and assessed the clinical diagnosis value of (68)Ga- BBN-RGD positron emission tomography (PET)/x-ray computed tomography (CT) in prostate cancer patients in comparison with (68)Ga-BBN.
Five healthy volunteers (M 4, F 1, 28-53 y) were enrolled to validate the safety of (68)Ga-BBN-RGD.Read More

Dosimetry was calculated using the OLINDA/EXM software. A total of 13 patients with prostate cancer (4 newly diagnosed and 9 post-therapy) were enrolled. All the patients underwent PET/CT scans 15-30 min after intravenous injection of 1.85 MBq (0.05 mCi) per kilogram body weight of (68)Ga-BBN-RGD, and also accepted (68)Ga-BBN PET/CT within 2 weeks for comparison.
With a mean injected dose of 107.3 ± 14.8 MBq per patient, no side effect was found during the whole procedure and 2 weeks follow-up, demonstrating the safety of (68)Ga-BBN-RGD. A patient would be exposed to a radiation dose of 2.90 mSv with an injected dose of 129.5 MBq (3.5 mCi), which is much lower than the dose limit set by the Food and Drug Administration. In 13 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed by biopsy, (68)Ga-BBN-RGD PET/CT detected 3 out of 4 primary tumors, 14 metastatic lymph nodes and 20 bone lesions with maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of 4.46 ± 0.50, 6.26 ± 2.95, and 4.84 ± 1.57, respectively. Only 2/4 primary tumors, 5 lymph nodes and 12 bone lesions were positive on (68)Ga-BBN PET/CT with the SUVmax of 2.98 ± 1.24, 4.17 ± 1.89, and 3.61 ± 1.85, respectively.
This study indicates the safety and the efficiency of a new type of dual integrin αvβ3 and GRPR targeting PET radiotracer in prostate cancer diagnosis and staging.

Trials 2016 5;17(1):392. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
Department of Neurology, Xuan Wu Hospital, Capital Medical University, 45 Changchun Street, Beijing, 100053, China.

Vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (VCIND) refers to cognitive deficits associated with underlying vascular causes that fall short of a dementia diagnosis. There is currently no treatment for VCIND. Computerized cognitive training, which has significantly improved cognitive function in healthy older adults and patients with cognitive impairment has not yet been applied to VCIND.Read More

The proposed study is a three-center, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial that will include 60 patients with VCIND. The patients will be randomized to either a training or a control group. The intervention is internet-based cognitive training performed for 30 min over 35 sessions. Neuropsychological assessment and functional and structural MRI will be performed before and after 7 weeks training. Primary outcomes are global cognitive function and executive function. Secondary outcome measures are neuroplasticity changes measured by functional and structural MRI.
Applying an internet-based, multi-domain, adaptive program, this study aims to assess whether cognitive training improves cognitive abilities and neural plasticity in patients with subcortical VCIND. In addition to the comprehensive assessment of the participants by neuropsychological tests, cerebrovascular risk factors and apolipoprotein E genotyping, neuroplasticity will be used as an evaluation outcome in this study for, to our knowledge, the first time. The combination of functional and structural MRI and neuropsychological tests will have strong sensitivity in evaluating the effects of cognitive training and will also reveal the underlying mechanisms at work. NCT02640716 . Retrospectively registered on 21 December 2015.

Med. Sci. Monit.
Med Sci Monit 2016 12;22:2846-51. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of the implantable loop recorder (ILR) in diagnosing atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing the postoperative efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 32 patients who successfully underwent RFCA were selected. These patients discontinued antiarrhythmic medication with no AF recurrence for more than 3 months after RFCA, and underwent ILR placement by a conventional method.Read More

The clinical manifestations and information on arrhythmias recorded by the ILR were followed up to assess the efficacy of AF RFCA. RESULTS The mean follow-up period was 24.7±12.5 months. Of 32 patients with ILR information, 27 had successful RFCA and 5 had recurrent AF. The follow-up results obtained by traditional methods showed 29 patients with successful RFCA and 3 with recurrent AF (P<0.05). Among the 18 patients with clinical symptoms, 13 had recorded cardiac arrhythmic events (72.2%) and 5 showed sinus rhythm (27.8%). The ILRs recorded 18 patients with arrhythmic events (56.3%), including 12 cases of atrial arrhythmias, among whom 5 recurred at 9, 12, 16, 17, and 32 months after AF RFCA; there were also 2 patients with ventricular tachycardia (VT) and 4 with bradycardia. CONCLUSIONS The value of ILR in assessing the efficacy of AF RFCA was superior to that of traditional methods. ILR can promptly detect asymptomatic AF, and can monitor electrocardiogram features after RFCA, thus providing objective evidence of efficacy.

Resting heart rate is linked to risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, sudden death and noncardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess these associations in general populations and in populations of patients with hypertension or diabetes mellitus.
We searched PubMed, Embase and MEDLINE from inception to Mar.Read More

5, 2016. We used a random-effects model to combine study-specific relative risks (RRs). We used restricted cubic splines to assess the dose-response relation.
We included 45 nonrandomized prospective cohort studies in the meta-analysis. The multivariable adjusted RR with an increment of 10 beats/min in resting heart rate was 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.14) for coronary artery disease, 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.08) for stroke, 1.12 (95% CI 1.02-1.24) for sudden death, 1.16 (95% CI 1.12-1.21) for noncardiovascular diseases, 1.09 (95% CI 1.06-1.12) for all types of cancer and 1.25 (95% CI 1.17-1.34) for noncardiovascular diseases excluding cancer. All of these relations were linear. In an analysis by category of resting heart rate (< 60 [reference], 60-70, 70-80 and > 80 beats/min), the RRs were 0.99 (95% CI 0.93-1.04), 1.08 (95% CI 1.01-1.16) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.19-1.43), respectively, for coronary artery disease; 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.19), 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.93-1.25), respectively, for stroke; and 1.17 (95% CI 0.94-1.46), 1.31 (95% CI 1.12-1.54) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.39-1.77), respectively, for noncardiovascular diseases. After excluding studies involving patients with hypertension or diabetes, we obtained similar results for coronary artery disease, stroke and noncardiovascular diseases, but found no association with sudden death.
Resting heart rate was an independent predictor of coronary artery disease, stroke, sudden death and noncardiovascular diseases over all of the studies combined. When the analysis included only studies concerning general populations, resting heart rate was not associated with sudden death.

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2016 Aug;19(8):530-2
Oncology Department, General Hospital of PLA, Beijing 100853, China.

Brain metastasis, a common complication of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an incidence rate of 30%-50%, significantly affects the patients' quality of life. The prognosis of patients of NSCLC with brain metastasis is extremely poor, the average median survival is only 1 m-2 m without treatment. The targeted therapy based on lung cancer driven gene is a new treatment.Read More

Besides, the immunotherapy which can enhance the effect of anti-cancer by simulating the immune system is a new approach. The combination of targeted therapy and immunotherapy can greatly benefit patients in clinical work.

Int J Nanomedicine
Int J Nanomedicine 2016 12;11:3875-90. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing.

A novel method was developed here to prepare albumin-based nanoparticles (NPs) for improving the therapeutic and safety profiles of chemotherapeutic agents. This approach involved crosslinking bovine serum albumin (BSA) using a Schiff base-containing vanillin, into NPs and loading doxorubicin (DOX) into the NPs by incubation. The resultant NPs (DOX-BSA-V-NPs) displayed a particle size of 100.Read More

5±1.3 nm with a zeta potential of -23.05±1.45 mV and also showed high drug-loading efficiency and excellent stability with respect to storage and temperature. The encapsulation of DOX into the BSA-V-NPs was confirmed by dynamic scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. DOX-BSA-V-NPs exhibited a significantly faster DOX release at pH 6.5 than pH 7.4, as well as in a solution with a higher glutathione concentration. In vitro studies showed that the cellular uptake of DOX-BSA-V-NPs was time-dependent, concentration-dependent, and faster than free DOX, while the cytotoxicity of DOX-BSA-V-NPs (IC50 value of 3.693 μg/mL) was superior to free DOX (IC50 value of 4.007 μg/mL). More importantly, DOX-BSA-V-NPs showed a longer mean survival time of 24.83 days, a higher tumor inhibition rate of 56.66%, and a decreased distribution in the heart than other DOX formulations in animal studies using a tumor xenograft model. Thus, the vanillin-based albumin NPs were shown here to be a promising carrier for tumor-targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents and, thus, should be further studied.

Bioengineered 2016 Aug 30:1-7. Epub 2016 Aug 30.
a Department of Geriatrics , The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China , Hengyang, Hunan China.

To explore the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on renal fibrosis and the expressions of connexins and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in diabetic rats.
SD rats were divided into 4 groups randomly: control group(n = 12), STZ group (n = 12), STZ+ H2S group (n = 12), and H2S group (n = 12). Diabetic model was induced by intraperitoneal injections of STZ.Read More

After 72 h after injection, the rats whose blood glucose were higher than 16.7 mmol/L. STZ+H2S group and H2S group were injected NaHS by intraperitoneal. Control group and STZ group were injected with the same dose of normal saline (NS) in equal doses every day. 8 weeks later, urine were collected. The expression of connexin and matrix metalloproteinase was analyzed by Western blot. We measured the Kidney hydroxyproline content by hydrolysis method. Type II collagen content was detected by immunohistochemical method and Masson staining.
Compared with the control group, collagen accumulation was markedly enhanced, and the content of type II collagen, kidney hydroxyproline and timp-2 were boosted in STZ group mice (P < 0.01), while the expressions of CX40,CX43, CX45, MMP-1 and MMP-2 were obviously deceased (P < 0.01). Compared with STZ group, the expressions of CX40, CX43, CX45, MMP-1 and MMP-2 were significantly increased (P < 0.01), while the content of type II collagen, kidney hydroxyproline and timp-2 expression were markedly deceased in STZ+H2S group.
H2S may attenuate renal fibrosis by up-regulating the expressions of CX40, CX43, CX45 and regulating the MMPs/TIMPs parameters.

The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, is a devastating pest of livestock endemic to subtropical and tropical regions of the Western hemisphere. The larvae of this species feed on the tissue of living animals, including man, and can cause death if untreated. Over 60 years ago, the sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed with the aim of eradicating this pest, initially from Florida but subsequently from all of North and Central America.Read More

From the outset it was appreciated that SIT would be more efficient if only sterile males were released in the field, but this was not possible until now.
Here, we report on the development and evaluation of the first sexing strains of C. hominivorax that produce only males when raised on diet without tetracycline. Transgenic lines have been developed that possess a tetracycline repressible female-lethal genetic system. Ten of these lines show high female lethality at the late larval/pupal stages and three of them present dominant female lethality. Most of the lines were comparable to the wild type parental strain in several fitness parameters that are relevant to mass rearing in a production facility. Further, three lines performed well in male mating success and male competition assays, suggesting they would be sexually competitive in the field. Consequently, one transgenic line has been selected by the New World Screwworm Program for evaluation under mass rearing conditions.
We conclude that the promising characteristics of the selected sexing strains may contribute to reduce production costs for the existing eradication program and provide more efficient population suppression, which should make a genetic control program more economical in regions were C. hominivorax remains endemic.

Annu Rev Virol
Annu Rev Virol 2016 Aug 25. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455; email:

The coronavirus spike protein is a multifunctional molecular machine that mediates coronavirus entry into host cells. It first binds to a receptor on the host cell surface through its S1 subunit and then fuses viral and host membranes through its S2 subunit. Two domains in S1 from different coronaviruses recognize a variety of host receptors, leading to viral attachment.Read More

The spike protein exists in two structurally distinct conformations, prefusion and postfusion. The transition from prefusion to postfusion conformation of the spike protein must be triggered, leading to membrane fusion. This article reviews current knowledge about the structures and functions of coronavirus spike proteins, illustrating how the two S1 domains recognize different receptors and how the spike proteins are regulated to undergo conformational transitions. I further discuss the evolution of these two critical functions of coronavirus spike proteins, receptor recognition and membrane fusion, in the context of the corresponding functions from other viruses and host cells. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 3 is September 29, 2016. Please see for revised estimates.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2016 Aug;41(8):783-8
Department of Pediatric Cardiovasology, Children's Medical Center, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University; Institute of Pediatrics, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China.

To explore the differences of Chinese people's age and gender in orthostatic hypertension (OHT) by a single-center experience study.

A total of 2 994 patients with unexplained syncope and dizziness, who were outpatients or had been hospitalized in Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from January 2000 to August 2012, were chosen and subjected to the head-up tilt table test (HUTT). Their ages ranged from 2.Read More

00 to 78.00 years old, with an average at 19.07±14.78 years old. There were 1 406 and 1 588 cases for male and female, respectively. A total of 745 patients were OHT, who were divided into a adult group (≥18 years old, 247/904 cases) and a children group (<18 years old, 498/2 090 cases). The difference of the occurrence rate, classification, and 3 min quantity of blood pressure were analyzed.

1) The incidence of OHT in HUTT was 24.88% (745/2 994 cases). There was no statistical difference between the males and the females(25.75% vs 24.12%, χ2=1.058, P>0.05), but it was higher in the adult group compared with that in the children group (27.05% vs 23.83%, χ2=4.125, P=0.042). There were 52 cases (6.98%) of high systolic and high diastolic blood pressure (sOHT merge dOHT), 16 cases (2.15%) of simple high systolic blood pressure OHT (sOHT), and 677 cases (90.87%) of simple high diastolic blood pressure OHT (dOHT) in the 745 patients with OHT. The incidence of dOHT and sOHT merge sOHT in the adults group were significantly higher than those in the children group (1.11% vs 0.29%, χ2=7.965, P<0.01; 2.88% vs 1.24%, χ2=9.849, P<0.01, respectively); there was no statistical difference in simple dOHT between males and females (23.56% vs 22.20%, χ2=0.668, P>0.05); there was also no statistical difference in sOHT plus dOHT and dOHT between males and females (sOHT merge dOHT: 1.71% vs 1.76%, χ2=0.014, P>0.05; dOHT: 23.68% vs 21.66%, χ2=1.742, P>0.05; 1.71% vs 1.76%, χ2=0.014, P>0.05, respectively); but the dOHT was significantly higher in the males than that in the females in the children group (24.53% vs 19.74%, χ2=6.933, P>0.05). 2) There was no difference in the increment of systolic blood pressure in sOHT plus dOHT [(25.62±4.96) mmHg vs (23.54±5.83) mmHg, t=1.385, P>0.05] and the increment of diastolic blood pressure in dOHT [(13.46±3.49) mmHg vs (13.23±3.22) mmHg, t=0.840, P>0.05] between the adults group and the children group. There was no difference in the increment of systolic blood pressure in sOHT [(25.44±4.96) mmHg vs (23.68±5.35) mmHg, t=1.411, P>0.05] and the increment of diastolic blood pressure in dOHT [(14.09±4.28) mmHg vs (13.05±3.82) mmHg, t=1.887, P>0.05] between the adults group and the children group.

The incidence of OHT is higher in the adults group than that in the children group. There is no difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure increment within 3 minutes during HUTT between the adults and children.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2016 Jul;41(7):587-9
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

A 67-year-old man with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma underwent both FDG and C-acetate PET/CT sequentially on different days. There was increased FDG activity only in L1 vertebral body, but there was diffuse abnormal C-acetate activity throughout the skeletal system. After the successful therapy, the patient who was on remission clinically underwent follow-up PET/CT scans.Read More

Interestingly, L1 remained to have elevated FDG, although with less intensity. In contrast, there was no abnormal C-acetate activity anywhere in the body. The patient remained in remission clinically.

Cytokine 2016 Jul 12;83:92-8. Epub 2016 Apr 12.
Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Science, Dalian Medical University, Lvshun south Road, Dalian 116044, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

TNF-like protein 1A (TL1A), a member of tumor necrosis factor family, recognized as a ligand of death receptor 3 (DR3) and decoy receptor 3 (DcR3). The interaction of TL1A and DR3 may participate in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our previous results showed that high concentrations of TL1A could be found in synovial and serum in RA patients, and it was correlated with disease severity.Read More

In addition, TL1A could promote Th17 differentiation induced by TGF-β and IL-6 and increased the production of IL-17A. In the present study, we found that TL1A could promote the expression of IL-6 on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA patients via NF-κB and JNK signaling pathway. TL1A-stimulated FLS increased the percentage of Th17 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in RA via the production of IL-6, a critical cytokine involved in the differentiation of Th17. Moreover, the blocking of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) decreased TL1A-stimulated IL-6 production by RA FLS. Our results suggest that TL1A was capable of acting on RA FLS to elevate IL-6 expression, which promoted the production of Th17. More importantly, we showed that TL1A could influence RA FLS through binding to TNFR2 rather than DR3 on FLS, which indicated that the treatment of TNF inhibitors not only blocked the TNF but also suppressed the TL1A in RA patients.

Bioresour. Technol.
Bioresour Technol 2016 Jul 2;211:751-8. Epub 2016 Apr 2.
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China; Textile Pollution Controlling Engineering Center of Ministry of Environmental Protection, Shanghai 201620, China.

Forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable interest for water and energy related applications in recent years. Biofouling behavior and performance of cellulose triacetate (CTA) forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification via polydopamine (PD) coating and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting (PD-g-PEG) in a submerged osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) were investigated in this work. The modified membranes exhibited lower flux decline than the pristine one in OMBR, confirming that the bioinspired surface modification improved the antifouling ability of the CTA FO membrane.Read More

The result showed that the decline of membrane flux related to the increase of the salinity and MLSS concentration of the mixed liquid. It was concluded that the antifouling ability of modified membranes ascribed to the change of surface morphology in addition to the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity. The bioinspired surface modifications might improve the anti-adhesion for the biopolymers and biocake.

APMIS 2016 Jul 22;124(7):611-8. Epub 2016 Apr 22.
Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, China.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. Because it forms biofilms, which protect against host immune attack and increase resistance to conventional antibiotics, mucoid P. aeruginosa is nearly impossible to eradicate.Read More

Moreover, mucoid conversion of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to poor outcomes. This conversion is mainly due to mucA gene mutation, which is thought to be induced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the reactive oxygen species they release. Ambroxol, a mucolytic agent with antioxidant characteristics, is used clinically, and this compound has recently been demonstrated to possess anti-biofilm properties. In this study, we found that ambroxol inhibits the H2 O2 -mediated conversion of P. aeruginosa from a non-mucoid to a mucoid phenotype, an effect that is due to its antioxidant property against H2 O2 . Furthermore, the bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin against mucoid P. aeruginosa biofilms was increased in vitro when used in combination with ambroxol.

Int. J. Cardiol.
Int J Cardiol 2016 Jul 14;215:186-92. Epub 2016 Apr 14.
Department of Pediatric Cardiovasology, Children's Medical Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Institute of Pediatrics of Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

To explore the circadian rhythm of neurally mediated syncope (NMS).
411 patients with NMS (165 males and 246 females aged from 3 to 68years) were included in the study. All subjects underwent head-up tilt test (HUTT) and were carefully asked about the number of syncopal attacks and the periods (morning 06:00am-12:00am, afternoon 12:00am-18:00pm, evening 18:00pm-24:00pm, night 00:00am-06:00am) in which episodes occurred in.Read More

(1) Syncopal attacks of all patients tended to occur in the morning (P=0.010); there was a statistical difference in the frequency of episodes in four periods through the day in HUTT positive patients (P=0.001), but there was no significant change of episodes within a day in HUTT negative group; and there was no statistical difference in circadian syncope distribution between HUTT negative and HUTT positive group or among patients with different HUTT responses (the orthostatic hypotension (OH) and orthostatic hypertension (OHT) patients were excluded). (2) The syncopal attacks of morning hours occurred more in males than females, but the episodes in the evening occurred more in females than males (P=0.034). (3) The younger the patients were, the chance of syncopal attacks in the morning increased; the older the patients were, they may have more episodes at night (P<0.001).
A distinct circadian variation in the frequency of syncopal episodes exists, with a peak in the morning, and there were statistical differences in circadian rhythm of syncopal episodes regarding gender and age.

Mol Med Rep
Mol Med Rep 2016 Jul 17;14(1):865-73. Epub 2016 May 17.
Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan 421001, P.R. China.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is critical in the occurrence and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been found to be the third gaseous signaling molecule with anti‑ER stress effects. Previous studies have shown that H2S acts as a potent inhibitor of fibrosis in the heart of diabetic rats.Read More

This study aimed to demonstrate whether H2S exhibits protective effects on the myocardium of streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats by suppressing ER stress. In this study, diabetic models were established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 40 mg/kg STZ. The STZ‑treated mice were divided into three groups, and subsequently treated with normal saline, 30 µmol/kg or 100 µmol/kg NaHS, i.p., respectively, for 8 weeks. The extent of myocyte hypertrophy was measured using hematoxylin and eosin‑stained sections and collagen components were investigated using immunostaining. The expression of glucose-regulated protein (Grp78), C/EBP‑homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase‑12 in the heart tissue of each group was detected by western blot analysis. It was demonstrated that H2S could improve myocardial hypertrophy and myocardial collagen deposition in diabetic rats. In addition, it could reduce the expression of Grp78, caspase-12 and CHOP. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that H2S suppresses STZ‑induced ER stress in the hearts of rats, and it may serve as a novel cardioprotective agent for DC.

Neurotoxicology 2016 Jul 31;55:112-21. Epub 2016 May 31.
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Laboratory Sciences, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, China; Center for Experimental Research, Kunshan Hospital Affiliated to Jiangsu University, Kunshan, Jiangsu 215132, China. Electronic address:

This study explored the protective effects of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress preconditioning induced by 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) or oxidized dithiothreitol (DTTox) on acrylonitrile (AN)-induced cytotocity in primary rat astrocytes. Cells were pretreated with 2-DG or DTTox for different times at various concentration. Next, astrocytes were treated with 2.Read More

5mM AN for an additional 12h. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined. Expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phosphorylated-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), P62, and Beclin1 were used to assess autophagy. In addition, 3-methyadenine (3-MA), an autophagy-specific inhibitor, was used to assess the role of autophagy in ER stress preconditioning-induced protection against AN cytotoxicity. The results showed that AN alone significantly decreased astrocytic viability and enhanced cytotoxicity. Compared to the AN-alone group, preconditioning with 2-DG or DTTox significantly increased cell viability and reduced cytotoxicity to indistinguishable levels. Decreased ROS generation and increased ΔΨm were also inherent to ER stress preconditioning with these compounds. Furthermore, autophagy was activated by both 2-DG and DTTox. Blockage of autophagy attenuated the protection afforded by 2-DG or DTTox preconditioning in AN-treated astrocytes. These results establish that ER stress preconditioning affords cellular protection against AN, and that activation of autophagy mediates the cytoprotection. Modulation of ER stress and resultant activation of autophagy may be a novel target for to ameliorate AN toxicity.

Am. J. Hum. Genet.
Am J Hum Genet 2016 Jul 16;99(1):195-201. Epub 2016 Jun 16.
Institute of Genomic Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China; National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20982, USA. Electronic address:

Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies in humans. Oligodontia, a severe form of tooth agenesis, is genetically and phenotypically a heterogeneous condition. Although significant efforts have been made, the genetic etiology of dental agenesis remains largely unknown.Read More

In the present study, we performed whole-exome sequencing to identify the causative mutations in Chinese families in whom oligodontia segregates with dominant inheritance. We detected a heterozygous missense mutation (c.632G>A [p.Arg211Gln]) in WNT10B in all affected family members. By Sanger sequencing a cohort of 145 unrelated individuals with non-syndromic oligodontia, we identified three additional mutations (c.569C>G [p.Pro190Arg], c.786G>A [p.Trp262(∗)], and c.851T>G [p.Phe284Cys]). Interestingly, analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations revealed that mutations in WNT10B affect the development of permanent dentition, particularly the lateral incisors. Furthermore, a functional assay demonstrated that each of these mutants could not normally enhance the canonical Wnt signaling in HEPG2 epithelial cells, in which activity of the TOPFlash luciferase reporter was measured. Notably, these mutant WNT10B ligands could not efficiently induce endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells. Our findings provide the identification of autosomal-dominant WNT10B mutations in individuals with oligodontia, which increases the spectrum of congenital tooth agenesis and suggests attenuated Wnt signaling in endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Jul 30;8(27):17454-60. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei, Anhui 230026, P.R. China.

In this work, three different kinds of acridinium ester (AE)-functionalized carbon nanomaterials, including AE-functionalized carbon nanoparticles (AE-CNPs), AE-functionalized graphene oxide (AE-GO), and AE-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (AE-MCNTs), were synthesized for the first time via a simple, general, and noncovalent strategy. AE molecules were assembled on the surface of carbon nanomaterials by electrostatic interaction, π-π stacking interaction, and amide bond. The synthesized AE-CNPs, AE-GO, and AE-MCNTs with 5.Read More

0 × 10(-8) mol·L(-1) of synthetic AE concentration, which was very low compared with other chemiluminescence (CL) reagents such as luminol, N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol), and lucigenin at the concentration of 3.3 × 10(-4) to 5.0 × 10(-6) mol·L(-1) used for the synthesis of CL-functionalized nanomaterials, exhibited outstanding CL activity and good stability. It was found that carbon nanomaterials as nanosized platforms could efficiently immobilize AE molecules and facilitate the formation of OH(•) and O2(•-), leading to strong light emission. Moreover, the CL intensity of AE-GO was the highest, which was about 8.7 and 3.7 times higher than that of AE-CNPs and AE-MCNTs, respectively. This mainly resulted from a difference in the amount of adsorbed AE molecules on the surface of different carbon nanomaterials. Additionally, the prepared AE-CNPs demonstrated excitation-dependent fluorescence property and good fluorescence stability against photobleaching. On the basis of the excellent CL and special fluorescence properties of AE-CNPs, a dual-mode array strategy has been proposed for the first time and seven kinds of transition-metal ions could be successfully discriminated.

Oncol Lett
Oncol Lett 2016 Jul 27;12(1):516-522. Epub 2016 May 27.
Lung Cancer Center, Cancer Center and State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China.

Quercetin is able to inhibit proliferation of malignant tumor cells; however, the exact mechanism involved in this biological process remains unclear. The current study utilized a quantitative proteomic analysis to explore the antitumor mechanisms of quercetin. The leucine of HepG2 cells treated with quercetin was labeled as d3 by stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC).Read More

The isotope peaks of control HepG2 cells were compared with the d3-labeled HepG2 cells by mass spectrometry (MS) to identify significantly altered proteins. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were subsequently employed to verify the results of the MS analysis. A flow cytometry assay was designed to observe the influence of various quercetin treatment concentrations on the cell cycle distribution of HepG2 cells. The results indicated that quercetin is able to substantially inhibit proliferation of HepG2 cells and induce an obvious morphological alteration of cells. According to the MS results, the 70 credibly-changed proteins that were identified may play important roles in multiple cellular processes, including protein synthesis, signaling, cytoskeletal processes and metabolism. Among these functional proteins, the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) was found to be significantly decreased. RT-PCR and western blot analyses verified the SILAC-MS results of decreased CCND1 expression. In summary, flow cytometry revealed that quercetin is able to induce G1 phase arrest in HepG2 cells. Based on the aforementioned observations, it is suggested that quercetin exerts antitumor activity in HepG2 cells through multiple pathways, including interfering with CCND1 gene expression to disrupt the cell cycle and proliferation of HepG2 cells. In the future, we aim to explore this effect in vivo.

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Jul;32(7):906-10
Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, General Hospital, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the expressions of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1 (SIRT1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in hypoxic pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs) treated with Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP). Methods PVSMCs were divided into 10 groups: normal oxygen (200 mL/L oxygen) cells, 2 μmol/mL LBP-treated normal oxygen cells, DMSO-treated normal oxygen cells, DMSO-treated hypoxic (100 mL/L oxygen) cells, (0.5, 1, 2) μmol/mL LBP-treated hypoxic cells; SIRT1 agonist (resveratrol or SRT-1720)-treated hypoxic cells, SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527-treated hypoxic cells.Read More

After 6, 12, 24 hours, the mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1, MMP-9 and HIF-1α were measured by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In LBP-treated groups, the expressions of SIRT1, MMP-9 and HIF-1α mRNA and protein were detected 12 hours after LBP treatment. Results Under the condition of hypoxia, the expression levels of SIRT1 mRNA and protein in PVSMCs decreased, while MMP-9 and HIF-1α mRNA increased. Under hypoxia, SIRT1 expression was raised and MMP-9, HIF-1α were reduced by LBP treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Morever, resveratrol could inhibit the expression of MMP-9. Conclusion LBP can enhance the expression of SIRT1 and decrease the expression of MMP-9 and HIF-1α in hypoxic PVSMCs.

Clin. Exp. Immunol.
Clin Exp Immunol 2016 Jul 5. Epub 2016 Jul 5.
Department of infectious disease, and Lab. of liver disease, Renmin Hospital, Hubei university of medicine, China.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic presentation of obesity and metabolic syndrome. MicroRNA 26a (Mir-26a) has been reported to play functions in cellular differentiation, cell growth, cell apoptosis and metastasis. Recent paper indicated that Mir-26a regulated insulin sensitivity and metabolism of glucose and lipids.Read More

However, the role of Mir-26a in the NAFLD still need to be further investigated. In our current study, Vectors encoding pre-Mir-26a (LV-26a) and an empty lentiviral vector (LV-Con) delivered approximately 2 × 10(7) transforming units of recombinant lentivirus were injected to mice through the tail vein. LV-26a-infected mice were protected from glucose dysmetabolism and showed markedly decreased total liver weight, hepatic triglyceride deposition and serum ALT concentration when compared with LV-Con-treated mice. LV-26a-treated mice also exhibited decreased infiltration of immune cells in the liver-something attributed to reduce infiltration of TCRγδ(+) , Gr-1(+) cells and CD11b(+) cells. Next, we found that Mir-26a inhibited the expression of IL-17 and IL-6 in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the decreased expression of IL-17 in the liver tissue induced by Mir-26a was completely abrogated by IL-6 overexpression. The decreased total liver weight, hepatic triglyceride deposition and serum ALT concentration induced by Mir-26a was also completely abrogated by IL-6 overexpression. In conclusion, Mir-26a-IL-6-IL-17 axis regulates the development of NAFLD in a murine model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Biomed. Pharmacother.
Biomed Pharmacother 2016 Jul 16;83:514-520. Epub 2016 Jul 16.
Department of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of PAH-associated arterial remodeling. This study was done to explore the expression and biological roles of periostin in PASMCs following exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE).Read More

PASMCs were exposed to different concentrations of CSE and tested for gene expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PASMCs were incubated with recombinant periostin protein or transfected with small interfering RNA targeting periostin before CSE exposure and then examined for cell proliferation and migration. Compared to control cells, exposure to CSE led to a significant upregulation of periostin. Pretreatment with 5mM N-acetyl-l-cysteine (an inhibitor of ROS formation) or 10μM U0126 (an inhibitor of ERK1/2) significantly prevented the induction of periostin in CSE-treated PASMCs. The addition of recombinant periostin protein significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration of PASMCs. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous periostin counteracted the proliferation and migration of PASMCs induced by CSE treatment. In conclusion, CSE induces the expression of periostin in PASMCs via promotion of ROS and activation of ERK1/2. Periostin mediates the effects of CSE on PASMC proliferation and migration. These findings warrant further exploration of the roles of periostin in cigarette smoking-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling.

Oncotarget 2016 Jul 21. Epub 2016 Jul 21.
Hunan Cancer Hospital and The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

MicroRNA expression profiling assays have shown that miR-34b/c and miR-449a are down-regulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, the targets and functions of miR-34b/c and miR-449a in the pathologenesis of NPC remain elusive. In this study, we verified miR-34b/c and miR-449a were significantly reduced with the advance of NPC. Overexpression of miR-34b-3 and miR-449a suppressed the growth of NPC cells in culture and mouse tumor xenografts.Read More

Using tandem mass tags for quantitative labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to investigate protein changes after restoring expression of miR-34b-3, 251 proteins were found to be down-regulated after miR-34b-3 transfection. Through 3 replicate experiments, we found that miR-34b-3 regulated the expression of 15 potential targeted genes mainly clustered in the key enzymes of glycolysis metabolism, including lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA). Further investigation revealed that miR-34b-3 and miR-449a negatively regulated LDHA by binding to the 3' untranslated regions of LDHA. Furthermore, LDHA overexpression rescued the miR-34b-3 and miR-449a induced tumor inhibition effect in CNE2 cells. In addition, miR-34b-3 and miR-449a suppressed LDH activity and reduced LD content, which were directly induced by downregulation of the LDHA. Our findings suggest that miR-34b-3 and miR-449a suppress the development of NPC through regulation of glycolysis via targeting LDHA and may be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of NPC.

J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
J Assist Reprod Genet 2016 Jul 27. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

The aim was to investigate if improved survival rates could be achieved using a new formulation of solutions for slow freezing of human cleavage stage embryos.
The evaluation was divided into two parts. The first part was a retrospective analysis of results obtained after freezing and thawing of day 3 embryos from 400 women using an old formulation of cryopreservation solutions compared to results from 108 women for which cryopreservation had been performed using new compositions of solutions.Read More

The second part was prospective, adding cycles until similar numbers of patients had been included in both groups. In total, 2274 embryos from 897 patients were thawed using the old formulation of solutions while 1273 embryos from 542 patients were frozen and thawed using the new solutions. The primary endpoint was survival rate.
With the new solutions, the survival rate increased from 82.1 to 94.4 % and the complete embryo survival rate increased from 54.9 to 81.3 %. The implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer, and per cycle were 28.2, 45.2, and 43.7 %, respectively, using the old formulations of cryosolutions. With the new solutions, the results reached 33.7, 54.1, and 54.1 %, respectively. All differences in results were statistically significant. The number of cancelled embryo transfers due to no survived embryos was 18 with the old solutions and 0 using the new solutions.
With the new composition of solutions for slow freezing and thawing of embryos, significantly improved results were obtained. Additionally, the number of cancelled embryo transfers was reduced.

Plant Physiol. Biochem.
Plant Physiol Biochem 2016 Jul 22;108:286-294. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
Horticulture & Landscape College, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan 410128, China. Electronic address:

Reference gene evaluation and selection are necessary steps in gene expression analysis, especially in new plant varieties, through reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Hedera helix L. is an important traditional medicinal plant recorded in European Pharmacopoeia.Read More

Research on gene expression in H. helix has not been widely explored, and no RT-qPCR studies have been reported. Thus, it is important and necessary to identify and validate suitable reference genes to for normalizing RT-qPCR results. In our study, 14 candidate protein-coding reference genes were selected. Their expression stability in five tissues (root, stem, leaf, petiole and shoot tip) and under seven abiotic stress conditions (cold, heat, drought, salinity, UV-C irradiation, abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate) were evaluated using geNorm and NormFinder. This study is the first to evaluate the stability of reference genes in H. helix. The results show that different reference genes should be chosen for normalization on the basis of various experimental conditions. F-box was more stable than the other selected genes under all analysis conditions except ABA treatment; 40S was the most stable reference gene under ABA treatment; in contrast, EXP and UBQ were the most unstable reference genes. The expressions of HhSE and Hhβ-AS, which are two genes related to the biosynthetic pathway of triterpenoid saponins, were also examined for reference genes in different tissues and under various cold stress conditions. The validation results confirmed the applicability and accuracy of reference genes. Additionally, this study provides a basis for the accurate and widespread use of RT-qPCR in selecting genes from the genome of H. helix.

Int J Nurs Stud
Int J Nurs Stud 2016 Jul 19;62:118-125. Epub 2016 Jul 19.
School of Nursing, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Although sucrose is most extensively examined for its analgesia effect on a single procedural pain, neonates in neonatal intensive care units can be exposed to numerous painful procedures every day requiring multiple doses of sucrose. Some experiments have been performed to examine the efficacy and safety of repeated sucrose administration for repeated procedural pain; however, a systematic review of this topic has not yet been carried out.
To identify and assess the evidence demonstrating the efficacy and safety of repeated sucrose for repeated procedural pain in neonates.Read More

A systematic review was conducted using the Cochrane methodology. Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), CBMdisc, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases were searched through December 2015. All related abstracts were reviewed and the full texts of relevant articles were studied. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Risk of bias was assessed for RCTs using quality critical appraisal criteria recommended by Cochrane Handbook. A standardised data form was used to extract information.
Eight RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Different study designs were used in the included RCTs, which did not allow us to carry out a meta-analysis. The findings from this review indicated that repeated sucrose was effective in reducing both behavioral pain response and composite pain scores during repeated procedural pain. However, as for physiological pain response, one trial found less variability in physiological pain response for term neonates in the sucrose group than the sterile water group, while two trials demonstrated repeated sucrose was inefficacious for preterm neonates. Regarding the clinical outcomes, no study reported adverse effects related to the repeated sucrose administration. Regarding the neurobehavioral development, two trials reported repeated sucrose for repeated procedural pain would not lead to poor neurologic development, while one trial reported that preterm infants <31 weeks' gestational age who received >10 doses of sucrose per 24h in the first week of life had poorer neurologic development compared with infants who received fewer sucrose doses. What's more, no study reported the long-term neurobehavioral development outcome of neonates who repeatedly received sucrose across repeated procedural pain.
Evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of repeated sucrose across repeated procedural pain for neonates is limited. More prospective, multi-centered, large randomized controlled clinical trials with a standardised study design are required before sucrose can be recommended widely as an analgesia for repeated procedural pain in neonates.

Radiology 2016 Jul 29:150813. Epub 2016 Jul 29.
From the Departments of Nuclear Medicine (X.J., X.S., Y.L., K.Z., F.L., Z.Z.), Thoracic Surgery (N.L., S.L.), Respiratory Medicine (M.W., J.L.), and Pathology (Y.M., Q.C.), Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730, China; Medical Isotopes Research Center, Peking University, Beijing, China (B.J., Z.L., J.S., F.W.); and Interdisciplinary Laboratory, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China (F.W.).

Purpose To evaluate an integrin imaging approach based on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) by using technetium 99m ((99m)Tc)-dimeric cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides with three polyethylene glycol spacers (3PRGD2) as the tracer to target the integrin αvβ3 expression in lung cancer and lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods With ethics committee approval and written informed consent, 65 patients (41 male, 24 female; mean age, 60 years ± 11 [standard deviation]) with suspicious lung lesions were recruited with informed consent. The patients underwent both (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 SPECT/CT and fluorine 18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT within 1 week.Read More

Finally, 65 lung lesions in 53 patients were pathologically diagnosed as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 14 lung lesions in 12 patients were benign. Per-region analysis of lymph nodes included 248 regions with metastasis and 56 negative regions. Twenty specimens from the removed lung lesions or lymph nodes were stained with integrin αvβ3, CD34, and Ki-67 to correlate with the image findings. Receiver operating characteristic curve, z statistics, McNemar test, and χ(2) analysis were used to compare the diagnostic performance of the two imaging methods. Results (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 SPECT/CT was found to be more specific than (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the per-region diagnosis of lymph node metastasis (specificity, 94.6% vs 75.0%; P = .008) when the sensitivity of the two methods was comparable (88.3% vs 90.7%; P = .557). There was no significant difference between the two methods in the per-lesion diagnosis of lung tumor (z = 0.82, P = .410). The accumulation level of (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 was found in positive correlation with the integrin αvβ3 expression (r = 0.84, P = .001) and microvessel density (r = 0.63, P = .011) in the tumors. Conclusion (99m)Tc-3PRGD2 SPECT/CT shows high specificity in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis from NSCLC, which may benefit surgical decision making for the patients. (©) RSNA, 2016.

Int. Immunopharmacol.
Int Immunopharmacol 2016 Jun 16;35:323-6. Epub 2016 Apr 16.
Basic Medical College, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, China. Electronic address:

Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) larvae in raw or inadequately cooked meat can cause chronic infections in a wide range of hosts including humans. During the development inside the skeletal muscles, T.Read More

spiralis larvae infect muscle cells accompanying with the infiltration of host inflammatory cells, eventually create a new type of cell known as nurse cell developing a surrounding vascular network to support the larvae development. Controlling of host inflammatory responses and angiogenesis influences both the nurse cell differentiation and the parasite larvae development. CXCL8 is a chemokine that acts on G-protein coupled receptors, of which activation contributes to fibrosis and angiogenesis. CXCL8(3-73)K11R/G31P (G31P) has been reported as a CXCL8 analogue. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of G31P in inflammatory responses and the development of T. spiralis larvae in muscle tissues of mice infected with T. spiralis. The level of inflammatory factors and the morphology of T. spiralis larvae in infected tissues were investigated through ELISA and electron-microscopy analysis. G31P up-regulated IFN-γ and down-regulated CXCL8 level, and impaired the encapsulation of T. spiralis larvae in vivo. The results showed that G31P influenced the development of T. spiralis larvae in muscle tissues.

Oncol. Rep.
Oncol Rep 2016 Jun 15;35(6):3178-84. Epub 2016 Apr 15.
Department of General Surgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050031, P.R. China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. MicroRNA-214 (miR-214) and microRNA-218 (miR-218) have shown the function of tumor suppressors in various types of human cancers. However, the biological functions of miR-214 and miR-218 in breast cancer have not been elucidated completely.Read More

The present study evaluated the expression and biological function of miR-214 and miR-218 in human breast cancer. Our results revealed that the expression of miR-214 and miR-218 were significantly decreased in breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent tissues. The aberrant expression of miR-214 and miR-218 were negatively associated with Ki-67, and the miR-218 expression was positively associated with progesterone receptor (PR) in breast cancer tissues. In vitro, the cell proliferation and migration were decreased, cell apoptosis was induced, and cell cycle was also disturbed in miR-214 or miR-218 overexpressed breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that miR-214 and miR-218 function as tumor suppressors in breast cancer, and may become biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer.

J. Bone Miner. Res.
J Bone Miner Res 2016 Jun 13. Epub 2016 Jun 13.
Institute of Endocrinology, Shandong Academy of Clinical Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Osteopetrosis (OMIM: 611497), literally "stone bone," is a group of inherited bone disorders characterized by increased skeletal mass due to defective osteoclast function. A patient who reported a history of frequent fractures, weakness and fatigue was admitted to our hospital in 2011. The patient presented with the typical features of osteopetrosis: fractures after minor trauma, early tooth loss, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and a generalized increase in bone mineral density (BMD).Read More

Aside from his father's complaint of excessive tooth loss, his mother, two sisters, son, and daughter were healthy. Blood samples of the family members were drawn for genetic analyses. The entire coding region and adjacent splice sites of the pleckstrin homology domain-containing family M (with RUN domain) member 1 (PLEKHM1) gene were sequenced. One mutation, a heterozygous deletion mutation in exon 11 (c.3051_3052delCA), was identified in the patient but not in his relatives. The mutation leads to a translation product with a highly impaired Rubicon homology domain. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence analyses using HEK293 cells showed that overexpression of a PLEKHM1 CA-deletion mutant resulted in a dramatic decrease in the interaction between PLEKHM1 and the small GTPase Rab7 compared to wild-type PLEKHM1. The normal processes of endocytosis and autophagy were disturbed in cells expressing the mutant (transfected HEK293 and U937 cells), as indicated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation and an altered LC3-I/II ratio, respectively, which may lead to a defect in osteoclast function. A four-year follow-up study of the patient showed that the PLEKHM1-dependent osteopetrosis was relatively malignant, with significant symptoms of pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Dis. Aquat. Org.
Dis Aquat Organ 2016 Jun;120(1):17-26
Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources, Fujian Collaborative Innovation Center for Exploitation and Utilization of Marine Biological Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, PR China.

We report the preliminary characterization of a new iridovirus detected in diseased Cherax quadricarinatus collected from a farm in Fujian, China. Transmission electron microscopy identified numerous icosahedral particles (~150 nm in diameter) in the cytoplasm and budding from the plasma membrane of hematopoietic tissue cells. SDS-PAGE of virions semi-purified from the hemolymph of moribund C.Read More

quadricarinatus identified 24 proteins including a 50 kDa major capsid protein (MCP). By summing the sizes of DNA restriction endonuclease fragments, the viral genome was estimated to be ~150 kb in length. A 34 amino acid sequence deduced from a 103 bp MCP gene region amplified by PCR using degenerate primers targeted to MCP gene regions conserved among iridoviruses and chloriridoviruses was most similar (55% identity) to Sergestid iridovirus. Based on virion morphology, protein composition, DNA genome length, and MCP sequence relatedness, the virus identified has tentatively been named Cherax quadricarinatus iridovirus (CQIV). In addition, experimental infection of healthy C. quadricarinatus, Procambarus clarkii, and Litopenaeus vannamei with CQIV caused the same disease and high mortality, suggesting that CQIV poses a potential threat to cultured and wild crayfish and shrimp.

The hamster is a useful model of human reproductive biology because its oocytes are similar to those in humans in terms of size and structural stability. In the present study we evaluated fecundity rate, ovarian follicular numbers, ova production, mitochondrial number, structure and function, and cytoplasmic lamellae (CL) in young (2-4 months) and old (12-18 months) Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Young hamsters had higher fertilisation rates and larger litters than old hamsters (100 vs 50% and 9.Read More

3 ± 0.6 vs 5.5 ± 0.6, respectively). Ovarian tissue from superovulated animals showed a 46% decrease in preantral follicles in old versus young hamsters. There was a 39% reduction in MII oocyte number in old versus young hamsters. Young ova had no collapsed CL, whereas old ova were replete with areas of collapsed, non-luminal CL. Eighty-nine per cent of young ova were expanded against the zona pellucida with a clear indentation at the polar body, compared with 58.64% for old ova; the remaining old ova had increased perivitelline space with no polar body indentation. Higher reactive oxygen species levels and lower mitochondrial membrane potentials were seen in ova from old versus young hamsters. A significant decrease in mitochondrial number (36%) and lower frequency of clear mitochondria (31%) were observed in MII oocytes from old versus young hamster. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the theory of oocyte depletion during mammalian aging, and suggest that morphological changes of mitochondria and CL in oocytes may be contributing factors in the age-related decline in fertility rates.

Emerg Microbes Infect
Emerg Microbes Infect 2016 22;5:e62. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
Department of Diarrheal Disease, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

Typhoid fever remains a severe public health problem in developing countries. The emergence of resistant typhoid, particularly multidrug-resistant typhoid infections, highlights the necessity of monitoring the resistance characteristics of this invasive pathogen. In this study, we report a typhoid fever outbreak caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains with an ACSSxtT pattern.Read More

Resistance genes conferring these phenotypes were harbored by a large conjugative plasmid, which increases the threat of Salmonella Typhi and thus requires close surveillance for dissemination of strains containing such genes.

Onco Targets Ther
Onco Targets Ther 2016 7;9:3415-22. Epub 2016 Jun 7.
Department of Cardiology, The Second XiangYa Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China.

Estrogen receptors, including classic nuclear receptors ERα, ERβ, and membrane receptor GPR30, are expressed in vascular tissues and exert protective actions in vascular diseases. But the expression pattern and functional roles of GPR30 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) remain unclear. In this study, we found that ERα, ERβ, and GPR30 were decreased with VSMCs passaging in vitro or growing in vivo and activation of GPR30 promoted ERα expression.Read More

Then, we validated that activation of GPR30 significantly decreased migratory capability of VSMCs and suppressed ERα, whereas PDGF-BB (20 ng/mL) treatment caused increase of migration. And activation of GPR30 led to reduction of osteopontin and cellular retinol binding protein 1, enhancement of calponin and 3F8, and upregulation of total and phosphorylated ERK1/2 expression in VSMCs knocked down by GPR30, ERα, and ERβ or treated with PDGF-BB. These data suggest that GPR30 promotes VSMCs reducing migration and maintaining differentiated phenotype via activation of ERK1/2 pathway. Our findings provide novel mechanisms of GPR30 protection of VSMCs as well as a new target for prevention of vascular aging.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2016 Jun;41(6):600-5
Department of Pediatric Cardiovasology, Children's Medical Center, Second Xiangya Hospital/Institute of Pediatrics, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China.

To explore the change of the amplitude of P wave, T wave and ST segment of 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) in children with breath holding spell.

A total of 29 children (24 males and 5 females) with breath holding spell in Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University were enrolled for this study from October, 2009 to September, 2015. Their ages ranged from 3 months to 6 years, with an average of 1.Read More

82±1.27 years old. The control group consisted of 30 age-matched and gender-matched healthy children. All subjects were underwent electrocardiography by the SR-1000A comprehensive automatic electrocardiograph analyzer, and the changes of the ECG parameters were compared between the two groups.

Compared with the control group, the amplitude of P-wave of V5 lead was decreased [(44.10±23.98) vs (58.30±21.19) μV, P<0.05], the amplitude of T-wave of V6 lead was increased [(423.80±122.6) vs (350.00±105.73) μV, P<0.05], the amplitude of ST segment of II lead was increased [(84.80±39.97) vs (57.30±38.77) μV, P<0.05], the amplitude of ST segment of aVR lead was increased [(-77.60±37.41) vs (-51.00±33.46) μV, P<0.05], the amplitude of ST segment of aVL lead was increased [(35.20±28.24) vs (17.70±33.90) μV, P<0.05], the amplitude of ST segment of V5 lead was increased [(111.00±59.36) vs (69.00±36.33) μV, P<0.05], the amplitude of ST segment of V6 lead was increased [(79.30±45.51) vs (51.30±33.19) μV, P<0.05]. 

The children with breath holding spell have autonomic nerve dysfunction. The amplitude of ST segment changes is sensitive.

J Ethnopharmacol
J Ethnopharmacol 2016 May 23;183:18-28. Epub 2016 Feb 23.
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, PR China. Electronic address:

YiQiFuMai Powder Injection (YQFM) is a modern preparation derived from Sheng-mai San, a traditional Chinese prescription, widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, its potential molecular mechanism remains unclear.
The present study was designed to observe the effect of YQFM on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced the brain microvascular endothelial barrier dysfunction and to explore the underlying pathways in vitro.Read More

A mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) was subjected to OGD (2-9h) to examine the efficacy and molecular mechanisms in the presence or absence of YQFM (100, 200 and 400 μg/ml).
The results of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) assays demonstrated that treatment with YQFM increased the cell viability and TEER value, decreased even blue (EB) albumin leakage after OGD in bEnd.3 cells. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining showed that YQFM reduced the breakage and translocation of Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 after 4h of OGD and decreased the expression of these proteins after 9h of OGD. Moreover, YQFM significantly inhibited the expression, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 and decreased the expression of intercellular adhesionmolecule-1 (ICAM-1) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) as well as production of nitric oxide (NO). In addition, real time-PCR results revealed that YQFM suppressed the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) after 4h of OGD. Furthermore, YQFM markedly inhibited both the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and cytoskeletal reorganization and reduced the expression of cleaved-ROCK1 in bEnd.3 cells subjected to OGD.
These findings suggest that YQFM ameliorates the OGD-induced brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier disruption associated with the NF-κB/p65 and ROCK1/MLC signaling pathways. These data provide new insights into the use of this preparation for treating cerebrovascular diseases.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2016 May 24;161:33-8. Epub 2016 Feb 24.
College of Material Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China.

In this work we designed a self-assembly multilayers, in which photoluminescent graphene oxide was employed as a fluorescence probe. This multilayers film can effectively recognize captopril by resonance energy transfer from graphite oxide to silver nanoparticles. A new interfacial sensing method for captopril with high signal to noise ratio was established, by means of that multilayers was quenched by silver nanoparticles and subsequently recovered by adding captopril.Read More

The linear relation between intensity and captopril concentration was good, and the detection limit was found to be 0.1578 μM. Also, this novel detection platform demonstrated intriguing reusable properties, and the sensor could be repeated more than ten times without obviously losing its sensing performance.

AIDS 2016 May;30(8):1163-74
aDepartment of Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology and The Comprehensive NeuroAIDS Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia bDepartment of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. *Kamel Khalili, Wenhui Hu and Yonggang Zhang are senior authors and have equally contributed to this manuscript.

There is an urgent need for the development of HIV-1 genome eradication strategies that lead to a permanent cure for HIV-1/AIDS. We previously reported that four guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting HIV-1 long terminal repeats (LTR) effectively eradicated the entire HIV-1 genome. In this study, we sought to identify the best gRNAs targeting HIV-1 LTR and viral structural region and optimize gRNA pairing that can efficiently eradicate the HIV-1 genome.Read More

Highly specific gRNAs were designed using bioinformatics tools, and their capacity of guiding CRISPR-associated system 9 to cleave HIV-1 proviral DNA was evaluated using high-throughput HIV-1 luciferase reporter assay and rapid Direct-PCR genotyping.
The target seed sequences for each gRNA were cloned into lentiviral vectors. HEK293T cells were cotransfected with a pEcoHIV-NL4-3-firefly-luciferase reporter vector (1 : 20) over lentiviral vectors carrying CRISPR-associated system 9 and single gRNA or various combinations of gRNAs. The EcoHIV DNA cleaving efficiency was evaluated by Direct-PCR genotyping, and the EcoHIV transcription/replication activity was examined by a luciferase reporter assay.
Most of the designed gRNAs are effective to eliminate the predicted HIV-1 genome sequence between the selected two target sites. This is evidenced by the presence of PCR genotypic deletion/insertion and the decrease of luciferase reporter activity. In particular, a combination of viral structural gRNAs with LTR gRNAs provided a higher efficiency of genome eradication and an easier approach for PCR genotyping.
Our screening strategy can specifically and effectively identify gRNAs targeting HIV-1 LTR and structural region to excise proviral HIV-1 from the host genome.

Oncotarget 2016 May;7(18):26168-80
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) are involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study examined the associations of PD1 and TIM3 polymorphisms with the overall survival (OS) of a prospective cohort of 258 HBV-related HCC patients. Results showed that PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes or TIM3 -1516 genotype GG were significantly associated with longer OS (P < 0.Read More

001 and P = 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes and TIM3 -1516 genotype GG were independently associated with longer OS (hazard ratio (HR), 1.835; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.342-2.509; P < 0.001 and HR, 2.070; 95%CI, 1.428-3.002; P < 0.001, respectively). PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes were significantly associated with longer OS in patients receiving surgical (resection or radiofrequency) treatment, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) or supportive and symptomatic treatment. TIM3 -1516 genotype GG was significantly associated with longer OS in TACE patients. In multivariate analysis, PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes were independently associated with longer OS in each treatment population. TIM3 -1516 genotype GG was independently associated with longer OS in patients receiving surgical treatment or TACE. These findings suggest that PD1 +8669 A/G and TIM3 -1516 G/T polymorphisms may affect the prognosis of HBV-related HCC and may be new predictors of prognosis for HCC patients.

Mol Med Rep
Mol Med Rep 2016 May 4;13(5):4191-204. Epub 2016 Apr 4.
Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory, School of Basic Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong 100044, P.R. China.

The Chinese herbal formula, Shu-Yu capsule (SYC), has been successfully used to treat depression-like disorders in clinical settings. To rapidly identify the chemical constituents of SYC and its metabolites in rat serum, a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was established in the present study. By comparing the retention times, MS and MSn spectra data in the literature and reference standards, a total of 73 compounds were identified from SYC.Read More

In rat serum, 62 components, including 13 prototype compounds and 49 metabolites were identified. Of these components, 14 metabolites were confirmed as novel metabolites of SYC. The results of the present study indicated that certain flavonoid glycosides and monoterpene glycosides were absorbed directly. Glucuronidation and sulfation were identified as the predominant metabolic pathways of the components in SYC. In addition, certain phase I reactions, including hydrolysis, demethylation and hydroxylation occurred in the rats. These results provide scientific evidence, which support further investigations of the pharmacology and mechanism of SYC.

Rejuvenation Res
Rejuvenation Res 2016 May 18. Epub 2016 May 18.
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, Department of Complex Prescription of TCM, China Pharmaceutical University , Nanjing, P.R. China .

The YiQiFuMai powder injection (YQFM), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription re-developed based on the well-known TCM formula Sheng-maisan, showed a wide range of pharmacological activities in cardiovascular diseases in clinics. However, its role in protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury has not been elucidated. The present study not only evaluated the cardioprotective effect of YQFM from MI/R injury but also investigated the potential molecular mechanisms both in vivo and in vitro.Read More

The myocardium infarct size, production of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), cardiac function, TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 activity were measured. Cell viability was determined, and cell apoptosis was measured by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was measured, and ATP content was quantified by bioluminescent assay. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins, including Caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, AMPKα, and phospho-AMPKα, was analyzed by western blotting. AMPKα siRNA transfection was also applied to the mechanism elucidation. YQFM at a concentration of 1.06 g/kg significantly reduced myocardium infarct size and the production of LDH, CK in serum, improved the cardiac function, and also produced a significant decrease of apoptotic index. Further, combined treatment with compound C partly attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of YQFM. In addition, pretreatment with YQFM ranging from 25 to 400 μg/mL markedly improved cell viability and decreased LDH release. Moreover, YQFM inhibited H9c2 apoptosis, blocked the expression of caspase-3, and modulated Bcl-2 and Bax proteins, leading to an increased mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular ATP content. Mechanistically, YQFM activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways whereas pretreatment with AMPK inhibitor Compound C and application of transfection with AMPKα siRNA attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of YQFM. Our results indicated that YQFM could provide significant cardioprotection against MI/R injury, and potential mechanisms might suppress cardiomyocytes apoptosis, at least in part, through activating the AMPK signaling pathways.

Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.
Photochem Photobiol Sci 2016 May 22;15(5):666-72. Epub 2016 Apr 22.
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Environmental Protection Engineering Center for Pollution Treatment and Control in Textile Industry, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China.

A BiOI/BiOBr composite was successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. The composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The BiOI/BiOBr composite exhibited enhanced photocatalytic bacteriostatic activity towards E.Read More

coli compared to the pure BiOI or BiOBr under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be attributed to the improved separation efficiency of the photogenerated holes because of its heterojunction structure. In addition, the possible bacteriostatic mechanism of the BiOI/BiOBr composite under visible light irradiation is discussed. The hierarchical microsphere BiOI/BiOBr showed enhanced photocatalytic bacteriostasis towards Escherichia coli under visible light.

Neuroreport 2016 May;27(8):610-6
aDepartment of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University bDepartment of Neurology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Acidosis impairs brain functions. Neuron-specific mechanisms underlying acidosis-induced brain dysfunction remain elusive. We studied the sensitivity of cortical GABAergic neurons and glutamatergic neurons to acidosis by whole-cell recording in brain slices.Read More

The acidification to the neurons was induced by perfusing artificial cerebral spinal fluid with lower pH. This acidification impairs excitability and synaptic transmission in the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Acidosis impairs spiking capacity in the GABAergic neurons more than in the glutamatergic neurons. Acidosis also strengthens glutamatergic synaptic transmission and attenuates GABAergic synaptic transmission on the GABAergic neurons more than the glutamatergic neurons, which results in the functional impairment of these GABAergic neurons. This acidosis-induced dysfunction predominantly in the cortical GABAergic neurons drives the homeostasis of neuronal networks toward overexcitation and exacerbates neuronal impairment.

J Chromatogr A
J Chromatogr A 2016 May 16;1448:1-8. Epub 2016 Apr 16.
Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China. Electronic address:

A solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup method was developed to purify the sample extracts for the analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). Monodisperse magnesium oxide (MgO) microspheres and basic alumina were used as SPE adsorbents. Important parameters of the SPE procedure were optimized, including the amount of basic alumina and the type and volume of the washing and elution solvents.Read More

The optimized SPE cleanup method exhibited excellent purification performance for the removal of organochlorinated compounds, lipid compounds, sulfur, and pigments. Additionally, it was found that the retention activities of congeners differed with the number and position of the chlorine substituents in PCNs. In this study, an analytical method based on a combination of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with SPE cleanup and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is proposed for the analysis of PCNs and dl-PCBs in complex samples (sediment, pine needle, and scallop samples). The analytical method demonstrates good linearity, acceptable recovery (63-148%) and precision (relative standard deviations less than 26%). The limits of detection (LODs) of PCN and dl-PCB congeners were in the range of 0.6-19.1pgg(-1) and 0.4-8.6pgg(-1), respectively. The PCNs and dl-PCBs levels in these samples ranged from 0.16 to 3.07ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and from undetectable to 0.07ngg(-1) dw, respectively.

Top Stroke Rehabil
Top Stroke Rehabil 2016 May 4:1-10. Epub 2016 May 4.
c Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences , The Hong Kong Polytechnic University , Hong Kong , China.

Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers another method of non-invasive brain stimulation in post-stroke rehabilitation. Because it is not known if tACS over bilateral mastoids (tACSbm) can promote the functional recovery in subacute post-stroke patients, we wish to learn the effect of tACSbm on improving neurological function and intracranial hemodynamics of subacute post-stroke patients.
Sixty subacute post-stroke patients (mean age: 65.Read More

4 ± 9.8 years), 15 to 60 days after the onset, were randomly assigned to receiving 15 sessions of usual rehabilitation program without (n = 30) or with tACSbm (20 Hz and < 400 μA for 30-min; n = 30). The outcome measures included the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and measures of intracranial hemodynamics before and after treatment.
At the fifteenth session, when compared with the baseline, the mean NIHSS scores of the patients in the tACSbm group had significantly a larger decrease [18.3 ± 2.6 vs. 10.8 ± 2.7; p < 0.001] than that of the control group [19.1 ± 2.7 vs. 13.0 ± 2.4] [F(1,54) = 4.29, p = 0.043]. After both the first and fifteenth sessions, compared with the control group, the mean blood flow velocity (MFVs) of the tACSbm group had significantly larger increase in the MCA, ACA, and PCA (p < 0.001), the Gosling pulsatility index (PI) of the tACSbm group had also significantly larger decline in the MCA, ACA, and PCA than that of the control group (p < 0.001). The best predictor of the changes in the NIHSS scores was the decline in the pulsatility index in the vascular territory of both lesional and non-lesional MCA measured by the end of the last treatment session.
tACSbm appeared to be effective for enhancing patients' functional recovery and cerebral hemodynamics in the subacute phase. The extent of recovery seems to be associated with the decline of the resistance in vascular bed of the main cerebral arteries. The mechanisms behind this effect should be explored further through research.

PPAR Res 2016 11;2016:6042162. Epub 2016 Apr 11.
Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China; The Advanced Institute for Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China.

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Upon ligand binding, PPARs activate target gene transcription and regulate a variety of important physiological processes such as lipid metabolism, inflammation, and wound healing. Here, we describe the first database of PPAR target genes, PPARgene.Read More

Among the 225 experimentally verified PPAR target genes, 83 are for PPARα, 83 are for PPARβ/δ, and 104 are for PPARγ. Detailed information including tissue types, species, and reference PubMed IDs was also provided. In addition, we developed a machine learning method to predict novel PPAR target genes by integrating in silico PPAR-responsive element (PPRE) analysis with high throughput gene expression data. Fivefold cross validation showed that the performance of this prediction method was significantly improved compared to the in silico PPRE analysis method. The prediction tool is also implemented in the PPARgene database.

Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2016 7;50(3):172-9. Epub 2016 Mar 7.
Department of Neurosurgery, Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center, No. 9 Jinsui Road, Guangzhou 510623, China. Electronic address:

Radiation induced brain injury ranges from acute reversible edema to late, irreversible radiation necrosis. Radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis is associated with permanent neurological deficits and occasionally progresses to death.
We present our experience with surgery on radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis (RTLN) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with special consideration of clinical presentation, surgical technique, and outcomes.Read More

This retrospective study includes 12 patients with RTLN treated by the senior author between January 2010 and December 2014. Patients initially sought medical treatment due to headache; other symptoms were hearing loss, visual deterioration, seizure, hemiparesis, vertigo, memory loss and agnosia. A temporal approach through a linear incision was performed for all cases. RTLN was found in one side in 7 patients, and bilaterally in 5. 4 patients underwent resection of necrotic tissue bilaterally and 8 patients on one side.
No death occurred in this series of cases. There were no post-operative complications, except 1 patient who developed aseptic meningitis. All 12 patients were free from headache. No seizure occurred in patients with preoperative epilepsy. Other symptoms such as hemiparesis and vertigo improved in all patients. Memory loss, agnosia and hearing loss did not change post-operatively in all cases. The follow-up MR images demonstrated no recurrence of necrotic lesions in all 12 patients.
Neurosurgical intervention through a temporal approach with linear incision is warranted in patients with radiation induced temporal lobe necrosis with significant symptoms and signs of increased intracranial pressure, minimum space occupying effect on imaging, or neurological deterioration despite conservative management.

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2016 May;32(5):299-304
Institute of Burn Research, Southwest Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

To observe the effects of estrogen on epidermis growth of mice and proliferation of keratinocytes (human epidermal cell line HaCaT), and to explore its mechanism.
(1) Five adult C57BL/6 mice in estrus cycle were identified by vaginal exfoliative cytology diagnosis and set as estrus group, while another 5 adult C57BL/6 mice with ovary resected before sexual development were set as ovariectomized group. The full-thickness skin from the tail root of mice in two groups were collected.Read More

The thickness of epidermis was observed and measured after HE staining. The distribution of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in epidermis was observed by immunohistochemical staining, the number of which was counted. (2) HaCaT cells in logarithmic growth phase were cultured with RPMI 1640 nutrient solution containing 10% fetal bovine serum, and they were divided into negative control group (NC), pure estradiol group (PE), protein kinase B (Akt) inhibitor group (AI), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor group (EI) according to the random number table, with 20 wells in each group. To nutrient solution of each group, 1 μL dimethyl sulfoxide, 1 μL 17β-estradiol (100 nmol/L), 1 μL LY294002 (10 μmol/L), and 1 μL PD98059 (30 μmol/L) were added in group NC, group PE, group AI, and group EI respectively, and the last two groups were added with 1 μL 17β-estradiol (100 nmol/L) in addition. At post culture hour (PCH) 0 (immediately after culture), 24, 48, 72, 5 wells of cells from each group were collected to detect the proliferation activity of cells by cell counting kit 8 and microplate reader. (3) HaCaT cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected, grouped, and treated with the above-mentioned methods, with 3 wells in each group. At PCH 72, cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometer to calculate proliferation index (PI) of cells. (4) HaCaT cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected, grouped, and treated with the above-mentioned methods, with 3 dishes in each group. At PCH 72, the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK), and PCNA were determined with Western blotting. The cell experiments were repeated for 3 times. Data were processed with t test, one-way analysis of variance, analysis of variance of factorial design, and LSD test.
(1) The epidermis thickness of mice in ovariectomized group was (33.5±3.0) μm, which was obviously thinner than that in estrus group [(51.4±3.1) μm, t=20.7, P<0.01]. The PCNA-positive cells mainly aggregated in the basal layer of epidermis of mice in two groups. The number of PCNA-positive cells in epidermis of mice in ovariectomized group was 37±12 per 200 fold visual field, obviously fewer than that in estrus group (96±15 per 200 fold visual field, t=15.3, P<0.01). (2) During PCH 0 to 48, there were no significant differences in the proliferation activity of cells between group PE and group NC (with P values above 0.05). At PCH 72, compared with that in group NC, the proliferation activity of cells in group PE was obviously increased (P<0.01). The proliferation activity of cells in groups AI and EI was obviously lower than that in the previous two groups (with P values below 0.01). (3) Compared with that in group NC [(51.6±1.1)%], the PI of cells in group PE was obviously increased [(58.5±0.8)%, P<0.05]. The PI values of cells in groups AI and EI were (34.9±0.8)% and (48.2±0.4)% respectively, both obviously lower than those in the previous two groups (with P values below 0.01). (4) Compared with that of group NC (0.566±0.034), the protein level of p-Akt in cells of group PE was significantly increased (1.048±0.077, P<0.01). Compared with that of group PE, the protein level of p-Akt was obviously decreased in cells of groups AI and EI (respectively 0.682±0.095 and 0.672±0.019, with P values below 0.01). Compared with that of group NC (0.469±0.013), the protein level of p-ERK obviously increased in cells of groups PE, AI, and EI (respectively 1.064±0.089, 1.010±0.038, 0.778±0.065, with P values below 0.01). The protein level of p-ERK in cells of group EI was obviously lower than that in group PE (P<0.01). Compared with that of group NC (0.386±0.053), the protein level of PCNA was obviously increased in cells of group PE (0.743±0.043, P<0.01). The protein levels of PCNA in cells of groups AI and EI were 0.264±0.019 and 0.223±0.065 respectively, both obviously lower than those in the previous two groups (with P values below 0.01).
Lack of estrogen damages the growth ability of epidermis of mice. Estrogen (17β-estradiol) can promote the proliferation of HaCaT cells by increasing the expression of PCNA via activating ERK/Akt signaling pathway.

Infection 2016 May 17. Epub 2016 May 17.
Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Refractory infection caused by bacterial biofilm is an important clinical problem. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen responsible for persistent and chronic biofilm infections. We aimed to explore the in vitro and in vivo activity of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with antibacterial agents against mucoid P.Read More

aeruginosa biofilm.
The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration of ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and ampicillin alone or with EDTA against P. aeruginosa were determined in vitro. Extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and structural parameters of the biofilm were monitored. P. aeruginosa was aerosolized and delivered into the lungs of guinea pigs, which were treated with ciprofloxacin with or without EDTA. The colony-forming units (CFUs) of P. aeruginosa were determined from the lungs.
EDTA reduced the MIC of ciprofloxacin and ampicillin by about 30-fold and that of gentamicin by twofold. EDTA reduced the biofilm EPS and the proportion of viable bacteria. The thickness, average diffusion distance, and textural entropy of EDTA-treated biofilm were significantly decreased. EDTA plus antibiotics reduced the colony counting from 10(7) to 10(3) CFU/mL. In vivo, EDTA plus ciprofloxacin had a significantly lower mean CFU/g of lung tissue (EDTA + ciprofloxacin 1.3 ± 0.19; EDTA 4.4 ± 0.57; ciprofloxacin 4.2 ± 0.47), and lung lesions were less severe compared with the single treatment groups.
EDTA can destroy the biofilm structures of mucoid P. aeruginosa in vitro. Moreover, EDTA and ciprofloxacin had a significant bactericidal effect against biofilm in vivo.

Oxid Med Cell Longev
Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016 21;2016:5380319. Epub 2016 Apr 21.
Department of Cardiology, Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Elderly patients are susceptible to sepsis. LPS induced myocardial injury is a widely used animal model to assess sepsis induced cardiac dysfunction. The age dependent mechanisms behind sepsis susceptibility were not studied.Read More

We analyzed age associated changes to cardiac function, cell death, inflammation, oxidative stress, and autophagy in LPS induced myocardial injury. Both young and aged C57BL/6 mice were used for LPS administration. The results demonstrated that LPS induced more cardiac injury (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponin I, and cardiac myosin-light chains 1), cardiac dysfunction (left ventricular inner dimension, LVID, and ejection fraction (EF)), cell death, inflammation, and oxidative stress in aged mice compared to young mice. However, a significant age dependent decline in autophagy was observed. Translocation of Transcription Factor EB (TFEB) to nucleus and formation of LC3-II were significantly reduced in LPS administered aged mice compared to young ones. In addition to that, downstream effector of TFEB, LAMP-1, was induced in response to LPS challenge in young mice. The present study newly demonstrates that TFEB mediated autophagy is crucial for protection against LPS induced myocardial injury particularly in aging senescent heart. Targeting this autophagy-oxidative stress-inflammation-cell death axis may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for cardioprotection in the elderly.

Mol Cell Oncol
Mol Cell Oncol 2016 May 10;3(3):e1054550. Epub 2015 Jun 10.
Department of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Pharmacology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

In a recent study we reported that mammalian cells exposed to stress such as ionizing radiation can survive with activation of caspase-3 or caspase-7. We found that sublethal activation of the executioner caspases promotes chemical- and radiation-induced genetic instability and carcinogenesis, in contrast to their perceived roles as tumor suppressors.Read More

We built a two-mirror based X-ray split and delay (XRSD) device for soft X-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser facility. The instrument is based on an edge-polished mirror design covering an energy range of 250 eV-1800 eV and producing a delay between the two split pulses variable up to 400 femtoseconds with a sub-100 attosecond resolution. We present experimental and simulation results regarding molecular dissociation dynamics in CH3I and CO probed by the XRSD device.Read More

We observed ion kinetic energy and branching ratio dependence on the delay times which were reliably produced by the XRSD instrument.

We report on a high-resolution static strain sensor developed with distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser. A reference FBG resonator is used for temperature compensation. Locking another independent fiber laser to the resonator using the Pound-Drever-Hall technique results in a strain power spectral density better than Sε(f) = (4.Read More

6 × 10-21) ε2/Hz in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 1 kHz, corresponding to a minimum dynamic strain resolution of 67.8 pε/√Hz. This frequency stabilized fiber laser is proposed to interrogate the sensing DFB fiber laser by the beat frequency principle. As a reasonable DFB fiber laser setup is realized, a narrow beat frequency line-width of 3.23 kHz and a high beat frequency stability of 0.036 MHz in 15 minutes are obtained in the laboratory test, corresponding to a minimum static strain resolution of 270 pε. This is the first time that a sub-0.5 nε level for static strain measurement using DFB fiber laser is demonstrated.

Oncotarget 2016 Apr;7(16):22219-33
Department of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

Necroptotic factors are generally assumed to play a positive role in tumor therapy by eliminating damaged tumor cells. Here we show that, contrary to expectation, necroptotic factors RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL promote tumor growth. We demonstrate that genetic knockout of necroptotic genes RIPK1, RIPK3, or MLKL in cancer cells significantly attenuated their abilities to grow in an anchorage-independent manner.Read More

In addition, they exhibited significantly enhanced radiosensitivity. The knockout cells also showed greatly reduced ability to form tumors in mice. Moreover, necrosulfonamide (NSA), a previously identified chemical inhibitor of necroptosis, could significantly delay tumor growth in a xenograft model. Mechanistically, we show that necroptoic factors play a significant role in maintaining the activity of NF-κB. Finally, we found that high levels of phosphorylated MLKL in human esophageal and colon cancers are associated with poor overall survival. Taken together, we conclude that pro-necroptic factors such as RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL may play a role in supporting tumor growth, and MLKL may be a promising target for cancer treatment.

Oncotarget 2016 Apr;7(17):23730-9
IVF Michigan, Bloomfield Hills, MI, USA.

Accurate markers and molecular mechanisms of stem cell dormancy and activation are poorly understood. In this study, the anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil, was used to selectively kill proliferating cells of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line. This method can enrich and purify stem cell population.Read More

The dormant versus active status of stem cells was determined by phosphorylation of RNAp II Ser2. The surviving stem cells were cultured to form stem cell spheres expressing stem cell markers and transplanted into nude mice to form a teratoma. The results demonstrated the properties of stem cells and potential for multi-directional differentiation. Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter by 5-FU resulted in Sox2 expression in the dormant stem cells. This study shows that the dormancy and activation of HBE stem cells is closely related to epigenetic modification.

Int J Mol Sci
Int J Mol Sci 2016 31;17(4):478. Epub 2016 Mar 31.
Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 200025, China.

Recent advances have suggested that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are differentially expressed in ocular tissues and play a critical role in the pathogenesis of different types of eye diseases. Here, we summarize the functions and mechanisms of known aberrantly-expressed lncRNAs and present a brief overview of relevant reports about lncRNAs in such ocular diseases as glaucoma, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), diabeticretinopathy (DR), and ocular tumors. We intend to highlight comprehensive studies that provide detailed data about the mechanisms of lncRNAs, their applications as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and their potential therapeutic targets.Read More

Although our understanding of lncRNAs is still in its infancy, these examples may provide helpful insights into the methods by which lncRNAs interfere with ocular diseases.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Apr 13;8(16):10212-9. Epub 2016 Apr 13.
State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology , Wuhan 430070, P. R. China.

Biocompatible, biodegradable, and luminescent nano material can be used as an alternative bioimaging agent for early cancer diagnosis, which is crucial to achieve successful treatment. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocyrstals have good biocompatibility and biodegradability, and can be used as an excellent host for luminescent rare earth elements. In this study, based on the energy transfer from Gd(3+) to Eu(3+), the luminescence enhanced imaging agent of Eu/Gd codoping HAP (HAP:Eu/Gd) nanocrystals are obtained via coprecipitation with plate-like shape and no change in crystal phase composition.Read More

The luminescence can be much elevated (up to about 120%) with a nonlinear increase versus Gd doping content, which is due to the energy transfer ((6)PJ of Gd(3+) → (5)HJ of Eu(3+)) under 273 nm and the possible combination effect of the cooperative upconversion and the successive energy transfer under 394 nm, respectively. Results demonstrate that the biocompatible HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystals can successfully perform cell labeling and in vivo imaging. The intracellular HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystals display good biodegradability with a cumulative degradation of about 65% after 72 h. This biocompatible, biodegradable, and luminescence enhanced HAP:Eu/Gd nanocrystal has the potential to act as a fluorescent imaging agent in vitro and in vivo.

Community Ment Health J
Community Ment Health J 2016 Apr 9. Epub 2016 Apr 9.
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Capitol Healthcare Network (VISN 5), Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC), 10 North Greene Street (BT/MIRECC), Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Adherence to recommendations for monitoring of metabolic side effects of antipsychotic medications has been historically low. This randomized controlled trial tested whether a computerized, patient-centered intervention that educated Veterans with serious mental illness about these side effects and encouraged them to advocate for receipt of monitoring would increase rates of monitoring compared to enhanced treatment as usual. The mean proportion of days adherent to monitoring guidelines over the 1-year study was similarly high and did not differ between the intervention (range 0.Read More

81-0.98) and comparison (range 0.76-0.96) groups. Many individuals in both groups had persistent abnormal metabolic parameter values despite high rates of monitoring, contact with medical providers, and receipt of cardiometabolic medications. Participants exposed to the intervention were interested in receiving personalized information about their cardiometabolic status, demonstrating the preliminary feasibility of brief interventions for enhancing involvement of individuals with serious mental illness in health care decision making.

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2016 Apr;32(4):243-8
Institute of Burn Research, Southwest Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

To investigate the prevalence of central venous catheter-related infection (CRI) in burn patients and its risk factors, so as to guide the clinical practice.
Clinical data of 5 026 days of 480 cases of central venous catheterization altogether in 228 burn patients admitted to our ward from June 2011 to December 2014, conforming to the study criteria, were retrospectively analyzed. (1) The incidence of CRI and that of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in patients (the infection rates per thousand days were calculated) and mortality due to them, and detection of concerning bacteria were recorded after each case of catheterization.Read More

(2) The incidence of CRI after each case of catheterization in patients was recorded according to the classification of their gender, age, total burn area, full-thickness burn area, cause of injury, severity of inhalation injury, location of catheterization, whether catheterization through wound or not, duration of catheterization, and the data were processed with chi-square test. Indexes with statistically significant differences were selected, and they were processed with multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis to screen the independent risk factors of CRI. (3) To all cases of catheterization and cases with catheterization through wound, incidence of CRI after each case of catheterization in patients at each time period was recorded according to the sorting of duration of catheterization. Data were processed with chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, and the values of P were adjusted by Bonferroni.
(1) Infection rate of CRI per thousand days was 50.14‰ (252/5 026), resulting in the mortality rate of 3.51% (8/228). Infection rate of CRBSI per thousand days was 18.70‰ (94/5 026), resulting in the mortality rate of 2.19% (5/228). Respectively 319 and 105 strains of pathogens were detected in CRI and CRBSI, in which the top four bacteria detected were Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the most common fungus found was smooth Candida. (2) There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of CRI after each case of catheterization among patients with different gender, age, cause of injury, severity of inhalation injury, and location of catheterization (with χ(2) values from 0.427 to 6.991, P values above 0.05). There were statistically significant differences in the incidence of CRI after each case of catheterization among patients with different total burn area, full-thickness burn area, whether catheterization through wound or not, duration of catheterization (with χ(2) values from 7.202 to 14.246, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (3) Total burn area, whether catheterization through wound or not, and duration of catheterization were the independent risk factors of CRI (with odd ratios respectively 1.495, 1.670, 1.924, 95% confidence intervals respectively 1.096-2.040, 1.077-2.590, 1.303-2.841, P<0.05 or P<0.01). (4) In all cases enduring catheterization, the incidence of CRI in patients after each episode of catheterization was close between cases enduring catheterization shorter than or equal to 3 days and those longer than 3 days and shorter than or equal to 5 days (χ(2) <0.001, P>0.05); the incidence of CRI in patients after each episode of catheterization was significantly higher in cases enduring catheterization longer than 5 days and shorter than or equal to 7 days, longer than 7 days and shorter than or equal to 14 days, and longer than 14 days than the former two periods (with χ(2) values from 3.625 to 13.495, P values below 0.05). In the cases with catheterization through wound, the incidence of CRI of patients after each episode of catheterization was close between cases enduring catheterization shorter than 5 days and those longer than or equal to 5 days and shorter than 7 days (P>0.05); the incidence of CRI of patients after each episode of catheterization was significantly higher in cases enduring catheterization longer than or equal to 7 days and shorter than 14 days and longer than or equal to 14 days than those with longer than or equal to 5 days and shorter than 7 days (with χ(2) values respectively 6.828 and 4.940, P values below 0.05).
The infection rate of CRI per thousand days in burn patients is relatively low, while that of CRBSI is relatively high, both resulting in relatively low mortality, and Acinetobacter baumannii is the main pathogen. Total burn area, whether catheterization through wound or not, and duration of catheterization are independent risk factors of CRI in burn patients, and with which its occurrence could be predicted. It is suggested that central venous catheterization should be removed within 5 days, and catheterization through wounds should be avoided as much as possible. If catheterization through wound is unavoidable, removal of the catheter within 7 days is recommended.

PLoS One 2016 28;11(4):e0154252. Epub 2016 Apr 28.
Wuhan Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Wuhan, China.

Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China.
Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45) from Wuhan were analyzed.Read More

The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design.
16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only), 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only). Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation). Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p < .05). Stratified analysis by separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants.
Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.

J. Bone Miner. Res.
J Bone Miner Res 2016 Apr 29. Epub 2016 Apr 29.
Life Sciences Institute and Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, Zhejiang University, 388 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a pivotal role and is essentially required for the osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here in this study, we found Ubiquitin Specific Peptidase 4 (USP4) to strongly inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling by removing Lysine-63 linked poly-ubiquitin chain from Dishevelled (Dvl). Ectopic expression of USP4 promoted β-catenin poly-ubiquitination thus inhibited Wnt-induced accumulation of cytosolic β-catenin and counteracted Wnt-induced transcriptional activity.Read More

Moreover, USP4 knock-down or USP4 knock-out led to an increase in the active β-catenin levels and in activation of Wnt/β-catenin-induced transcription. Functional studies in C2C12 myoblasts and KS483 osteoprogenitor cells showed that ectopic expression of USP4 resulted in impaired activation of endogenous Wnt3a-induced genes and decreased osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, whereas USP4 depletion showed the opposite effect. These results identify USP4 as a novel regulator of Dvl in Wnt/β-catenin signal and show its involvement in Wnt3a induced osteoblast differentiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Nucl. Med. Biol.
Nucl Med Biol 2016 Mar 4;43(3):206-14. Epub 2015 Dec 4.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730, China. Electronic address:

The noninvasive imaging of bacterial infections is critical in order to reduce mortality and morbidity caused by these diseases. The recently reported (18)F-FDS ((18)F-2-fluorodeoxy sorbitol) as a PET (positron emission tomography) tracer can be used to image Enterobacteriaceae-specific infections and provides a potential alternative to this problem compared with other probes for imaging infections. In this study, automatic synthesis, validation of (18)F-FDS and a first-in-human study were performed and discussed.Read More

A multifunctional synthesis module was employed for the radiosynthesis of (18)F-FDG ((18)F-2-fluorodeoxy glucose) and (18)F-FDS starting from (18)F ion using two-pot three-step fully automated reactions. The behavior of (18)F-FDS as an in vivo imaging probe for infections was evaluated in an Escherichia coli mouse infection model. The first detailed pharmacokinetic and biodistribution parameters were obtained from healthy human volunteers.
The uptake of (18)F-FDS in an E. coli mouse-myositis infection model was easily differentiated from other organs and normal muscle. Intensive lesion uptake declined after antibiotic treatment. In the pilot human study, no adverse effects due to (18)F-FDS were observed up to 24 h post-injection. The radiotracer was rapidly cleared from the circulation and excreted mainly through the urinary system.
We conclude that (18)F-FDS PET holds great potential for appropriate and effective for the imaging of bacterial infections in vivo. These preliminary results indicate that further clinical studies are warranted.

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Mar;32(3):364-8
Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038, China.

To investigate the mechanism of hypercoagulable state based on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Thirty-five RA patients were enrolled as well as 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. Interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, IL-4, IL-17, NF-κB activator 1 (Act1), p50, p65, IκBα, platelet activating factor (PAF), PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) were detected using ELISA.Read More

The number of platelet (PLT) was detected using Sysmex XT-2000i automated hematology analyzer. The levels of D-dimer (D-D), fibrinogen (FBG), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were detected using Sysmex CA-1500 automatic coagulation analyzer. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was detected using Westergren method. C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor (RF) were detected using Hitachi 7060 automatic biochemical analyzer. Meanwhile, the mRNA expressions of Act1, p65, p50, IκBα and IκB kinase α (IKKα) were detected using semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The expressions of p65, p50 and IκBα proteins were examined using Western blotting. The correlations of the above indexes were analyzed by Spearman correlation test.
Compared with the normal group, the levels of DD, FBG, PLT significantly increased in the peripheral blood of RA patients, TT decreased, while APTT and PT were not significantly changed. IL-4, IL-10 and PAF-AH were significantly reduced in the sera of RA patients, while IL-6, IL-17, Act1, p50, p65, IκBα, IKKα and PAF were significantly elevated. Spearman correlation analysis showed that coagulant and fibrinolytic indexes were significantly correlated with cytokines, NF-κB, activity indexes and clinical symptoms and signs.
The hypercoagulable state is common in the peripheral blood of RA patients, and it is closely related to inflammatory factors, activity indexes and abnormal activation of NF-κB.

Med Phys
Med Phys 2016 Mar;43(3):1401-10
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China and Beijing Key Lab of Precision/Ultra-Precision Manufacturing Equipments and Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking can be used for motion management. However, on account of mechanical constraints, it is a crucial challenge for conventional MLCs (3-4 cm/s in leaf speed) to track fast targets, especially moving in 2D in the beam's eye view (BEV). Our group has recently developed a "high-speed" MLC (HS-MLC) prototype with a maximum leaf speed of 40 cm/s, which makes it possible to track the vast majority of moving targets without violation of mechanical constraints.Read More

The major innovation of the HS-MLC design is that it employs linear motors instead of rotary motors to drive leaves. This paper mainly aims to evaluate the performance of the HS-MLC in real-time intensity-modulated radiation therapy delivery to targets moving in 2D in the BEV.
A 2D real-time tracking algorithm was proposed first based on a previous superimposing leaf sequencing method. Then, simulations were performed to evaluate the delivery performance including fluence accuracy, efficiency, delivery time, and number of monitor units under various settings of limiting coefficient and dose rate for four clinical fluence maps and two target speeds. The comparisons between the HS-MLC with a "medium-speed" MLC (MS-MLC, 10 cm/s) and a "low-speed" MLC (LS-MLC, 5 cm/s) were also made. For validation, experiments were carried out on the HS-MLC prototype in the lab environment. A camera-based measurement system was set up to detect actual leaf trajectories.
Simulation results indicate that a limiting coefficient of 0.5 and a dose rate of 400 MU/min are "optimal" in the sense of getting best compromise between delivery time and number of monitor units. Under the optimal parameters, the HS-MLC achieved 100% in efficiency, 18.1 s in delivery time, and 121.2 MU in number of monitor units on average for the "fast" target speed, compared to 94%, 20.6 s, and 129.9 MU with the MS-MLC, and to 53%, 40.2 s, and 141.1 MU with the LS-MLC. The benefits of increased leaf speed were demonstrated. The experimental results agreed with the simulation ones, which further confirmed the efficacy of the HS-MLC.
The HS-MLC is superior to conventional MLCs when used for tracking, benefiting from its high leaf speed. These results indicate that the novel HS-MLC is feasible for high-accuracy and high-efficiency motion management. It also offers guidance for future MLC design.

BMC Biotechnol.
BMC Biotechnol 2016 22;16:30. Epub 2016 Mar 22.
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7613, Raleigh, NC, 27695-7613, USA.

Diabetes and its concurrent complications impact a significant proportion of the population of the US and create a large financial burden on the American health care system. FDA-approved maggot debridement therapy (MDT), the application of sterile laboratory-reared Lucilia sericata (green bottle fly) larvae to wounds, is a cost-effective and successful treatment for diabetic foot ulcers and other medical conditions. Human platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is a secreted dimeric peptide growth factor that binds the PDGF receptor.Read More

PDGF-BB stimulates cell proliferation and survival, promotes wound healing, and has been investigated as a possible topical treatment for non-healing wounds. Genetic engineering has allowed for expression and secretion of human growth factors and other proteins in transgenic insects. Here, we present a novel concept in MDT technology that combines the established benefits of MDT with the power of genetic engineering to promote healing. The focus of this study is to create and characterize strains of transgenic L. sericata that express and secrete PDGF-BB at detectable levels in adult hemolymph, whole larval lysate, and maggot excretions/ secretions (ES), with potential for clinical utility in wound healing.
We have engineered and confirmed transgene insertion in several strains of L. sericata that express human PDGF-BB. Using a heat-inducible promoter to control the pdgf-b gene, pdgf-b mRNA was detected via semi-quantitative PCR upon heat shock. PDGF-BB protein was also detectable in larval lysates and adult hemolymph but not larval ES. An alternative, tetracycline-repressible pdgf-b system mediated expression of pdgf-b mRNA when maggots were raised on diet that lacked tetracycline. Further, PDGF-BB protein was readily detected in whole larval lysate as well as larval ES.
Here we show robust, inducible expression and production of human PDGF-BB protein from two conditional expression systems in transgenic L. sericata larvae. The tetracycline-repressible system appears to be the most promising as PDGF-BB protein was detectable in larval ES following induction. Our system could potentially be used to deliver a variety of growth factors and anti-microbial peptides to the wound environment with the aim of enhancing wound healing, thereby improving patient outcome in a cost-effective manner.

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2016 Mar 23. Epub 2016 Mar 23.
Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, People's Republic of China.

The development of effective and stable carriers of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is important for treating cancer with multidrug resistance (MDR). We developed a new gene and drug co-delivery system and checked its characteristics. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was coupled with N-succinyl chitosan (NSC) Lipoic acid (LA) micelles and co-delivered MDR1 siRNA and paclitaxel (PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA) to enhance antitumor effects by silencing the MDR gene of tumors (Li et al.Read More

, Adv Mater 2014;26:8217-8224). In our study, we developed a new type of containing paclitaxel-loaded micelles and siRNA-loaded LDL nanoparticle. This "binary polymer" is pH and reduction dual-sensitive core-crosslinked micelles. PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA had an average particle size of (171.6 ± 6.42) nm, entrapment efficiency of (93.92 ± 1.06) %, and drug-loading amount of (12.35% ± 0.87) %. In vitro, MCF-7 cells, high expressed LDL receptor, were more sensitive to this delivery system than to taxol(®) and cell activity was inhibited significantly. Fluorescence microscopy showed that PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA was uptaken very conveniently and played a key role in antitumor activity. PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA protected the siRNA from degradation by macrophage phagocytosis and evidently down-regulated the level of mdr1 mRNA as well as the expression of P-gp. We tested the target ability of PTX-siRNA/LDL-NSC-LA in vivo in tumor-bearing nude mice. Results showed that this system could directly deliver siRNA and PTX to cancer cells. Thus, new co-delivering siRNA and antitumor drugs should be explored for solving MDR in cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2016 Jan-Mar;17(1):1470320316628717. Epub 2016 Mar 23.
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, China Institute of Advanced Surgical Technology and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China

Currently, there is no effective therapy available for liver fibrosis. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of renin angiotensin system inhibitors on liver fibrosis.
Full-text randomized controlled trials in patients with liver fibrosis were identified and included in the meta-analysis.Read More

The primary outcome measure was the histological fibrosis score of the liver. Secondary outcome measures included fibrosis area of the liver, serological levels of fibrosis markers, adverse events, and withdrawals.
From 6973 non-duplicated entries by systematic search, four randomized controlled trials with 210 patients were identified. The renin angiotensin system inhibitors therapy resulted in a marginally significant reduction in liver fibrosis score (MD = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.62-0.02, p = 0.05) and a significant reduction in liver fibrosis area (MD = -2.36%; 95% CI: -4.22%--0.50%, p = 0.01) as compared with control. The therapy was well tolerated and there was no significant difference in withdrawals between treatment and control groups (RD = 0.00; 95% CI: -0.06-0.06, p = 0.97).
Renin angiotensin system inhibitor therapy results in a reduction in liver fibrosis score and liver fibrosis area in patients with hepatic fibrosis with good safety profile. However, randomized controlled trials of high-quality will clarify the effectiveness of renin angiotensin system inhibitors on liver fibrosis.

Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) are a type of fetal stem cell whose stemness encompasses both embryonic and adult stem cells, suggesting that they may be easily and efficiently reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To further simplify the reprogramming process, the creation of AFSC-derived iPSCs using a single factor is desirable. Here we report the generation of one-factor human AFSC-iPSCs (AiPSCs) from human AFSCs by ectopic expression of the transcription factor OCT4.Read More

Just like human embryonic stem cells, AiPSCs exhibited similar epigenetic status, global gene expression profiles, teratoma formation and in vitro & in vivo pluripotency. Our results indicate that the OCT4 is necessary and sufficient to directly reprogram human AFSCs into pluripotent AiPSCs. Moreover, reflecting the similar memory characteristics of AFSCs and neural stem cells, we show that AiPSC membrane-derived vesicles (MVs) repair cerebral ischemia damage. We anticipate that the successful generation of one-factor AiPSCs will facilitate the creation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need for transgenic expression of oncogenes. Moreover, MVs from tissue-specific AiPSCs have potential in tissue repair, representing a novel application of iPSCs.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016 25;2016:2601830. Epub 2016 Feb 25.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China.

The dysregulation of TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway has been postulated to contribute to the development of ulcerative colitis (UC) and the manifestation of clinical symptoms. Kuijie Granule is a prescription medicine used clinically in China to alleviate the symptoms associated with UC. To evaluate whether the clinical benefit of Kuijie Granule is associated with TGF-β/Smads signaling, we measured the expression levels of TGF-β/Smads signaling proteins (TGF-β1, TGF-βRII, Smad2, Smad4, Smad6, and Smad7) in the intestinal mucosa of 72 patients with UC treated with Kuijie Granule for 60 days.Read More

Colonic tissues were obtained by a virtual colonoscopy guided biopsy before and after Kuijie Granule treatment followed by pathological analysis and quantitative analysis of TGF-β/Smads using immunohistochemistry. Kuijie Granule treatment significantly improved symptoms associated with UC, which include diarrhea, mucus production, pus and blood in stool, abdominal pain and distention, and tenesmus. The clinical benefit of Kuijie Granule treatment correlated with decreased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad7 and increased expression of TGF-βRII and Smad4. These clinical results indicate that Kuijie Granule can alleviate the symptoms associated with UC and modulate TGF-β/Smads signaling.

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2016 Feb;24(2):130-2
Department of Infectious Diseases, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601, China.

To investigate the facial aging analysis of 1200 Han adult people in Dalian with iris diameter, so as to provide reference for facial rejuvenation in Han people.
1200 facial digital photographs from the second-generation ID card of China were stratified randomly selected as the research sample, excluding facial deformity, tattooing eyebrow, tattooing lid margin, ptosis, lip grain and eyebrow deformity cases, as well as the cases whose join point of upper eyelid and lower eyelid not exposed at the nasal side. These photos were divided into six cohorts: female aged 18, 38, and 68 years old; and male aged 18, 38, and 68 years old, with 200 cases in each cohort.Read More

The individual iris diameter was divided into 20 equal parts in each photograph, with each part marked one unit as individual iris diameter ruler. Ten values were made from a horizontal plane between the medial canthus to ten points at one face ( the line between two medial canthus is used as the horizontal line, circumocular and facial soft tissue were measured with individual iris diameter ruler on the photographs), then the results were analyzed with Adobe Photoshop software.
There are statistically significant differences in eyebrow height (36.42 ± 4.22 unit in 18 years old male group, 40.22 ± 6.90 unit in 38 years old male group, 34.83 ± 9.39 unit in 68 years old male group; 37.59 ± 6.72 unit in 18 years old female group, 41.09 ± 5.15 unit in 38 years old female group, 36.84 ± 9.45 unit in 68 years old female group), palpebral fissure height, physiognomic external canthus height, palpebral fissure width, pupil height and other items (P < 0.05).
(1) The brow position rises to the peak level at middle age (38 years old group), then drops down gradually with aging. (2) The physiognomic external canthus moves towards the nasal side and caudal side with aging. (3) Eyeball moves towards caudal side with aging. (4) The soft tissue around bilateral angle of mouth, nasal tip and submaxilla moves towards caudal side with aging. (5) The measurement of individual iris diameter ruler can apply to analyze the aging changes of facial soft tissue, and is more suitable for the case when facial photographs are taken at different distances.