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Fang Li
Capital Medical University

Publications Authored By Fang Li

Mol Med Rep
Mol Med Rep 2015 Jul 4;12(1):419-25. Epub 2015 Mar 4.
Department of Developmental Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, P.R. China.

Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease, which is caused by the functional loss or abnormality of Wntl‑inducible signaling pathway protein 3 [WISP3 protein (also termed CCN6, OMIM #603400)]. WISP3 is a member of the cysteine‑rich 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed protein family. Mutations in WISP3 may result in continuous degeneration and loss of articular cartilage.Read More

The present study collected clinical data from three patients with PPD from three unrelated families, and WISP3 mutations were detected by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Overall, five mutations were identified, which consisted of two missense mutations, two nonsense mutations and one duplication mutation, which spanned exons 2, 4 and 5 of WISP3. In family 1, a compound heterozygosity mutation of WISP3 was detected, and the proband was shown to carry a novel missense mutation: c.667T>G (p.Cys223Gly) and a nonsense mutation: c.857C>G (p.Ser286*). The other three mutations: c.342T>G (p.Cys114Trp), c.136C>T (p.Gln46*) and c.866dupA (p.Ser290Glufs*13) had previously been identified. Overall, the three patients had similar clinical phenotypes, and no specific correlation between genotype and phenotype was detected. The results of the present study expand the WISP3 mutation spectrum that is associated with PPD and aid in further elucidating the function of WISP3.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2015 Jun;40(6):501-3
From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine, and †Pathology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

A 23-year-old woman with recurrent uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma underwent FDG PET/CT, which showed pelvic recurrence and multiple pulmonary metastases. In addition, increased activity in a vertical soft tissue mass along the left ureter was noted, which appears similar to retroperitoneal fibrosis on PET/CT images. However, pathological examination demonstrated that the elevated FDG activity in this mass was a result of tumor thrombus from endometrial stromal sarcoma in the left ovarian arteries and veins.Read More

J. Virol.
J Virol 2015 Jun 18;89(11):6121-5. Epub 2015 Mar 18.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) has significantly damaged America's pork industry. Here we investigate the receptor usage and cell entry of PEDV. PEDV recognizes protein receptor aminopeptidase N from pig and human and sugar coreceptor N-acetylneuraminic acid.Read More

Moreover, PEDV infects cells from pig, human, monkey, and bat. These results support the idea of bats as an evolutionary origin for PEDV, implicate PEDV as a potential threat to other species, and suggest antiviral strategies to control its spread.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2015 Jun;27(6):623-30
Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, the Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

To date, associations between consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease have been a controversial subject. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the associations. A comprehensive search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure to identify all relevant studies.Read More

Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from random-effects or fixed-effects models were calculated. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's test and the funnel plot. A total of 14 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. On the basis of the highest versus the lowest analysis, consumption of vegetables was associated inversely with the risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) (OR=0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.88, n=9 studies), but not with Crohn's disease (CD) (OR=0.66, 95% CI 0.40-1.09, n=8 studies). Higher consumption of fruit was associated inversely with the risk of UC (OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.96, n=8 studies) and CD (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.74, n=10 studies). For intake of vegetables and the risk of CD, subgroup analysis showed a significant association for studies carried out in Europe (OR=0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57), but not in Asia (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.50-2.03). No significant publication bias was found for the analysis of intake of vegetables and the risk of UC, intake of fruit and the risk of UC, and intake of vegetables and the risk of CD. This meta-analysis indicates that consumption of vegetables and fruit might be associated inversely with the risk of UC and CD, and the results need to be further confirmed.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2015 May;40(5):397-400
From the Peking Union Medical College Hospital Beijing, Beijing, China.

The aim of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of the findings and the diagnoses of Tc-hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide scan (Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging) in patients with pancreatic masses which were potential neuroendocrine tumors.
Records of total 20 patients with pancreatic masses were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients had been revealed by abdominal contrast CT and possibility of neuroendocrine tumors could not be excluded by CT imaging before Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging.Read More

Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging was performed at 1 and 4 hours post-tracer injection, and SPECT/CT images of the abdomen were also acquired. The image findings were compared to final diagnoses which were made from pathological examination.
Among all 20 pancreatic masses evaluated, there were 16 malignant lesions which included 1 ductal adenocarcinoma and 15 neuroendocrine tumors. Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging identified 14 of 15 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and excluded 4 of 5 lesions which were not neuroendocrine tumors. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy was therefore 93.3% (14 of 15), 80% (4 of 5), and 90.0% (18 of 20), respectively, in our patient population.
Tc-HYNIC-TOC imaging provides reasonable accuracy in the evaluation pancreatic mass suspected to be neuroendocrine tumors.

J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015 May 5;100(5):1887-94. Epub 2015 Mar 5.
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism (M.Z., Q.G., S.S., Xu.Z., Y.S., H.Z., L.F., C.Y., Q.L., Xi.Z., C.X., J.Z.), Clinical Laboratory (B.Z., Z.L.), and Scientific Center (L.G.), Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases (M.Z., Q.G., S.S., Xu.Z., Y.S., H.Z., L.F., C.Y., Q.L., Xi.Z., L.G., C.X., J.Z.), Shandong Academy of Clinical Medicine, and Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (F.X., Z.Y.), Shandong University, Jinan, 250021 Shandong, China; School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012 Shandong, China; Department of Endocrinology (X.T.), The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 Gansu, China; and Department of Endocrinology (T.Y.), The First Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029 Jiangsu, China.

Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is an important public health problem worldwide for its increasing prevalence and potential deleterious effects, whereas its etiology has not been fully elucidated. Lipotoxicity exerts extensive and serious impact on human health, but so far, the potential effect of lipotoxicity on thyroid is unclear.
The objective of the study was to assess the association between serum triglyceride levels and the risk for SCH.Read More

We conducted a population-based case-control study. A total of 24 100 subjects with similar and stable iodine nutrition status were recruited from China. Cases of 5033 SCH patients were identified and equal controls were matched by age, gender, and region. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the association between serum triglyceride levels and risk for SCH.
Hypertriglyceridemia was associated with an approximately 35% increased risk for SCH in both men (odds ratio 1.325; 95% confidence interval 1.002-1.753) and women (odds ratio 1.397; 95% confidence interval 1.217-1.604), even after adjustment for potential confounders. Notably, the risk for SCH increased progressively following the elevation of serum triglyceride levels. Compared with individuals with serum triglyceride levels less than 0.97 mmol/L, the risk for SCH increased approximately 1.9-fold in men and 1.4-fold in women, respectively, when triglyceride levels were greater than 1.99 mmol/L.
Our findings suggested that hypertriglyceridemia was positively associated with the risk for SCH.

J. Virol.
J Virol 2015 May 11;89(10):5602-14. Epub 2015 Mar 11.
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

Japanese encephalitis is an acute zoonotic, mosquito-borne disease caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Japanese encephalitis is characterized by extensive inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the BBB disruption are not known.Read More

Here, using a mouse model of intravenous JEV infection, we show that virus titers increased exponentially in the brain from 2 to 5 days postinfection. This was accompanied by an early, dramatic increase in the level of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Enhancement of BBB permeability, however, was not observed until day 4, suggesting that viral entry and the onset of inflammation in the CNS occurred prior to BBB damage. In vitro studies revealed that direct infection with JEV could not induce changes in the permeability of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayers. However, brain extracts derived from symptomatic JEV-infected mice, but not from mock-infected mice, induced significant permeability of the endothelial monolayer. Consistent with a role for inflammatory mediators in BBB disruption, the administration of gamma interferon-neutralizing antibody ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice. Taken together, our data suggest that JEV enters the CNS, propagates in neurons, and induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which result in the disruption of the BBB.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in 70,000 cases each year, in which approximately 20 to 30% of cases are fatal, and a high proportion of patients survive with serious neurological and psychiatric sequelae. Pathologically, JEV infection causes an acute encephalopathy accompanied by BBB dysfunction; however, the mechanism is not clear. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of BBB disruption in JEV infection is important. Our data demonstrate that JEV gains entry into the CNS prior to BBB disruption. Furthermore, it is not JEV infection per se, but the inflammatory cytokines/chemokines induced by JEV infection that inhibit the expression of TJ proteins and ultimately result in the enhancement of BBB permeability. Neutralization of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ameliorated the enhancement of BBB permeability in JEV-infected mice, suggesting that IFN-γ could be a potential therapeutic target. This study would lead to identification of potential therapeutic avenues for the treatment of JEV infection.

Thyroid 2015 May 9;25(5):485-93. Epub 2015 Apr 9.
1 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University , Jinan, China .

Dyslipidemia is an important global health problem, particularly in the elderly population. Traditionally, the high prevalence of dyslipidemia in elderly people is considered a "natural condition." Notably, subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is one of the most important risk factors for dyslipidemia.Read More

Few studies have assessed whether SCH plays a role in the increase in age-related dyslipidemia. This study aimed to explore the association between SCH and lipid profiles in different age groups.
This was a large-scale, population-based, case-control study. The population was derived from the REACTION study conducted across China. A total of 17,046 individuals (8827 cases and 8219 controls) aged 40 years or older were enrolled in the final analyses. The relationships between SCH and serum lipid parameters in each age group were evaluated after adjustment for thyroid hormones and common confounding factors.
In the entire population, thyrotropin (TSH), the key indicator of SCH, was positively associated with cholesterol parameters (total cholesterol [TC] and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) through the sixth decade of life. After adjusting for common confounding factors and thyroid hormones, each 1 mIU/L increase in TSH was estimated to elevate the TC level by 0.0147 mmol/L and 0.0551 mmol/L, respectively, in individuals aged 40-49 years and 60-69 years. Similarly, with each 1 mIU/L increase in TSH, the LDL-C level tended to show gradually greater increases as age increased. In moderately old subjects (60-69 years), mild (TSH≤10 mIU/L) and significant (TSH>10 mIU/L) SCH increased the concentration of TC approximately 1.03- and 1.36-fold, and the concentration of LDL-C approximately 1.19- and 1.65-fold, respectively, when compared with younger subjects.
TSH exhibited a stronger effect on the TC and LDL-C level in moderately old subjects than in younger subjects. SCH might augment and worsen the effects of aging on serum lipid profiles.

BMC Complement Altern Med
BMC Complement Altern Med 2015 28;15(1):133. Epub 2015 Apr 28.
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 23 Meishuguanhou Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100010, China.

Decreased cognition is recognized as one of the most severe and consistent behavioral impairments in dementia. Experimental studies have reported that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits, relieve vascular dementia (VD) symptoms, and increase cerebral perfusion and electrical activity.
Multi-infarction dementia was modeled in rats with 3% microemboli saline suspension.Read More

Two weeks after acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), all rats were subjected to a hidden platform trial to test their 3-day spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To estimate the numbers of pyramidal neuron, astrocytes, and synaptic boutons in hippocampal CA1 area, we adopted an unbiased stereology method to accurately sample and measure the size of cells.
We found that acupuncture at ST36 significantly decreased the escape latency of VD rats. In addition, acupuncture significantly increased the pyramidal neuron number in hippocampal CA1 area (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease the number of astrocytes (P = 0.063). However, there was no significant change in the synaptic bouton number of hippocampal CA1 area in any of the groups (P > 0.05).
These findings suggest that acupuncture may improve cognitive deficits and increase pyramidal neuron number of hippocampal CA1 area in VD rats.

Medicine (Baltimore)
Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 May;94(17):e790
From the Department of Critical Care Medicine (XZ, DL, LS, YL, WD); Department of Cardiac Surgery (QM); Department of Nuclear Medicine (FL); Department of Radiology (ZJ); Department of Endocrinology (ZZ); and Department of Anesthesiology (AL, YH), Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Cardiac pheochromocytoma is relatively rare. Few reports describe the intraoperative and postoperative progression of patients experiencing a life-threatening pheochromocytoma crisis treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).A 35-year-old man was referred to our facility for paroxysmal hypertension with a 10-year history of sweating, headaches, cardiac palpitations, and postexercise dyspnea.Read More

The patient initially underwent urine catecholamine measurement and an isotope scan, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (CT), which indicated a multiple, cardiac pheochromocytoma. Echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT reconstruction, and a coronary CT angiography revealed several lesions at the aortic root and along the cardiac vasculature.Multifocal cardiac pheochromocytoma was diagnosed and pheochromocytoma crisis with severe cyclic blood pressure fluctuation occurred during surgery.Surgical resection of multiple pheochromocytomas in the right medial carotid sheath, mediastinum between the main and pulmonary arteries, and between the abdominal aorta and inferior vena artery was performed. To ensure cardiac perfusion and avoid severe circulatory fluctuation, the cardiac paraganglioma resection was prioritized. After resecting the cardiac pheochromocytoma, a severe pheochromocytoma crisis with rapid cyclic blood pressure fluctuation developed. ECMO and intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) were initiated to stabilize circulation and perfusion. Phenoxybenzamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and fluid resuscitation were administered to support cardiovascular function.The magnitude of blood pressure fluctuation steadily decreased with treatment. IABP was discontinued after 3 days, and ECMO was discontinued after 16 days. The patient was discharged 3 months postoperatively.This case indicates that mechanical life support with ECMO is a valuable option for pheochromocytoma-induced cardiac shock and should be considered as an effective therapeutic choice in patients with highly unstable hemodynamic function.

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2015 May;37(2):171-8
Department of Nephrology, PUMC Hospital, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing 100730, China.

:Objective To evaluate the accuracy of plasma clearance of iohexol(PCio)for glomerular filtration rate(GFR)measurement in Chinese children with chronic kidney disease(CKD)and assess the feasibility of single-blood-sample method or dried capillary blood spots in determining the PCio.Methods Totally 45 CKD children were included,in whom the (99m)Technetium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid((99m)Tc-DTPA)plasma clearance and iohexol plasma clearance were simultaneously determined.Blood samples were obtained 2,4,and 5 hours after injection.Read More

In addition,we also evaluated the efficacy of single blood sample method and dried blood spots method in iohexol plasma clearance.Results Forty-five CKD children completed the iohexol plasma clearance and thirty-six children completed the (99m)Tc-DTPA plasma clearance at the same time among them.Thirteen children finished the iohexol dried blood spot clearance.The correlation coefficient between (99m)Tc-DTPA plasma clearance and iohexol plasma clearance was 0.941 and the bias was(6.53±11.6)ml/(min·1.73 m(2)),and the intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC)was high(ICC=0.947).The correlation between iohexol single-sample plasma clearance and double samples was also strong(r=0.958),with the bias being(4.26±9.06)ml/(min·1.73 m(2))and the ICC being 0.970.The iohexol clearance by dried blood spots showed a good correlation with the serum iohexol clearance(r=0.950),with the bias still being small [(0.48±10.89)ml/(min·1.73 m(2))].Conclusions Iohexol plasma clearance has satisfactory agreement with (99m)Tc-DTPA plasma clearance and can be used as an ideal method to measure GFR in CKD children.The single-sample method and dried blood spots method make iohexol plasma clearance more convenient and practical.

PLoS One 2015 5;10(5):e0125952. Epub 2015 May 5.
School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group.Read More

The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.

Cell Biol. Int.
Cell Biol Int 2015 May 6. Epub 2015 May 6.
Biomedical Research Institute, Shenzhen Peking University-the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Medical Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was identified as an endogenous tissue protective agent against apoptosis in many cell types. The mechanism by which HGF protects primary endothelial cells (ECs) has not yet been completely elucidated. FOXO1 and FOXO3a, two members of the FOXO family, are the most abundant FOXO isoforms in mature endothelial cells.Read More

In this study, we aimed to explore whether FOXO1 and FOXO3a play similar roles in HGF-mediated protection against apoptosis in mature endothelial cells. Our result showed that HGF prevented ECs from oxidative-stress induced apoptosis in part by inducing the phosphorylation of FOXO proteins. FOXO1 and FOXO3a are equally important in this process by regulating the expression of Bim, PUMA, FasL and TRAIL.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015 15;2015:684708. Epub 2015 Apr 15.
School of Acupuncture Moxibustion and Tuina, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 610075, China.

Deqi refers to the special sensation and reaction sensed mainly by both acupuncturist and patient when a needle was inserted into the acupoints and is considered to be vital to achieve acupuncture effect. For acupuncturist, it is important to judge and control Deqi in clinical practice. However, enough attention is paid to patients' feelings rather than acupuncturists' nowadays.Read More

We thus conducted this survey to determine acupuncturists' perspectives about Deqi and to further find the proper way to induce Deqi. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out to acupuncturists and 202 (80.8%) were returned. According to the results, most acupuncturists believe that Deqi is vital to obtain preferable clinical effects. The reliability of acupuncturists' Deqi sensation ranks as sinking> tightening> astringent. The reliability of patients' Deqi sensations ranks as sourness> numbness> distention> heaviness> pain. The reliability of influential factors ranks as manipulation> specificity of acupoint> TCM constitution> disease status> patient's psychological condition> acupuncturists' psychological guidance> clinical environment. This study is believed to provide additional evidence to the qualitative and quantitative research of Deqi in the future.

Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
Gynecol Obstet Invest 2015 May 1. Epub 2015 May 1.
Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is the cause of more than half of all cases of cervical cancer. Genetic mutations in HPV16 and the integration of HPV16 DNA in the human genome are considered important genetic changes in cervical lesion progression. However, limited data concerning HPV16 lineages and physical integration status have been reported for Shanghai, China.Read More

The current study analyzed the genetic mutations in complete HPV16 genomes and the physical integration status of HPV16 DNA.
A total of 30 samples of cervical exfoliated cells from patients with HPV16 infection were collected. The entire HPV16 genome was isolated, amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. The physical integration status was determined by 3'RACE nested PCR.
A total of 13 integration sites were identified, including 9 in common fragile sites and 1 not close to any fragile sites. Phylogenetic analysis identified two HPV lineages: the European (E) lineage and the East Asian (EA) lineage. Amino acid changes of D25E and N29S were the most common variations across the genome. The HPV16 early genes E1 and E7 and the late gene L1 tended to be highly conserved, whereas the early genes E2, E4 and E6 were more variable. Furthermore, 10 novel variations were identified in this study, which led to the 3 amino acid changes of S23I in E2 and E244K and T269I in E2/E4.
Integrated HPV16 viruses were detected in all stages of cervical samples. Many variants in E2, E4, E7, and the long control region co-varied with E6 variations and helped to define the HPV16 lineages. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Pain Med
Pain Med 2015 May 13. Epub 2015 May 13.
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 23 Meishuguanhou Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100010, China.

According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, acupoints are specifically chosen sites of acupuncture manipulation, and also the basis for studying the mechanism of acupuncture. Stimulating different acupoints on the body surface could provide various therapeutic benefits. However, what is the acupoint? This question is not clear.Read More

We focuse on examining the function of acupoints from different perspectives, including the local and the systemic effects of stimulating acupoints. For example, acupoints may release certain substances or incur some changes, which could adjust the function of organs, maintain homeostasis. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of verum acupoints versus sham acupoints were discussed. However, due to insufficience in evidence and in current methodologies, research into mechanisms of acupuncture is still incomplete.
This review might explain, to some extent, what an acupoint is. Further research into the identity of acupoints is warranted, and multidisciplinary methods using novel technologies may yield significant advances over existing knowledge.

Tumori 2015 May 13;0(0). Epub 2015 May 13.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Sichuan Cancer Hospital Institute, Chengdu, Sichuan - China.

Esophageal cancer can cause substantial mortality and there is controversy about the effectiveness of concurrent and sequential chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for this disease.
Based on established criteria, we searched electronic databases including PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), China National Knowledge Infrastruction (CNKI), Wanfang, and Weipu databases up to March 2014 to collect eligible studies. Relative risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.Read More

Q and I2 test were applied to test statistical heterogeneities among studies. Publication bias of total effective rate was evaluated through a funnel plot and sensitive analysis was conducted.
We identified 10 Chinese studies including 1024 esophageal cancer patients. The RRs of total effective rate and 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate for concurrent versus sequential CRT were 1.15 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.24), 1.15 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.26), 1.44 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.73), and 1.66 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.01), respectively, all with statistically significant differences (p<0.05). With regards to incidence of leukocytopenia, the RR for concurrent versus sequential CRT was 1.14 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) with significant difference (p<0.05). However, the RR of incidence of radiation esophagitis was 1.09 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.22) for concurrent versus sequential CRT without significant differences (p = 0.17).
Concurrent CRT was superior to sequential CRT for esophageal cancer management among Chinese people. Though higher toxic effects were revealed in concurrent CRT, it was tolerable. Therefore, concurrent CRT could be applied into esophageal cancer treatments for Chinese patients.

Consumers with serious mental illness smoke more and are at higher risk for smoking-related illness. We examined provider and consumer factors influencing the implementation of the evidence-based "5 A's" (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) in six community mental health centers in greater Baltimore.
Data collected as part of a larger study examining the effectiveness of delivery of the 5 A's at patient visits.Read More

First, we examined responses to a survey administered to 49 clinicians on barriers and attitudes toward delivering the 5 A's. Second, we used multilevel models to examine variance between patients (n = 228), patient factors, and variance between their psychiatrists (n = 28) in the delivery of the 5 A's (and first 3 A's).
The most strongly endorsed barrier was perceived lack of patient interest in smoking cessation. Psychiatrists and patients both accounted for significant variance in the delivery of the 5 A's and 3 A's. Patient "readiness to change" predicted delivery of the full 5 A's, while smoking severity predicted delivery of the first 3 A's.
There is a critical need for creative and collaborative solutions, policies, and clinician training to address actual and perceived obstacles to the delivery of evidence-based smoking cessation treatment in the mental health care setting.

Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2015 May 18. Epub 2015 May 18.
Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250021, China.

Gitelman Syndrome (GS) is one of the most common causes of inherited hypokalaemia. Caused by mutations in the SLC12A3 gene, GS is a highly heterogeneous disease. Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of two Chinese pedigrees and summarise the advance in GS genetics, diagnosis, and management.Read More

Two three-generation families with GS were identified and screened for mutations in the SLC12A3 gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations were analysed.
The two probands (A and B) were characterised by hypokalaemia, hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria without hypertension. Complete DNA sequencing of the SLC12A3 gene revealed two novel compound heterozygous mutations (c.179C>T and c.234delG; c.486-490delTACGGinsA and c.1925G>A), which are predicted to drastically affect normal protein structure. The female members of the pedigrees showed mild to no phenotype, though they carried the same mutations as the probands. Moreover, proband B presented more severe symptoms than did proband A, which might be related to a lower serum magnesium level. During the 1-year follow-up, both probands showed satisfactory symptom improvement following the use of potassium and magnesium supplements.
Our findings strongly suggested that the two novel mutations in the SLC12A3 gene are the causative agents of GS, which may provide further insights into the function of this gene and help clinicians better understand this disorder. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Int. J. Neurosci.
Int J Neurosci 2015 May 22:1-19. Epub 2015 May 22.
Centre for Stem cells and Regenerative Medicine, Liaocheng People's Hospital/Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University , Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 , China.

Mutations in the β-glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) have been implicated as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, GBA mutations in PD patients of different ethnic origins were reported to be inconsistent.
We sequenced all exons of the GBA gene in 225 PD patients and 110 control individuals from Eastern Canada.Read More

Two novel GBA variants of c.-119 A/G and S (-35)N, five known GBA mutations of R120W, N370S, L444P, RecNciI and RecTL mutation (del55/D409H/RecNciI) as well as two non-pathological variants of E326K and T369M were identified from PD patients while only one mutation of S13L and two non-pathological variants of E326K and T369M were found in the control individuals. The frequency of GBA mutations within PD patients (4.4%) is 4.8 times higher than the 0.91% observed in control individuals (X(2) = 2.91, P = 0.088; odds ratio = 4.835; 95% confidence interval = 2.524-9.123). The most common mutations of N370S and L444P accounted for 36.0% (9/25) of all the GBA mutations in this Eastern Canadian PD cohort. The frequency (6.67%) of E326K and T369M in PD patients is comparable to 7.27% in control individuals (X(2) = 0.042, p = 0.8376), further supporting that these two variants have no pathological effects on PD. Phenotype analysis showed that no significant difference in family history, age at onset, and cognitive impairment was identified between the GBA mutation carriers and non-GBA mutation carriers.
GBA mutations were found to be a common genetic risk factor for PD in Eastern Canadian patients.

Int. J. Neurosci.
Int J Neurosci 2015 May 22:1-20. Epub 2015 May 22.
Department of Neurology, Guangzhou Red Cross Hospital, Medical College, Jinan University , No.396 Tongfuzhong Road, Guangzhou, 510220 , P.R. China.

Previous studies have demonstrated that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) has neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia. However, it remains unknown whether PGE1 promotes angiogenesis and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke. In this study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to permanently distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO).Read More

Rats were treated with lipo-prostaglandin E1(Lipo-PGE1, 10 μg/kg/d) or the same volume of 0.9% saline starting 24 hours after MCAO daily for 6 consecutive days. All rats were injected 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 3 consecutive days before being sacrificed. At 7 and 14 days after MCAO or sham-operation, rats were sacrificed. Post-stroke neurological outcome, infarction volume, angiogenesis and neurogenesis were evaluated. Treatment with lipo-PGE1 significantly increased vascular density in the peri-infarct areas at 7 and 14 days after MCAO. Lipo-PGE1 treatment significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration of endogenous neural stem cells in the ipsilateral subventricular zone. The neural stem cells associated with blood vessels closely within a neurovascular niche in lipo-PGE1 treated rats after stroke. Lipo-PGE1 treatment also significantly improved neurological recovery after MCAO. These results indicate that treatment with lipo-PGE1 promotes post-stroke angiogenesis, neurogenesis and their interaction, which would contribute to neurological recovery after cerebral infarction. Our study provides novel experimental evidences for the neuroprotective roles of PGE1 in ischemic stroke.

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015 May 19. Epub 2015 May 19.
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA. Electronic address:

Palmitate (PA), one of the most prevalent saturated fatty acids, causes myocardial dysfunction. However, the mechanisms by which PA induces cell apoptosis and autophagy remain to be elucidated. We showed that autophagy was induced in an mTORC1-dependent way and plays a protective role against PA-induced apoptosis, which was verified by pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3 MA) and rapamycin.Read More

However, p62 began to accumulate after 18 h treatment with PA, suggesting prolonged exposure to PA lead to an impairment of autophagic flux. PA enhanced ROS production as well as activated p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and c-jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNKs). The antioxidant N-Acety-l-Cysteine (NAC) was found to attenuate the JNK and p38MAPK activation with a concomitant reduction of PA-induced autophagy and apoptosis. Furthermore, both JNK and p38MAPK inhibitors were shown to directly abrogate caspase 7 cleavage as well as the conversion of LC3BI to LC3BII. Thus, we demonstrate that PA stimulates autophagy and apoptosis via ROS-dependent JNK and p38 MAPK pathways.

J. Heart Lung Transplant.
J Heart Lung Transplant 2015 Apr 24;34(4):580-7. Epub 2014 Oct 24.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles. Electronic address:

Anti-MHC Class I alloantibodies have been implicated in the processes of acute and chronic rejection. These antibodies (Ab) bind to endothelial cells (EC) and transduce signals leading to the activation of cell survival and proliferation pathways, including Src, FAK and mTOR, as well as downstream targets ERK, S6 kinase (S6K) and S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). We tested the hypothesis that phosphorylation of S6K, S6RP and ERK in capillary endothelium may serve as an adjunct diagnostic tool for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in heart allografts.Read More

Diagnosis of AMR was based on histology or immunoperoxidase staining of paraffin-embedded tissue, consistent with 2013 ISHLT criteria. Diagnosis of acute cellular rejection (ACR) was based on ISHLT criteria. Endomyocardial biopsies from 67 heart transplant recipients diagnosed with acute rejection [33 with pAMR, 18 with ACR (15 with Grade 1R, 3 with Grade ≥2R), 16 with pAMR and ACR (13 with 1R and 3 with ≥2R)] and 40 age- and gender-matched recipients without rejection were tested for the presence of phosphorylated forms of ERK, S6RP and S6K by immunohistochemistry.
Immunostaining of endomyocardial biopsies with evidence of pAMR showed a significant increase in expression of p-S6K and p-S6RP in capillary EC compared with controls. A weaker association was observed between pAMR and p-ERK.
Biopsies diagnosed with pAMR often showed phosphorylation of S6K and S6RP, indicating that staining for p-S6K and p-S6RP is useful for the diagnosis of AMR. Our findings support a role for antibody-mediated HLA signaling in the process of graft injury.

Pediatr Cardiol
Pediatr Cardiol 2015 Apr 11;36(4):867-72. Epub 2015 Jan 11.
Department of Pediatric Cardiovasology, Children's Medical Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University/Institute of Pediatrics of Central South University, No. 139 Ren-min Middle Road, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

To explore whether oral rehydration salts (ORS) is effective in the treatment of children with vasovagal syncope (VVS). One hundred and sixty-six consecutive patients with recurrent syncope and positive head-up tilt testing (HUTT) were recruited, randomly divided to conventional therapy (health education and tilt training) plus ORS (with 500 ml of water) group (Group I, 87 patients) and conventional therapy group (Group II, 79 patients). Therapeutic effect was evaluated by changes of syncopal episode and reperformed HUTT response.Read More

At the end of 6-month follow-up, syncopal episode did not reoccur in 49 (56.3 %) patients, decreased in 34 (39.1 %) patients, and had no obvious change or increased in four (4.6 %) patients in Group I, and the results were 31 (39.2 %), 37 (46.8 %), and 11 (14 %) in Group II, respectively. The difference was significant (χ (2) = 7.074, P < 0.05). When HUTT was reperformed, 57 (65.5 %) and 28 (35.4 %) patients had negative response and 30 (34.5 %) and 51 (64.6 %) patients had positive response, respectively, in Group I and Group II. The difference was also significant (χ (2) = 13.808, P < 0.01). In Group I, the two aspects had no difference between vasodepressor type and mixed type; however, syncopal episode had a significant difference between children aged ≤12 and >12 years (χ (2) = 6.371, P < 0.05); there was no difference in reperformed HUTT response. ORS with 500 ml of water is an effective therapy for VVS. It can be recommended as one of non- pharmacological treatment measures in children with VVS.

Cancer Discov
Cancer Discov 2015 Apr 11;5(4):438-51. Epub 2015 Feb 11.
Oncology Translational Research, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Activating mutations in either KIT or PDGFRA are present in approximately 90% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Although treatment with the KIT and PDGFR inhibitor imatinib can control advanced disease in about 80% of GIST patients, the beneficial effect is not durable. Here, we report that ligands from the FGF family reduced the effectiveness of imatinib in GIST cells, and FGF2 and FGFR1 are highly expressed in all primary GIST samples examined.Read More

The combination of KIT and FGFR inhibition showed increased growth inhibition in imatinib-sensitive GIST cell lines and improved efficacy in patient-derived GIST xenografts. In addition, inhibition of MAPK signaling by imatinib was not sustained in GIST cells. An ERK rebound occurred through activation of FGF signaling, and was repressed by FGFR1 inhibition. Downregulation of Sprouty proteins played a role in the imatinib-induced feedback activation of FGF signaling in GIST cells.
We here show that FGFR-mediated reactivation of the MAPK pathway attenuates the antiproliferation effects of imatinib in GISTs. The imatinib-induced ERK rebound can be repressed by the FGFR inhibitor BGJ398, and combined KIT and FGFR inhibition leads to increased efficacy in vitro and in patient-derived xenografts. Cancer Discov; 5(4); 438-51. ©2015 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 333.

Annu Rev Food Sci Technol
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 2015 20;6:299-327. Epub 2015 Feb 20.
Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003; email:

The oral bioavailability of a health-promoting dietary component (nutraceutical) may be limited by various physicochemical and physiological phenomena: liberation from food matrices, solubility in gastrointestinal fluids, interaction with gastrointestinal components, chemical degradation or metabolism, and epithelium cell permeability. Nutraceutical bioavailability can therefore be improved by designing food matrices that control their bioaccessibility (B*), absorption (A*), and transformation (T*) within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This article reviews the major factors influencing the gastrointestinal fate of nutraceuticals, and then uses this information to develop a new scheme to classify the major factors limiting nutraceutical bioavailability: the nutraceutical bioavailability classification scheme (NuBACS).Read More

This new scheme is analogous to the biopharmaceutical classification scheme (BCS) used by the pharmaceutical industry to classify drug bioavailability, but it contains additional factors important for understanding nutraceutical bioavailability in foods. The article also highlights potential strategies for increasing the oral bioavailability of nutraceuticals based on their NuBACS designation (B*A*T*).

Oncol Lett
Oncol Lett 2015 Apr 17;9(4):1614-1620. Epub 2015 Feb 17.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221002, P.R. China.

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene on the stem cell properties of human ovarian cancer stem cells. A eukaryotic expression vector containing the WWOX gene was transfected into human ovarian cancer stem cells and Western blotting was used to assess the expression of WWOX protein in the transfected cells compared with the control cells (untransfected cells and cells transfected with the empty vector). The self-renewal abilities of these three types of stem cells was also assessed in vitro.Read More

To monitor changes in their differentiation potential, cells were cultured in medium supplemented with serum, and the expression of specific stem cell markers was determined. Drug-sensitivity tests were used to measure the sensitivity of the stem cells to cisplatin, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone. The cells were also transplanted into non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice to determine the changes in their tumorigenicity in vivo. Cells transfected with the WWOX-expressing plasmid stably expressed WWOX protein, while no WWOX protein was detected in control cells. Compared with the two types of control cells, WWOX-expressing stem cells manifested significantly reduced self-renewal ability. Compared with control cells, the expression levels of stem cell markers, including CD133, CD117, ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2, Nanog, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 and breast cancer resistance protein, were significantly lower in WWOX-expressing cells, while the level of the differentiation marker E-cadherin was significantly higher in WWOX-expressing cells. Furthermore, WWOX-expressing cells were more sensitive to treatment with cisplatin, doxorubicin and mitoxantrone. In NOD/SCID mice, the tumorigenicity of WWOX-expressing cells was significantly lower compared with that of control cells. The results indicate that the tumor suppressor WWOX suppresses stem cell properties in cancer stem cells, including self-renewal ability, differentiation potential, in vivo tumorigenic capability, high-level expression of stem cell genes and multidrug resistance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2015 Apr 31;7(14):7599-604. Epub 2015 Mar 31.
§Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, P. R. China.

A novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was developed for the determination of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) by using N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI)-functionalized gold nanodots/chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ABEI/GNDs/chitosan/COOH-MWCNTs) hybrid as nanointerface. First, ABEI/GNDs/chitosan/COOH-MWCNTs hybrid nanomaterials were grafted onto the surface of ITO electrode via the film-forming property of hybrid nanomaterials. The anti-NT-proBNP antibody was connected to the surface of modified electrode by virtue of amide reaction via glutaraldehyde.Read More

The obtained sensing platform showed strong and stable ECL signal. When NT-proBNP was captured by its antibody immobilized on the sensing platform via immunoreaction, the ECL intensity decreased. Direct ECL signal changes were used for the determination of NT-proBNP. The present ECL immunosensor demonstrated a quite wide linear range of 0.01-100 pg/mL. The achieved low detection limit of 3.86 fg/mL was about 3 orders of magnitude lower than that obtained with electrochemistry method reported previously. Because of the simple and fast analysis, high sensitivity and selectivity, and stable and reliable response, the present immunosensor has been successfully applied to quantify NT-proBNP in practical plasma samples. The success of the sensor in this work also confirms that ABEI/GNDs/chitosan/COOH-MWCNTs hybrid is an ideal nanointerface to fabricate a sensing platform. Furthermore, the proposed strategy could be applied in the detection of other clinically important biomarkers.

This Letter presents a static strain demodulation technique for FBG-FP sensors using a suppressed carrier LiNbO3 (LN) optical single sideband (SSB-SC) modulator. A narrow-linewidth tunable laser source is generated by driving the modulator using a linear chirp signal. Then this tunable single-frequency laser is used to interrogate the FBG-FP sensors with the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) technique, which is beneficial to eliminate the influence of light intensity fluctuation of the modulator at different tuning frequencies.Read More

The static strain is demodulated by calculating the wavelength difference of the PDH signals between the sensing FBG-FP sensor and the reference FBG-FP sensor. As an experimental result using the modulator, the linearity (R2) of the time-frequency response increases from 0.989 to 0.997, and the frequency-swept range (dynamic range) increases from hundreds of MHz to several GHz compared with commercial PZT-tunable lasers. The high-linearity time-wavelength relationship of the modulator is beneficial for improving the strain measurement resolution, as it can solve the problem of the frequency-swept nonlinearity effectively. In the laboratory test, a 0.67 nanostrain static strain resolution, with a 6 GHz dynamic range, is demonstrated.

J. Neurosci.
J Neurosci 2015 Apr;35(13):5409-21
Institutes of Brain Science, Eye & ENT Hospital, Institute of Neurobiology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China, and

EphB1, expressed in Müller cells, and ephrinB2, expressed in both Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), constitute an EphB/ephrinB reverse signaling in RGCs. Whether and how this reverse signaling is involved in RGC apoptosis in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model was investigated. In the COH model, both EphB1 and ephrinB2 were significantly increased and the reverse signaling was activated, which was accompanied by increased protein levels of phosphorylated (p) src, GluA2, and p-GluA2.Read More

Intravitreal injection of EphB2-Fc, an activator of ephrinB2, induced an increase in TUNEL-positive signals in normal retinae. A coimmunoprecipitation assay demonstrated direct interactions among ephrinB2, p-src, and GluA2. Moreover, in COH rats the expression of GluA2 proteins on the surface of retinal cells was decreased. Such GluA2 endocytosis could be prevented by preoperational intravitreal injection of 4-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(t-butyl)-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidine (PP2), an inhibitor of src family tyrosine kinases, and possibly involved the protein interacting with C kinase 1 and phosphorylation of GluA2. In normal rats, intravitreal injection of EphB2-Fc caused changes in these protein levels similar to those observed in COH rats, which all could be avoided by preinjection of PP2. Patch-clamp experiments further showed that the current-voltage relationship of AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs of RGCs exhibited stronger inward rectification in EphB2-Fc-injected rats. Furthermore, preinjection of PP2 or N-[3-[[4-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]butyl]amino]propyl]-1-naphthaleneacetamide trihydrochloride) (Naspm), a Ca(2+)-permeable GluA2-lacking AMPA receptor inhibitor, remarkably inhibited RGC apoptosis in either EphB2-Fc-injected or COH rats. Together, elevated GluA2 trafficking induced by activated EphB2/ephrinB2 reverse signaling likely contributes to RGC apoptosis in COH rats.

PLoS One 2015 7;10(4):e0121933. Epub 2015 Apr 7.
Department of Respiratory Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

The goal of this work was to explore the dynamic concentration profiles of 42 amino acids and the significance of these profiles in relation to sepsis, with the aim of providing guidance for clinical therapies.
Thirty-five critically ill patients with sepsis were included. These patients were further divided into sepsis (12 cases) and severe sepsis (23 cases) groups or survivor (20 cases) and non-survivor (15 cases) groups.Read More

Serum samples from the patients were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 following intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and the serum concentrations of 42 amino acids were measured.
The metabolic spectrum of the amino acids changed dramatically in patients with sepsis. As the disease progressed further or with poor prognosis, the levels of the different amino acids gradually increased, decreased, or fluctuated over time. The concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs), especially taurine, decreased significantly as the severity of sepsis worsened or with poor prognosis of the patient. The serum concentrations of SAAs, especially taurine, exhibited weak negative correlations with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) (r=-0.319) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II (r=-0.325) scores. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of cystine, taurine, and SAA levels and the SOFA and APACHE II scores, which denoted disease prognosis, were 0.623, 0.674, 0.678, 0.86, and 0.857, respectively.
Critically ill patients with disorders of amino acid metabolism, especially of SAAs such as cystine and taurine, may provide an indicator of the need for the nutritional support of sepsis in the clinic. identifier NCT01818830.

Br. J. Pharmacol.
Br J Pharmacol 2015 Apr 8. Epub 2015 Apr 8.
Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Peking University Health Science Center; Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Increased level of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a key feature of metabolic syndrome and is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-δ (PPAR-δ) agonists play a protective role in lipid metabolism and vascular function. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of PPAR-δ in the uptake of VLDL in endothelial cells (ECs) and its underlying mechanism.Read More

In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the uptake of VLDL was assessed by Dil-fluorescence labeling VLDL tracing. The level of VLDL receptor (VLDLR) mRNA and microRNA (miR-100) were detected by qPCR. The target genes of microRNA were predicted by using bioinformatics analysis. 3'-Untranslated region (3'-UTR) luciferase reporter and Argonaute1 (Ago1) pull down assays were used to validate the target of miR-100.
PPAR-δ agonist GW501516 significantly decreased the uptake of VLDL. We found that GW501516 decreased the expression of VLDLR at mRNA and protein levels. GW501516 inhibited the luciferase reporter activity of the 3'-UTR of VLDLR. VLDLR was a direct target of miR-100. MiR-100 was significantly increased by GW501516 in HUVECs. Transfection of miR-100 mimic decreased the mRNA and protein level of VLDLR and the uptake of VLDL. Furthermore, miR-100 inhibitor abolished the inhibitory effect of PPAR-δ on VLDLR expression and VLDL uptake.
We demonstrated that PPAR-δ activation decreased VLDLR expression and VLDL uptake via the induction of miR-100. These results provided a novel mechanism for the vascular protective effect of PPAR-δ agonists.

Mol. Cell
Mol Cell 2015 Apr 9;58(2):284-96. Epub 2015 Apr 9.
Department of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

Apoptosis is typically considered an anti-oncogenic process since caspase activation can promote the elimination of genetically unstable or damaged cells. We report that a central effector of apoptosis, caspase-3, facilitates rather than suppresses chemical- and radiation-induced genetic instability and carcinogenesis. We found that a significant fraction of mammalian cells treated with ionizing radiation can survive despite caspase-3 activation.Read More

Moreover, this sublethal activation of caspase-3 promoted persistent DNA damage and oncogenic transformation. In addition, chemically induced skin carcinogenesis was significantly reduced in mice genetically deficient in caspase-3. Furthermore, attenuation of EndoG activity significantly reduced radiation-induced DNA damage and oncogenic transformation, identifying EndoG as a downstream effector of caspase-3 in this pathway. Our findings suggest that rather than acting as a broad inhibitor of carcinogenesis, caspase-3 activation may contribute to genome instability and play a pivotal role in tumor formation following damage.

Chin J Integr Med
Chin J Integr Med 2015 Apr 14. Epub 2015 Apr 14.
Intensive Care Unit, Fangcun Branch Hospital, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510145, China.
J Orthop Surg Res
J Orthop Surg Res 2015 25;10(1):38. Epub 2015 Mar 25.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Beijing Army General Hospital, Nanmencang No. 5, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100700, China.

This randomized controlled trial was carried out to (1) evaluate the effect of nucleoplasty with coblation on the PLA2 activity in the degenerative intervertebral disks of an animal model and (2) explore the possible therapeutic mechanism of coblation in addition to the current theory, which focuses on decreasing the intradiskal pressure in the treatment of intervertebral disk degeneration.
Thirty-six animal models of intervertebral disk degeneration were successfully established and then randomly divided into two groups: the coblation group (n = 18) and coblation control group (n = 18). Nucleoplasty using coblation was performed in the coblation group.Read More

L4-5 and L5-6 intervertebral disk samples were harvested and analyzed for PLA2 activity in different groups at different time points.
The PLA2 activity in the coblation control group was significantly higher than that in the control group (194.86 ± 11.80 and 80.68 ± 5.56, respectively; P < 0.01). There was a significant decrease in the PLA2 activity 1 week after coblation than at the real time after coblation (154.39 ± 7.99 and 184.98 ± 9.43, respectively; P < 0.001). The PLA2 activity at 1 month after coblation remained at a lower level than those at 1 week and at the real time after coblation (142.63 ± 10.72, 154.39 ± 7.99, and 184.98 ± 9.43, respectively), but there was no significant decrease in the PLA2 activity between 1 week and 1 month after coblation.
Coblation appeared to effectively degrade the PLA2 activity in the degenerative intervertebral disks of this animal model. This represents a potential mechanism for the clinical use of coblation in the treatment of low back pain.

Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2015 Apr 16. Epub 2015 Apr 16.
Department of Stomatology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital Tongji University School of Medicine, No. 301., Middle Yanchang Road Shanghai 200072, P.R. China.

In recent years, beneficial effects of various ligands of three peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms (α,β,γ) have been reported in neurodegenerative diseases through delaying the onset and progression of diseases, reducing lesion size and improving functional recovery. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are assumed as a promising strategy for the treatment of human neurodegenerative diseases. PPARs are supposed to be one group of the key regulators of fate decisions in neural stem cells during development and adulthood, through their impact on the target genes involving cell proliferation, death and differentiation.Read More

The neuroprotective role of PPARs is suggested to be closely associated with the inflammation control and regenerative function of NSCs. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we review the current knowledge about the beneficial role of PPARs in NSC development and neurogenesis and attempt to discuss the underlying mechanisms.

BMC Neurosci
BMC Neurosci 2015 14;16(1):14. Epub 2015 Mar 14.
Department of Neurology, XiangYa Hospital, Central South University, XiangYa Road 88, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Neuropathic pain evoked by nerve injury is frequently accompanied by deterioration of emotional behaviors, but the underlying signaling mechanisms remain elusive. Glutamate (Glu) is the major mediator of excitatory synaptic transmission throughout the brain, and abnormal activity of the glutamatergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of pain and associated emotional comorbidities. In this study we used the partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) model of neuropathic pain in rats to characterize the development of anxiety-like behavior, the expression of glutamatergic receptors, and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the hippocampus, the region that encodes memories related to emotions.Read More

We found that the mechanical withdrawal threshold was significantly reduced and an anxiety-like behavior was increased as determined via open field tests and elevated plus-maze tests at 28 days after injury. No significant differences were found in the ratio of sucrose preference and immobility time detected by sucrose preference tests and forced swimming tests respectively, possibly due to the timing factor. The expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subtypes NR1 and NR2B, but not NR2A, GluR1, or GluR2 (the main subtype of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid [AMPA] receptor) in the hippocampus of injured rats was significantly reduced. Moreover, PSNL resulted in decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus. Intriguingly, treatment with D-serine (a co-agonist of NMDA receptor, 1 g/kg intraperitoneally) reduced the anxiety-like behavior but not the mechanical hypersensitivity induced by PSNL.
PSNL can induce significant anxiety-like but not depression-like behavior, and trigger down-regulation of NMDA but not AMPA receptors in the hippocampus at 28 days after injury.

Virol. J.
Virol J 2015 28;12(1):33. Epub 2015 Feb 28.
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710061, Shaanxi Province, China.

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducible protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene have been linked to inflammatory, immunological and malignant diseases. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by immunopathogenesis. This study investigated the association of rs2230926, a nonsynonymous SNP in TNFAIP3 gene, with chronic HBV infection.Read More

Four hundred and fifty-five patients with chronic HBV infection with clinical diseases of chronic hepatitis (n = 183), liver cirrhosis (n = 167) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 105), 92 HBV infection resolvers and 171 healthy controls were included. All subjects were of Chinese Han ethnicity. Genotyping of rs2230926 was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method.
The gender and age between HBV patients, HBV infection resolvers and healthy controls had no statistical difference. The genotypes of rs2230926 in HBV patients, HBV infection resolvers and healthy controls are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphism between HBV patients, HBV infection resolvers and healthy controls had no significant difference. The genotype and allele frequencies of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphism between HBV patients with chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma also showed no significant difference.
The TNFAIP3 rs2230926 polymorphism is not suggested to be associated with the susceptibility of chronic HBV infection or the progression of HBV-related diseases in this study. Replicative studies and studies in large control and HBV patient populations of different ethnicity by genotyping more polymorphisms in TNFAIP3 gene are needed.

Auton Neurosci
Auton Neurosci 2015 Apr 2. Epub 2015 Apr 2.
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 23 Meishuguanhou Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100010, China. Electronic address:

As an ancient therapeutic method, acupuncture has been used to treat many diseases as an adjunctive therapy. However, its clinical efficacy remains controversial and the neural mechanisms have not been well understood. Accumulating studies have revealed that fMRI has made it possible to study brain responses to acupuncture.Read More

This review aims to provide scientific evidence to support the notion and discuss how these findings contribute to the neural mechanisms of acupuncture.

Biol Trace Elem Res
Biol Trace Elem Res 2015 Apr 23. Epub 2015 Apr 23.
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Rd, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, China.

Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats.Read More

The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2015 Apr;35(4):549-52
Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of South China University, Hengyang 421001, China. E-mail:

To explore the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) on myocardial fibrosis and expressions of MAPK1/3 and MMP-8 in diabetic rats.
Forty adult male SD rats were randomized into 4 groups, namely the control group, diabetes mellitus group (STZ group), diabetes mellitus with H(2)S treatment group (STZ+H(2)S group), and normal rats with H(2)S treatment group (H(2)S group). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injections of 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ).Read More

The rats in the control group received daily intraperitoneal injections of saline, and those in STZ+H(2)S group and H(2)S group were given NaHS (100 µmol/kg) injections. After 8 weeks, the pathologies of cardiac fibrosis were examined with HE staining, and the expressions of collagen I, MAPK1/3 and MMP-8 were analyzed with Western blotting.
Compared with the control group, the diabetic rats showed increased collagen content and obvious interstitial fibrosis in the myocardial tissue with significantly increased expression levels of collagen I, MAPK1/3 and MMP-8 (P<0.05); all these changes were obviously reversed by treatment with H(2)S (P<0.05). Collagen I, MAPK1/3 and MMP-8 expression levels and the degree of myocardial fibrosis were comparable between H(2)S group and control group (P>0.05).
Hydrogen sulfide can attenuate cardiac fibrosis in diabetic rats, and the mechanism may involve the inhibition of MAPK1/3/MMP-8 signal pathway.

Planta 2015 Apr 28. Epub 2015 Apr 28.
College of Life Science, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, 030801, Shanxi, China.

Our work strongly suggests that microRNA858 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in tomato by modulating the expression of two R2R3 MYB transcription factors, underscoring the importance of microRNAs in the gene regulatory network controlling specialized metabolism in plants. The biological functions of microRNA858 (miR858), a recently identified small RNA, are not well understood. Here, we identified miR858 as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).Read More

RNA ligase-mediated 5'RACE cleavage assay showed that miR858 mediates the cleavage of SlMYB7-like and SlMYB48-like transcripts in tomato. Expression analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the accumulation of miR858 and its target SlMYB7-like mRNA, in different tissues of tomato. Subsequently, a small tandem target mimic construct for blocking miR858 (STTM858) was generated and transformed into tomato. The majority of endogenous miR858 was blocked in STTM858 over-expressing tomato plants, whereas SlMYB7-like transcripts increased significantly. Concomitantly, upregulated expression was detected for several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, including PAL, CHS, DFR, ANS and 3GT. As a result, anthocyanins were highly accumulated in young seedlings, leaves, stems and leaf buds of the transgenic plants under normal growth conditions. In addition, over-expression of STTM858 in tomato activated another MYB transcription factor, SlMYB48, implicating the possible involvement of SlMYB48 in anthocyanin biosynthesis.

Sensors (Basel)
Sensors (Basel) 2015 27;15(5):9928-41. Epub 2015 Apr 27.
Optoelectronic System Laboratory, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China.

Static strain can be detected by measuring a cross-correlation of reflection spectra from two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). However, the static-strain measurement resolution is limited by the dominant Gaussian noise source when using this traditional method. This paper presents a novel static-strain demodulation algorithm for FBG-based Fabry-Perot interferometers (FBG-FPs).Read More

The Hilbert transform is proposed for changing the Gaussian distribution of the two FBG-FPs' reflection spectra, and a cross third-order cumulant is used to use the results of the Hilbert transform and get a group of noise-vanished signals which can be used to accurately calculate the wavelength difference of the two FBG-FPs. The benefit by these processes is that Gaussian noise in the spectra can be suppressed completely in theory and a higher resolution can be reached. In order to verify the precision and flexibility of this algorithm, a detailed theory model and a simulation analysis are given, and an experiment is implemented. As a result, a static-strain resolution of 0.9 nε under laboratory environment condition is achieved, showing a higher resolution than the traditional cross-correlation method.

Fish Shellfish Immunol.
Fish Shellfish Immunol 2015 Mar 23;43(1):67-74. Epub 2014 Dec 23.
State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources, State Oceanic Administration, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen 361005, China. Electronic address:

Hemocytes are the major immune cells of crustaceans which are believed to be essential for the pathogenesis of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Crayfish hemocytes and hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cells have been found to be susceptible to WSSV infection, but the procedure of WSSV infection to both cell types has not yet been carefully investigated. In this study, we analyzed the infection and proliferation of WSSV in crayfish hemocytes as well as HPT cells in detail through transmission electronic microscopy (TEM).Read More

The results showed that WSSV could enter both hemocytes and HPT cells through endocytosis, but the production of progeny virus was only achieved in HPT cells. Further investigation demonstrated that although WSSV could transcribe its genes in both cell types, viral genome replication and structural protein expression were unsuccessful in hemocytes, which may be responsible for the failure of progeny production. Therefore, we propose that both hemocytes and HPT cells are susceptible to WSSV infection but only HPT cells are permissive to WSSV replication. These findings will extend our knowledge of the interaction between WSSV and the host immune system.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2015 Mar;40(3):278-81
From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine and †Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

A 69-year-old woman complaining of abdominal bloating underwent ultrasonography, which revealed a small lesion in the left lobe of the liver. The lesion had elevated activity of both 18F-FDG and 11C-acetate on PET/CT scan and was suspected of being malignant. Postresection pathological examination demonstrated that this lesion was a focal intrahepatic lymphoid hyperplasia.Read More

Dent Mater
Dent Mater 2015 Mar 13;31(3):284-92. Epub 2015 Jan 13.
Department of Endodontics, Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address:

Dentin-composite bond failure is caused by factors including hybrid layer degradation, which in turn can be caused by hydrolysis and enzymatic degradation of the exposed collagen in the dentin. The objectives of this study were to investigate a new antibacterial monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) as an inhibitor for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and to determine the effects of DMADDM on both soluble recombinant human MMPs (rhMMPs) and dentin matrix-bound endogenous MMPs.
Inhibitory effects of DMADDM at six mass% (0.Read More

1% to 10%) on soluble rhMMP-8 and rhMMP-9 were measured using a colorimetic assay. Matrix-bound endogenous MMP activity was evaluated in demineralized human dentin. Dentin beams were divided into four groups (n=10) and incubated in calcium- and zinc-containing media (control medium); or control medium+0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX); 5% 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB); or 5% DMADDM. Dissolution of dentin collagen peptides was evaluated by mechanical testing in three-point flexure, loss of dentin mass, and a hydroxyproline assay.
Use of 0.1% to 10% DMADDM exhibited a strong concentration-dependent anti-MMP effect, reaching 90% of inhibition on rhMMP-8 and rhMMP-9 at 5% DMADDM concentration. Dentin beams in medium with 5% DMADDM showed 34% decrease in elastic modulus (vs. 73% decrease for control), 3% loss of dry dentin mass (vs. 28% loss for control), and significantly less solubilized hydroxyproline when compared with control (p<0.05).
The new antibacterial monomer DMADDM was effective in inhibiting both soluble rhMMPs and matrix-bound human dentin MMPs. These results, together with previous studies showing that adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited biofilms without compromising dentin bond strength, suggest that DMADDM is promising for use in adhesives to prevent collagen degradation in hybrid layer and protect the resin-dentin bond.

Chem. Res. Toxicol.
Chem Res Toxicol 2015 Mar 2;28(3):501-9. Epub 2015 Feb 2.
Asian International Rivers Center, Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Trans-boundary Eco-Security, and ‡College of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University , Kunming, 650091, People's Republic of China.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly being used as antimicrobial agents and drug carriers in biomedical fields. However, toxicological information on their effects on red blood cells (RBCs) and the mechanisms involved remain sparse. In this article, we examined the size dependent nanotoxicity of AgNPs using three different characteristic sizes of 15 nm (AgNPs15), 50 nm (AgNPs50), and 100 nm (AgNPs100) against fish RBCs.Read More

Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations showed that AgNPs exhibited a size effect on their adsorption and uptake by RBCs. The middle sized AgNPs50, compared with the smaller or bigger ones, showed the highest level of adsorption and uptake by the RBCs, suggesting an optimal size of ∼50 nm for passive uptake by RBCs. The toxic effects determined based on the hemolysis, membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme production were fairly size and dose dependent. In particular, the smallest sized AgNPs15 displayed a greater ability to induce hemolysis and membrane damage than AgNPs50 and AgNPs100. Such cytotoxicity induced by AgNPs should be attributed to the direct interaction of the nanoparticle with the RBCs, resulting in the production of oxidative stress, membrane injury, and subsequently hemolysis. Overall, the results suggest that particle size is a critical factor influencing the interaction between AgNPs and the RBCs.

J. Plant Res.
J Plant Res 2015 Mar 23;128(2):283-94. Epub 2015 Jan 23.
Linze Inland River Basin Research Station, Key Laboratory of Inland River Basin Ecohydrology, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Dong-gang West Road, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

The influences of previous-year precipitation and episodic rainfall events on dryland plants and communities are poorly quantified in the temperate desert region of Northwest China. To evaluate the thresholds and lags in the response of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) to variability in rainfall pulses and seasonal precipitation along the precipitation-productivity gradient in three desert ecosystems with different precipitation regimes, we collected precipitation data from 2000 to 2012 in Shandan (SD), Linze (LZ) and Jiuquan (JQ) in northwestern China. Further, we extracted the corresponding MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, a proxy for ANPP) datasets at 250 m spatial resolution.Read More

We then evaluated different desert ecosystems responses using statistical analysis, and a threshold-delay model (TDM). TDM is an integrative framework for analysis of plant growth, precipitation thresholds, and plant functional type strategies that capture the nonlinear nature of plant responses to rainfall pulses. Our results showed that: (1) the growing season NDVIINT (INT stands for time-integrated) was largely correlated with the warm season (spring/summer) at our mildly-arid desert ecosystem (SD). The arid ecosystem (LZ) exhibited a different response, and the growing season NDVIINT depended highly on the previous year's fall/winter precipitation and ANPP. At the extremely arid site (JQ), the variability of growing season NDVIINT was equally correlated with the cool- and warm-season precipitation; (2) some parameters of threshold-delay differed among the three sites: while the response of NDVI to rainfall pulses began at about 5 mm for all the sites, the maximum thresholds in SD, LZ, and JQ were about 55, 35 and 30 mm respectively, increasing with an increase in mean annual precipitation. By and large, more previous year's fall/winter precipitation, and large rainfall events, significantly enhanced the growth of desert vegetation, and desert ecosystems should be much more adaptive under likely future scenarios of increasing fall/winter precipitation and large rainfall events. These results highlight the inherent complexity in predicting how desert ecosystems will respond to future fluctuations in precipitation.

Virus Res.
Virus Res 2015 Mar 28;200:24-9. Epub 2015 Jan 28.
State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Marine Genetic Resources, Key Laboratory of Marine Genetic Resources of State Oceanic Administration & Fujian, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen 361005, PR China. Electronic address:

VP28 and VP24 are two major envelope proteins of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The direct interaction between VP28 and VP24 has been described in previous studies. In this study, we confirmed this interaction and mapped the interaction domains of VP28 and VP24 by constructing a series of deletion mutants.Read More

By co-immunoprecipitation, two VP28-binding domains of VP24 were located at amino acid residues 46-61 and 148-160, while VP24-binding domain of VP28 was located at amino acid residues 31-45. These binding domains were further corroborated by peptide blocking assay, in which synthetic peptides spanning the binding domains were able to inhibit VP28-VP24 interaction, whereas same-size control peptides from non-binging regions did not.

Oncotarget 2015 Mar;6(8):6160-78
Department of Neuroscience, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Regulatory mechanisms underlying constitutive and inducible NFκB activation in cancer remain largely unknown. Here we investigated whether a novel NIK- and IKK2-binding protein (NIBP) is required for maintaining malignancy of cancer cells in an NFκB-dependent manner. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of a human cancer survey tissue-scan cDNA array, immunostaining of a human frozen tumor tissue array and immunoblotting of a high-density reverse-phase cancer protein lysate array showed that NIBP is extensively expressed in most tumor tissues, particularly in breast and colon cancer.Read More

Lentivirus-mediated NIBP shRNA knockdown significantly inhibited the growth/proliferation, invasion/migration, colony formation and xenograft tumorigenesis of breast (MDA-MB-231) or colon (HCT116) cancer cells. NIBP overexpression in HCT116 cells promoted cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. Mechanistically, NIBP knockdown in cancer cells inhibited cytokine-induced activation of NFκB luciferase reporter, thus sensitizing the cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis. Endogenous NIBP bound specifically to the phosphorylated IKK2 in a TNFα-dependent manner. NIBP knockdown transiently attenuated TNFα-stimulated phosphorylation of IKK2/p65 and degradation of IκBα. In contrast, NIBP overexpression enhanced TNFα-induced NFκB activation, thus inhibiting constitutive and TNFα-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our data identified important roles of NIBP in promoting tumorigenesis via NFκΒ signaling, spotlighting NIBP as a promising target in cancer therapeutic intervention.

Immunol. Cell Biol.
Immunol Cell Biol 2015 Mar 3. Epub 2015 Mar 3.
Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Gαq, the α-subunit of Gq protein, is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian cells. It initially attracted attention for its physiological significance in cardiovascular system. In recent years, studies have also indicated the important roles of Gαq in regulating immunity, supplying us a new insight into the mechanism of immune regulation.Read More

T helper type 17 (Th17) cells are potent inducers of tissue inflammation. Many studies have shown that Th17 cells are major effector cells in the pathogenesis of many experimental autoimmune diseases and human inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One of our previous studies has shown that Gαq negatively controls the disease activity of RA. However, how Gαq controls the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease is not clear. Whether this effect is via the regulation of Th17 differentiation is still not known. We aimed to find out the role of Gαq in control of Th17 differentiation. We investigated the relationship between Gαq and Th17 in RA patients. We then investigated the mechanism of how Gαq regulated Th17 differentiation by using Gnaq(-/-) mice. We observed that the expression of Gαq was negatively associated with interleukin-17A expression in RA patients, indicating that Gαq negatively controlled the differentiation of Th17 cells. By using Gnaq(-/-) mice, we demonstrated that Gαq inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cell via regulating the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 to control the expression of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and RORα (RAR-related orphan receptor-α). These data suggest the possibility of targeting Gαq to develop a novel therapeutic regimen for autoimmune disease.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 3 March 2015; doi:10.1038/icb.2015.13.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Mar 2;112(11):E1257-62. Epub 2015 Mar 2.
State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China; Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China;

The development of efficient sequencing techniques has resulted in large numbers of genomes being available for evolutionary studies. However, only one genome is available for all amphibians, that of Xenopus tropicalis, which is distantly related from the majority of frogs. More than 96% of frogs belong to the Neobatrachia, and no genome exists for this group.Read More

This dearth of amphibian genomes greatly restricts genomic studies of amphibians and, more generally, our understanding of tetrapod genome evolution. To fill this gap, we provide the de novo genome of a Tibetan Plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri, and compare it to that of X. tropicalis and other vertebrates. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, a number similar to that of Xenopus. Although the genome size of Nanorana is considerably larger than that of Xenopus (2.3 vs. 1.5 Gb), most of the difference is due to the respective number of transposable elements in the two genomes. The two frogs exhibit considerable conserved whole-genome synteny despite having diverged approximately 266 Ma, indicating a slow rate of DNA structural evolution in anurans. Multigenome synteny blocks further show that amphibians have fewer interchromosomal rearrangements than mammals but have a comparable rate of intrachromosomal rearrangements. Our analysis also identifies 11 Mb of anuran-specific highly conserved elements that will be useful for comparative genomic analyses of frogs. The Nanorana genome offers an improved understanding of evolution of tetrapod genomes and also provides a genomic reference for other evolutionary studies.

Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(4):1487-94
First Department of Medical Oncology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China E-mail :

To investigate the clinical efficacy of expanded activated autologous lymphocytes (EAAL) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
A total of 32 SCLC patients were selected and randomly divided into EAAL treatment and control groups, 16 cases in each. EAAL were obtained by proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients followed by phenotype determination.Read More

Clinical data of all patients were recorded. Patients of both groups were followed up and the overall survival (OS) were compared retrospectively.
After culture and proliferation in vitro, the percentages of CD3+, CD3+CD8+, CD45RO+, CD28+, CD29+, CD8+CD28+ and CD3+CD16+/CD56+ cells increased markedly (p<0.05). The OS of the EAAL treatment group was longer than that of control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.060, HR=0.487, 95%CI 0.228~1.037). 1- to 3-year survival rates in EAAL treatment group were longer than those in control group, but there was still no significant difference (p>0.05). COX multivariate regression analysis showed that the number of chemotherapy cycles and the application of EAAL immunotherapy were independent prognostic factors for SCLC patients. The OS in females and chemotherapy≤6 cycles were obviously prolonged after EAAL immunotherapy.
In vitro induction and proliferation of EAAL is easy and biologically safe. Generally, EAAL adoptive immunotherapy can evidently prolong the OS of SCLC patients.

Oncotarget 2015 Mar;6(8):6001-13
Department of Genetics, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Circular RNAs with exonic sequences represent a special form of non-coding RNAs, discovered by analyzing a handful of transcribed genes. It has been observed that circular RNAs function as microRNA sponges. In the present study, we investigated whether the expression of circular RNAs is altered during the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).Read More

Using a TaqMan-based reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, the relationship between cir-ITCH and ESCC was analyzed in a total of 684 ESCC and paired adjacent non-tumor tissue samples from eastern and southern China. We found that cir-ITCH expression was usually low in ESCC compared to the peritumoral tissue. The functional relevance of cir-ITCH was further examined by biochemical assays. As sponge of miR-7, miR-17, and miR-214, cir-ITCH might increase the level of ITCH. ITCH hyper expression promotes ubiquitination and degradation of phosphorylated Dvl2, thereby inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. These results indicate that cir-ITCH may have an inhibitory effect on ESCC by regulating the Wnt pathway.

Ann Fam Med
Ann Fam Med 2015 Mar;13(2):164-7
General Practice and Primary Care, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Associations of multimorbidity and income with hospital admission were investigated in population samples from 3 widely differing health care systems: Scotland (n = 36,921), China (n = 162,464), and Hong Kong (n = 29,187). Multimorbidity increased odds of admissions in all 3 settings. In Scotland, poorer people were more likely to be admitted (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.Read More

62; 95% CI, 1.41-1.86 for the lowest income group vs the highest), whereas China showed the opposite (aOR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.56-0.60). In Hong Kong, poorer people were more likely to be admitted to public hospitals (aOR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.36-2.07), but less likely to be admitted to private ones (aOR = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.13-0.25). Strategies to improve equitable health care should consider the impact of socioeconomic deprivation on the use of health care resources, particularly among populations with prevalent multimorbidity.

PLoS One 2015 20;10(3):e0118542. Epub 2015 Mar 20.
The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement/Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

The study of genetic diversity between Lathyrus sativus L. and its relative species may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and provide options to meet the challenge of climate changes. 30 SSR loci were employed to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 283 individuals from wild and domesticated populations from Africa, Europe, Asia and ICARDA.Read More

The allele number per loci ranged from 3 to 14. The average gene diversity index and average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.5340 and 0.4817, respectively. A model based population structure analysis divided the germplasm resources into three subgroups: the relative species, the grasspea from Asia, and the grasspea from Europe and Africa. The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA cluster also demonstrated that Asian group was convincingly separated from the other group. The AMOVA result showed that the cultivated species was quite distinct from its relative species, however a low level of differentiation was revealed among their geographic origins. In all, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of L. sativus and its relatives.

Community Ment Health J
Community Ment Health J 2015 Mar 31. Epub 2015 Mar 31.
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA,

This study evaluated internet use among 239 veterans with serious mental illness who completed questionnaires assessing demographics and internet use in 2010-2011. The majority of individuals (70 %) reported having accessed the internet and among those, 79 % had accessed it within the previous 30 days. Those who were younger and more educated were more likely to have accessed the internet, as were those with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder, compared to individuals with PTSD.Read More

Veterans with serious mental illness commonly use the internet, including to obtain health information, though use varies across demographic characteristics and clinical diagnosis.

Eye Contact Lens
Eye Contact Lens 2015 Mar 30. Epub 2015 Mar 30.
Tianjin Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Vision Science (F.L., Z.-X.J., P.H., X.L.), Tianjin Eye Hospital, Tianjin Eye Institute, Tianjin, China; and Medical School of Nankai University (F.L.), Tianjin, China.

To assess the change of central corneal thickness (CCT) in the treatment of orthokeratology in patients with myopia.
A systematic search of all relevant studies published through April 2014 was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of CCT change were calculated. Random or fixed-effects models were used according to heterogeneity.Read More

Publication bias of the articles was evaluated using funnel plots and Begg test.
A total of 10 studies with 239 patients (339 eyes) from clinical studies were included. Central corneal thickness reduced significantly from 1 day to 1 week by 5.73 μm (95% CI, 1.75-9.70 μm; P=0.005), and a significant mean reduction of 5.89 μm also occurred from 1 day to 1 month (95% CI, 3.50-8.29 μm; P<0.001). No significant reduction was found between 1 week and 1 month (P=0.32).
Our meta-analysis demonstrated that most reduction of CCT occurred during the first week and remained thinner for 1 month. Further randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes, standardized outcome measurements, and different follow-up periods are warranted to find the precise change.

Oncotarget 2015 Mar 26. Epub 2015 Mar 26.
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi, China.

Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs10204525, located in the PD1 3' untranslated regions (UTR), is associated with chronic HBV infection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression via specific binding to the target 3'UTR of mRNA.Read More

In this study, three miRNAs were predicted to putatively interact with PD1 rs10204525 polymorphic site of allele G. One of them, miRNA-4717, was demonstrated to allele-specifically affect luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner in cells transfected with vectors containing different rs10204525 alleles. In lymphocytes from chronic HBV patients withrs10204525 genotype GG, miR-4717 mimics significantly decreased PD-1 expression and increased (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ production. miR-4717 inhibitor significantly increased PD-1 expression and decreased TNF-α and IFN-γ production although not significantly. In lymphocytes from from chronic HBV patients with rs10204525 genotype AA, no similar effects were observed. miR-4717 levels in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with HBV-related chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and HCC were significantly decreased. In conclusion, miR-4717 may allele-specifically regulate PD-1 expression through interaction with the 3' UTR of PD1 mRNA, leading to the alteration of immune regulation and affecting the susceptibility and disease course of chronic HBV infection.

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2015 Mar;23(3):171-4
Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.

To study the mechanism underlying the effect of the SOCS3 rs4969170 A/G alleles on the occurrence of insulin resistance (IR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
The promoter region of the SOCS3 gene was amplified by PCR,and luciferase expression vectors were constructed and transfected into HepG2,Huh7 cell lines.The relative luciferase activity of each expression vector was assessed by the dual luciferase reporter gene assay system.Read More

Western blotting was used to detect SOCS3 protein expression in PBMCs from groups of patients with the rs4969170 AA and AG genotypes.The state of IR in eight patients was evaluated by determining their HOMA-IR.
The pGL3-A, PGL3-G and pGL3-control vectors showed significantly different luciferase expression in the HepG2 cells (0.121 00+/-0.022 07,0.027 00+/-0.012 49 and 0.043 33+/-0.005 51; F =48.068, P=0.001) and in the Huh7 cell lines (0.164 70+/-0.007 10,0.027 33+/-0.017 04 and 0.033 67+/-0.014 98; F =115.137, P=0.001). The expression of SOCS3 protein was significantly higher in the rs4969170 AA genotype group than in the AG genotype group (1.22+/-0.40 vs. 0.30+/-0.19; t =4.149, P=0.006).The IR index of patients with the rs4969170 AA genotype and the AG genotype was 4.11 +/-2.62 and 1.47+/- 1.01 respectively.There were three patients with IR in the rs4969170 AA genotype group and one in the rs4969170 AG group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two genotype groups (t=1.881, P=0.109).
The SOCS3 rs4969170 A haplotype may enhance transcriptional activity of the gene promoter to regulate gene expression, thereby increasing intracellular SOCS3 protein level and ultimately interfering with insulin signaling and causing IR in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

Oncol. Rep.
Oncol Rep 2015 Feb 8;33(2):751-7. Epub 2014 Dec 8.
Department of Immunology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116044, P.R. China.

Cisplatin (DDP), a cytotoxic antitumor drug, functions in a dose-dependent manner. However, the pursuit for high‑dose therapeutic effects leads to more serious side effects including kidney toxicity. Nephrotoxicity caused due to endothelial cell dysfunction and neutrophils infiltration in kidneys.Read More

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is an ELR+ chemokine binds with CXCR1/2 receptors and its role is primarily in neutrophils recruitment and also involved in invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of different solid tumors including liver cancer. G31P, a CXCR1/2 antagonist, binds with CXCR1/2 with high affinity, and acts as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor agent. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of G31P and DDP on mouse liver cancer cells, and the effects exerted by G31P on cisplatin-induced renal injury. In vitro, effects of the G31P and DDP regimen on H22 cell proliferation were investigated by MTT assay. In vivo BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with 1x106 H22 cells and treated after one week with a high single dose of DDP with and without G31P on alternative days until the experiment was terminated. On the 15th day the mice were sacrificed, dissected and kidney tissues were analyzed using H&E staining. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was assessed and RT-PCR was performed to detect inflammatory cytokines. Solid tumors were weighed for tumor growth and performed pathological examination, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to detect tissue-related protein expressions in tumor tissue. The tumor inhibitory rate of DDP, G31P and DDP+G31P groups was 38.40, 40.74 and 74.80%, respectively, and the general state of mice in the DDP+G31P group was significantly improved as compared to the DDP group. The results indicated that G31P with DDP significantly inhibited the proliferation while the growth of H22 cell carnimona in vitro and in vivo enhanced the efficacy of cisplatin in cancer treatment with reduced side effects on acute renal failure.

Chemphyschem 2015 Feb 15;16(3):572-8. Epub 2014 Dec 15.
Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (USA).

(3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα couplings are related to the intervening backbone torsion angle ${\varphi }$ by standard Karplus equations. Although these couplings are known to be affected by parameters other than ${\varphi }$, including H-bonding, valence angles and residue type, experimental results and quantum calculations indicate that the impact of these latter parameters is typically very small. The solution NMR structure of protein GB3, newly refined by using extensive sets of residual dipolar couplings, yields 50-60 % better Karplus equation agreement between ${\varphi }$ angles and experimental (3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα values than does the high-resolution X-ray structure.Read More

In intrinsically disordered proteins, (3) JC'C' and (3) JHNHα couplings can be measured at even higher accuracy, and the impact of factors other than the intervening torsion angle on (3) J will be smaller than in folded proteins, making these couplings exceptionally valuable reporters on the ensemble of ${\varphi }$ angles sampled by each residue.

J. Hum. Genet.
J Hum Genet 2015 Feb 18;60(2):85-90. Epub 2014 Dec 18.
1] Centre for Stem cells and Regenerative Medicine, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital/Liaocheng People's Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, China [2] Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital/Liaocheng People's Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, China.

Pathological mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) have been suggested to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) in various ethnic populations. Most studies on Chinese PD patients have only screened the N370S and L444P mutations in the GBA gene. To investigate the GBA mutations in Chinese population, we performed complete sequencing of the GBA gene in 184 Chinese PD patients and 130 Chinese control individuals.Read More

As a result, we identified three novel and nine reported GBA mutations. The novel mutations include 5-bp deletion (c.334_338delCAGAA), L264I and L314V and the nine reported GBA mutations are R163Q, F213I, E326K, S364S, F347L, V375L, L444P, RecNciI and Q497R. The novel 5-bp deletion (CAGAA) produces a short truncated GBA protein of 142 amino acids, which loses major function domains of the 536 amino acids. Our data also reveals that the frequency of GBA mutations within this Chinese PD cohort was 8.7%, which is significantly higher than 1.54% observed in the Chinese control cohort (χ(2) = 7.22, P = 0.0072; odds ratio (OR) = 6.095, 95% confidence interval of OR = 1.546-24.030). The most common L444P mutation accounts 2.74%, which confer more genetic risk for PD in this Chinese population. In conclusion, novel and known GBA mutations were identified and were found to be associated to PD in this Chinese population.

Neurosci. Lett.
Neurosci Lett 2015 Feb 27;588:12-7. Epub 2014 Dec 27.
Department of Ophthalmology at Eye and ENT hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China; Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China; Institute of Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China; State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:

Müller cell gliosis is a general response in a variety of pathological alternations of the retina, which is characterized by the upregulated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the downregulation of membrane K(+) conductance. We have demonstrated that downregulation of Kir K(+) currents in Müller cells in an experimental glaucoma model is due to activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR I) by glutamate, which contributes to Müller cell gliosis. Here, whether and how activation of mGluR I modulate membrane Kir4.Read More

1 protein internalization and Kir4.1 mRNA expression were investigated in purified cultured rat retinal Müller cells using immunocytochemistry, Western blot and real-time PCR techniques. DHPG (10μM, a selective mGluR I agonist) treatment induced Müller cell gliosis, as evidenced by enhanced GFAP expression. Although total Kir4.1 proteins extracted from the DHPG-treated cells kept unchanged, Kir4.1 proteins in the cell membrane compartment were significantly decreased, which was prior to the change of GFAP in time course. In addition, DHPG (10 and 100μM) treatment induced a transient decrease in Kir4.1 mRNA expression in the cells. All these results suggest that activation of mGluR I by DHPG may decrease the number of functional Kir4.1 channels in purified cultured rat retinal Müller cells through modulating Kir4.1 protein and mRNA, thus contributing to Müller cell gliosis.

Neurosci. Lett.
Neurosci Lett 2015 Feb 31;588:88-94. Epub 2014 Dec 31.
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University, 23 Meishuguanhou Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100010, China. Electronic address:

Stroke is the major cause of long-term disability among adults. Recent studies have found that GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission plays a vital role in ameliorate locomotor damage after ischemic injury. Acupuncture has been widely used to improve locomotor function.Read More

However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study is designed to investigate whether GABA and GABA receptors are involved in the mechanism underlying acupuncture treatment in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). One week after acupuncture at JiaJi acupoint, the locomotor function and infarct volumes were tested. Then level of GABA and the expressions of GABAAγ2 and GABABR2 were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Compared with normal group, GABAAγ2 and GABABR2 expressions were decreased in striatum and spinal cord of the MCAO group. After acupuncture, the expressions of the two receptors were increased, but levels of GABA and trafficking protein, kinesin binding 1 (TRAK1), which plays a role in the intracellular transport of GABA receptors, were unchanged. The present study suggests that acupuncture could reverse locomotor function by modulating the expressions of GABA receptors in MCAO rats.

J. Am. Chem. Soc.
J Am Chem Soc 2015 Feb 23;137(4):1432-5. Epub 2015 Jan 23.
Laboratory of Chemical Physics, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520, United States.

Three-bond (3)J(C'C') and (3)J(HNHα) couplings in peptides and proteins are functions of the intervening backbone torsion angle ϕ. In well-ordered regions, (3)J(HNHα) is tightly correlated with (3)J(C'C'), but the presence of large ϕ angle fluctuations differentially affects the two types of couplings. Assuming the ϕ angles follow a Gaussian distribution, the width of this distribution can be extracted from (3)J(C'C') and (3)J(HNHα), as demonstrated for the folded proteins ubiquitin and GB3.Read More

In intrinsically disordered proteins, slow transverse relaxation permits measurement of (3)J(C'C') and (3)J(HNH) couplings at very high precision, and impact of factors other than the intervening torsion angle on (3)J will be minimal, making these couplings exceptionally valuable structural reporters. Analysis of α-synuclein yields rather homogeneous widths of 69 ± 6° for the ϕ angle distributions and (3)J(C'C') values that agree well with those of a recent maximum entropy analysis of chemical shifts, J couplings, and (1)H-(1)H NOEs. Data are consistent with a modest (≤30%) population of the polyproline II region.

Ann Diagn Pathol
Ann Diagn Pathol 2015 Feb 29;19(1):33-6. Epub 2014 Dec 29.
Department of Pathology, Institute of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, No. 12, Jiankangt Road, Shijiazhuang, 050011, PR China. Electronic address:

To investigate the significance between the expression of P27, Fragile Histidine Triad (FHIT), phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), and P73 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 200 cases were obtained from the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University. The sections were used for (HE) and immunohistochemical staining streptavidin-perosidase (SP). The immunologic reagents used included antibodies against P27, FHIT, PTEN, and P73.Read More

From I- to II- and III-graded ESCC, the positive expression of P27 was decreased, but the P73 was increased, showing a ladded change (P < .05). The oncogene and tumor suppressor gene protein expression were related to the differentiation and can be one of the factors of influencing prognosis. The oncogene and tumor suppressor gene protein expression was related to the prognostic factor, and thus, it is valuable for clinical treatment and judging prognosis to detect the expression of P27, FHIT, PTEN, and P73 in ESCC.

Biopolymers 2015 Feb 6. Epub 2015 Feb 6.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721; BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721.

Influenza viruses are the causative agents for seasonal influenza, which results in thousands of deaths and millions of hospitalizations each year. Moreover, sporadic transmission of avian or swan influenza viruses to humans often leads to an influenza pandemic, as there is no preimmunity in the human body to fight against such novel strains. The metastable genome of the influenza viruses, coupled with the reassortment of different strains from a wide range of host origins, leads to the continuous evolution of the influenza virus diversity.Read More

Such characteristics of influenza viruses present a grand challenge in devising therapeutic strategies to combat influenza virus infection. This review summarizes recent progress in designing small molecule inhibitors that target the drug-resistant influenza A virus M2 proton channels and highlights the contribution of mechanistic studies of proton conductance to drug discovery. The lessons learned throughout the course of M2 drug discovery might provide insights for designing inhibitors that target other therapeutically important ion channels. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2015 Feb 11. Epub 2015 Feb 11.
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, PR China.

Diffuse increased F-FDG activity is commonly caused by malignant involvement. We describe here cases of diffuse, uniformly increased F-FDG activity due to nonmalignant illnesses in 2 patients: one had parvovirus B19 infection, whereas the other had porphyria, a heme synthesis disorder.Read More

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2015 Feb;37(1):61-5
Department of Nuclear Medicine, PUMC Hospital, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing 100730, China.

To investigate the changes in thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and its influencing factors in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with positive TgAb (>115 U/ml) after total thyroidectomy and radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy.
We collected the clinical data of 118 DTC patients with positive TgAb and analyzed their TgAb levels before surgery, before ¹³¹I therapy, and after ¹³¹I therapy with a median follow-up of 2.3 months and 5.Read More

2 months. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was applied to analyze the time of TgAb concentration decreased by more than 50% (T₅₀) and its influencing factors.
Compared with the previous TgAb levels, TgAb decreased significantly 2.3 months and 5.2 months after surgery or after ¹³¹I therapy, respectively (both P=0.000). The proportions of patients with TgAb decreased by more than 50% in each stage were 28.6%,33.3%, and 37.2%,respectively. The negative conversion ratios were 23.4%,48.9%, and 62.8%,respectively. MLR showed that only the interval between surgery and ¹³¹I therapy was correlated with T₅₀ (B=1.125, P=0.000).
The TgAb levels in DTC patients remarkably decrease after surgery and after ¹³¹I therapy. The interval between surgery and ¹³¹I therapy remarkably influences the lowering speed of TgAb levels. Prompt application of ¹³¹I therapy after surgery helps to lower TgAb levels.

Chem. Biodivers.
Chem Biodivers 2015 Feb;12(2):194-220
Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 639 Longmian Road, Nanjing 211198, P. R. China, (phone: +86-25-83271423).
Biomed Res Int
Biomed Res Int 2015 22;2015:725913. Epub 2015 Jan 22.
Department of Stomatology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, No. 301, Middle Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072, China.

This study aimed to assess generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain intensity, and anxiety levels and the relationship between the three aspects in healthy young Chinese orthodontic patients in the early stage of orthodontic treatment. We enrolled 252 eligible participants (10-29 years old) to complete validated Chinese versions of questionnaires, including the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (S-AI), the visual analogue scale (VAS), and the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 30 after initial archwire placement (SF-36 only at baseline and day 30). The response rate was 96% (243 of 252).Read More

SF-36 had moderate reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient exceeding 0.7, good fit on day 30). Statistical significant changes were observed in physical function (P < 0.01), body pain (P = 0.01), and general health (P < 0.01) domains. Spearman correlation coefficients for SF-36 with S-AI were -0.131~-0.515 (P < 0.05); SF-36 with VAS were -0.141~-0.273 (P < 0.05), indicating significant but moderate negative correlations between HRQoL and pain/anxiety. Overall, the application of SF-36 in assessing HRQoL is reluctantly suitable for young Chinese orthodontic patients in the early stage of orthodontic treatment. Early treatment-related pain and anxiety are important factors in HRQoL.

Oncotarget 2015 Feb;6(6):4440-50
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061 Shaanxi, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most common and lethal cancers worldwide, especially in China.
We retrospectively analyzed data from patients who were diagnosed and treated HCC between 2002 and 2011 in a large hospital in northwest China and compared the data between periods 2002-2006 (P1) and 2007-2011 (P2).
2045 patients were included in analysis.Read More

The HCC stages at diagnosis according to the Barcelona clinic liver cancer staging system had no significant change. Treatment options of liver transplantation, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and other therapy decreased while percutaneous local ablation and supportive care increased from P1 to P2. Options of surgical resection and systematic therapy had no significant change. Patient survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years significantly improved from P1 to P2. The treatments with increasing option trend had a higher magnitude of survival increase and vise versa.
Over the last 10 years, the patient survival had a significant increase which was mainly a result of the optimal therapeutic selections according to disease stages in this center. However, the proportion of patients diagnosed at early stages of HCC remained low and did not increase, a result calling for implementing surveillance system for at risk patients.

Theranostics 2015 21;5(4):371-7. Epub 2015 Jan 21.
2. Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health (NIBIB), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The kinetic analysis of (11)C-acetate PET provides more information than routine one time-point static imaging. This study aims to investigate the potential of dynamic (11)C-acetate hepatic PET imaging to improve the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and benign liver lesions by using compartmental kinetic modeling and discriminant analysis.
Twenty-two patients were enrolled in this study, 6 cases were with well-differentiated HCCs, 7 with poorly-differentiated HCCs and 9 with benign pathologies.Read More

Following the CT scan, all patients underwent (11)C-acetate dynamic PET imaging. A three-compartment irreversible dual-input model was applied to the lesion time activity curves (TACs) to estimate the kinetic rate constants K1-k3, vascular fraction (VB) and the coefficient α representing the relative hepatic artery (HA) contribution to the hepatic blood supply on lesions and non-lesion liver tissue. The parameter Ki (=K1×k3/(k2 + k3)) was calculated to evaluate the local hepatic metabolic rate of acetate (LHMAct). The lesions were further classified by discriminant analysis with all the above parameters.
K1 and lesion to non-lesion standardized uptake value (SUV) ratio (T/L) were found to be the parameters best characterizing the differences among well-differentiated HCC, poorly-differentiated HCC and benign lesions in stepwise discriminant analysis. With discriminant functions consisting of these two parameters, the accuracy of lesion prediction was 87.5% for well-differentiated HCC, 50% for poorly-differentiated HCC and 66.7% for benign lesions. The classification was much better than that with SUV and T/L, where the corresponding classification accuracy of the three kinds of lesions was 57.1%, 33.3% and 44.4%.
(11)C-acetate kinetic parameter K1 could improve the identification of HCC from benign lesions in combination with T/L in discriminant analysis. The discriminant analysis using static and kinetic parameters appears to be a very helpful method for clinical liver masses diagnosis and staging.

Biomed. Environ. Sci.
Biomed Environ Sci 2015 Feb;28(2):152-6
Science and Technology Department, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

This study aimed to learn the recurrence rate in the retreatment TB patients with sputum smear and/or culture positive (ss+ and/or c+) two years after they were declared cured, and to explore causes of recurrence in order to improve long-time treatment outcome. 5 cities were selected as research locations. Recurrence of TB was judged by chest X-ray examination together with sputum smear and culture examination.Read More

Questionnaire was carried out to collect data on treatment history, demographics and possible risk factors. Chi-square test and logistic regression were conducted using SPSS in this study. As the result, 99 active TB patients were identified and the recurrence rate was 16.67% and irregular medicine and smoking were the causes of the recurrence. The retreatment TB patients with sputum smear and/or culture positive in this study had higher recurrence rate and health education work on regular medication and smoking should be strengthened.

World J. Gastroenterol.
World J Gastroenterol 2015 Feb;21(7):2058-66
Qin He, Jin-Ke Li, Fang Li, Ru-Gui Li, Guo-Qing Zhan, Gang Li, Wei-Xing Du, Hua-Bing Tan, Department of Infectious Diseases and Lab of Liver Disease, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, Hubei Province, China.

To explore the mechanism of action of gypenosides (GPs) on type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (T2DM-NAFLD) in rats.
Sixty rats were randomly divided into a healthy group, an untreated disease model group and GP-treatment groups. The study involved the evaluation of biochemical parameters, including serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), blood glucose (BG), triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC).Read More

Additionally, the protective effect of the treatments were confirmed histopathologically and the expression of TNF-α and NF-κB in the rat liver was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 1A1 mRNA was determined by quantitative RT-PCR.
GP treatments at oral doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg per day significantly decreased the levels of serum AST and ALT (P<0.05, P<0.01), especially at the dose of 800 mg/kg per day. To a similar extent, GP at 800 mg/kg per day reduced the levels of BG (4.19±0.47, P<0.01), TG (80.08±10.05, P<0.01), TC (134.38±16.39, P<0.01) and serum insulin (42.01±5.04, P<0.01). The expression of TNF-α and NF-κB measured by immunohistochemistry was significantly reduced by GPs in a dose-dependent manner, and the expression of PPARγ and CYP4501A1 mRNA, as measured using quantitative real-time PCR, were significantly down-regulated by GPs. Moreover, GPs decreased the infiltration of liver fats and reversed the histopathological changes in a dose-dependent manner.
This study suggests that GPs have a protective effect against T2DM-NAFLD by down-regulating the expression of TNF-α and NF-κB proteins, and PPARγ and CYP4501A1 mRNAs.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2015 Feb 25. Epub 2015 Feb 25.
Institute of Developmental Biology, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Stress, either physical or psychological, can have a dramatic impact on our immune system. There has been little progress, however, in understanding chronic stress-induced immunosuppression. Naive CD4+ T cells could modulate immune responses via differentiation to T helper (Th) cells.Read More

In this study, we showed that stress promotes the release of the Th1 cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 and the Th17 cytokine IL-17 of splenic naive CD4+ T cells. This suggests that stress promotes the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells to Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells. Knockout strategies verified that TLR2 might modulate the differentiation of Th1/Th2 cells by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Taken together, our data suggest that chronic stress induces immune suppression by targeting TLR2 and p38 MAPK in naive CD4+ T cells. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Entangled state of light is one of the essential quantum resources in quantum information science and technology. Especially, when the fundamental principle experiments have been achieved in labs and the applications of continuous variable quantum information in the real world are considered, it is crucial to design and construct the generation devices of entangled states with high entanglement and compact configuration. We have designed and built an efficient and compact light source of entangled state, which is a non-degenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) with the triple resonance of the pump and two subharmonic modes.Read More

A wedged type-II KTP crystal inside the NOPA is used for implementing frequency-down-conversion of the pump field to generate the optical entangled state and achieving the dispersion compensation between the pump and the subharmonic waves. The EPR entangled state of light with quantum correlations of 8.4 dB for both amplitude and phase quadratures are experimentally produced by a single NOPA under the pump power of 75 mW.

To observe effect of Liuweibuqi Capsule, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rat model with lung deficiency in terms of TCM's pattern differentiation.
Rats were randomly divided into a normal group, model group, Liuweibuqi group, Jinshuibao group, and spleen aminopeptidase group (n=10). Aside from the normal group, all rats were exposed to smoke plus lipopolysaccharide tracheal instillation to establish the COPD model with lung deficiency.Read More

Models were established after 28 days and then the normal and model groups were given normal saline (0.09 g/kg), Liuweibuqi group was given Liuweibuqi capsule (0.35 g/kg), Jinshuibao group was given Jinshuibao capsules (0.495 g/kg), and the spleen group was given spleen aminopeptidase (0.33 mg/kg), once a day for 30 days. Changes in symptoms, signs, and lung histology were observed. Lung function was measured with a spirometer. Serum cytokines were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and changes in the JAK/STAT pathway, MMP-9, and MMPs inhibitor 1 (TIMP1) were detected by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and western blotting, respectively.
Compared with the normal group, lung tissue was damaged, and lung function was reduced in the model control group. Additionally, the levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and IL-6 were higher, while IL-4 and IL-10 were lower in the model control group than those in the normal group. The expressions of JAK1, STAT3, p-STAT3, and MMP-9 mRNA and protein in lung tissue were higher, and TIMP1 mRNA and protein was lower in the model group compared with the normal group. After treatment, compared with the model group, the expression of inflammatory cytokines was lower in each treatment group, and expressions of JAK/STAT pathway, MMPs were lower. Compared with the positive control groups, the Jinshuibao and spleen aminopeptidase groups, lung function was better, and JAK1, STAT3, and p-STAT3 protein were lower and TIMP1 was higher in the Liuweibuqi group.
Liuweibuqi capsules can improve the symptoms of COPD possibly by regulating the expression of the JAK1/STAT3 pathway and MMP9/TIMP1.

In recent years, the technology of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy has been developed rapidly. As one kind of new material composition detection technology, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can simultaneously detect multi elements fast and simply without any complex sample preparation and realize field, in-situ material composition detection of the sample to be tested. This kind of technology is very promising in many fields.Read More

It is very important to separate, fit and extract spectral feature lines in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, which is the cornerstone of spectral feature recognition and subsequent elements concentrations inversion research. In order to realize effective separation, fitting and extraction of spectral feature lines in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, the original parameters for spectral lines fitting before iteration were analyzed and determined. The spectral feature line of' chromium (Cr I : 427.480 nm) in fly ash gathered from a coal-fired power station, which was overlapped with another line(FeI: 427.176 nm), was separated from the other one and extracted by using damped least squares method. Based on Gauss-Newton iteration, damped least squares method adds damping factor to step and adjust step length dynamically according to the feedback information after each iteration, in order to prevent the iteration from diverging and make sure that the iteration could converge fast. Damped least squares method helps to obtain better results of separating, fitting and extracting spectral feature lines and give more accurate intensity values of these spectral feature lines: The spectral feature lines of chromium in samples which contain different concentrations of chromium were separated and extracted. And then, the intensity values of corresponding spectral lines were given by using damped least squares method and least squares method separately. The calibration curves were plotted, which showed the relationship between spectral line intensity values and chromium concentrations in different samples. And then their respective linear correlations were compared. The experimental results showed that the linear correlation of the intensity values of spectral feature lines and the concentrations of chromium in different samples, which was obtained by damped least squares method, was better than that one obtained by least squares method. And therefore, damped least squares method was stable, reliable and suitable for separating, fitting and extracting spectral feature lines in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015 Jan 18;56(1):207-15. Epub 2014 Dec 18.
Department of Pediatrics, Penn State Hershey Eye Center, Penn State Hershey College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States Department of Pediatrics, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts, United States.

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 is a potent endothelial cell mitogen and survival factor that is postulated to participate in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The purpose of the current study was to determine the transcriptional and translational regulation of FGF2 expression in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), the animal model of ROP.
We examined FGF2 protein and mRNA expression and optokinetic visual responses in transgenic mice possessing a dual-luciferase bicistronic transgene containing a 5'-internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of FGF2.Read More

We found that retinal FGF2 protein isoform expression varies with age but not in response to OIR. Analysis of luciferase, protein, and mRNA data indicate that FGF2 protein expression is translationally repressed during the vaso-obliterative phase of OIR, possibly by inhibiting elongation. At the transition from vaso-obliteration to neovascularization, heightened FGF2 protein expression corresponds to maintenance of IRES activity and diminished cap-dependent translational activity. During neovascularization, FGF2 expression is primarily regulated by transcription. Mice recovering from OIR display alterations in visual optokinetic responses and increased FGF2 protein expression at 6 weeks of age.
In total, these findings illustrate the complexity of translational and transcriptional regulation of FGF2 protein expression in OIR. The augmentation of FGF2 expression and reduced optokinetic responses during the resolution of surface vasculopathy may indicate a role for FGF2 in the maintenance of neuroretinal function in OIR/ROP.

J Food Sci Technol
J Food Sci Technol 2015 Jan 8;52(1):267-75. Epub 2013 May 8.
College of Life Science, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, 712100 Shaanxi China.

The effect of the ethylene receptor competitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and the legally approved disinfectant chlorine dioxide (ClO2) on preservation of the green walnut fruit during storage was investigated. Green Chinese walnut fruit cv. Xilin No.Read More

2 was harvested on commercial maturity and stored at 0-1 °C after the fruit was treated by water (control), 80 mg L(-1)ClO2 (ClO2), 0.5 μL L(-1)1-MCP (1-MCP), or combination treatment of 80 mg L(-1) ClO2 with either 0.1 μL L(-1) 1-MCP (0.1 1-MCP+ ClO2) or 0.5 μL L(-1) 1-MCP (0.5 1-MCP+ ClO2). During storage, respiration, ethylene production, phenolics content, antioxidative activity, weight changes, decay of the fruit and kernel traits of acid value, peroxide value,free fatty were measured. All treatments decreased postharvest respiration intensity in different degrees and inhibited ethylene production peak. ClO2 increased the total phenol and flavonoid content of the green fruit compared with other treatments and the control (P < 0.05), but not did the total antioxidant activity for this treatment. After 42-day storage, ClO2 remained higher fresh weight and lower decay index than control, while 1-MCP increased the fruit decay index. Final acid values of kernel from ClO2, control and 0.1 1-MCP+ ClO2 were not different from their initial values, which from 0.5 1-MCP increased. Final peroxide value for kernel from ClO2 showed no change during storage but increased at least 1.0-fold for other treatments. ClO2 preserved 99.9 % of initial free fatty acid, similar to that for the control (99.8 %), whereas 0.5 1-MCP preserved only 95.7 %. ClO2 is of potential in decay retardation and kernel traits maintenance of green walnut fruit, whereas the 1-MCP has a negative effect for decay control on walnut.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2015 Jan;40(1):1-5
Department of Cardiology, First Affi liated Hospital of South China University, Hengyang Hunan 421001, China.

To explore the eff ect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on protein kinase C α (PKCα) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats.
Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group, diabetes group (STZ group), the H2S intervention group (STZ+H2S group) and the normal rats plus H2S group (the H2S group). Diabetic rats were induced by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ).Read More

The pathological morphological changes in myocardial fiber was analyzed by HE staining. The expression of PKCα, HSP70 and type III collagen were analyzed by Western blot.
Compared with the control group, the expressions of PKCα, HSP70 and type III collagen in diabetic rats were significantly increased (P<0.05), accompanied by the disordered arrangement of myocardial cells, which were dramatically reversed by H2S treatment (P<0.05).
H2S could reduce myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats, which is related to the inhibition of PKCα and HSP70 expression.

Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit is a long sought-after goal in various imaging applications, which requires usually mechanical scanning or an array of antennas. Here, we propose to solve this challenging problem using a single sensor in combination with a spatio-temporal resonant aperture antenna. We theoretically and numerically demonstrate that such resonant aperture antenna is capable of converting part evanescent waves into propagating waves and delivering them to far fields.Read More

The proposed imaging concept provides the unique ability to achieve super resolution for real-time data when illuminated by broadband electromagnetic waves, without the harsh requirements such as near- field scanning, mechanical scanning, or antenna arrays. We expect the imaging methodology to make breakthroughs in super-resolution imaging in microwave, terahertz, optical, and ultrasound regimes.

Asian Pac J Trop Med
Asian Pac J Trop Med 2015 Jan;8(1):60-3
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Basic Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650500, China. Electronic address:

To explore the effects of gentiana scabra bage on the expression of hepatic collagen proteins in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis.
Immunohistochemical technique was used to observe the changes of content of hepatic type I, III collagen proteins in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis before and after the gentiana scabra bage treatmeat.
Comparing with the model group, changes of hepatic type I and type III collagen proteins in gentiana scabra bage treated group were significantly weakened.Read More

Gentiana scabra bage treatment can reduce the content of hepatic type III and type I collagen protein significantly in Paragonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis, thereby, playing the role against hepatic fibrosis.

The standard addition method with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to analyze an unknown sample taken from a lead battery factory. the matrix influence on the results was effectively avoided when the external or internal standard method was used, and the pretreatment of samples was simple and quick. The Nd ' YAG pulse laser with wavelength 1 064 nm was used as the excitation source.Read More

The echelle spectroscopy with high resolution and wide spectral range was used as the spectral separation device, and the intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) as the spectral detection device in the experiment. The characteristic line at 405. 78 nrn was chosen as the analysis line to measure Pb concentration. Fe I : 404. 58 line was chosen as the internal standard. Pre-experiment was carried out to confirm the appropriate condition. Under the laser energy of 128. 5 mJ, the delay time of 2. 5 tps, and the gate width of 3 ps, it was determined that with the addition of Pb to the sample in the range of 0 and 25 000 mg . kg-1, there wasn't self-absorption. There was a good linear relationship between the intensity of the spectral line of 405. 78 nm and the addition of Pb. The appropriate concentration of Pb added into the sample for analysis was determined by this series of samples. On this basis, four samples were prepared with three parallel samples for each sample in order to verify the repeatability and reliability of the method, i. e. 5 000, 10 000, 15 000, 20 000 mg . kg-1 Pb was added into the original sample. The results were compared with the result of ICP-MS. The twelve samples' relative errors were between -24. 6% and 17. 6%. The average result was 43 069 mg . kg-1 with the relative error -2. 44%.

Front Microbiol
Front Microbiol 2014 26;5:635. Epub 2014 Nov 26.
Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Chinese and Western Integrative Medicine, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine Hefei, China.

Quorum sensing (QS) is a means of cell-to-cell communication that uses diffusible signaling molecules that are sensed by the population to determine population density, thus allowing co-ordinate gene regulation in response to population density. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, production of the QS signaling molecule, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), co-ordinates expression of key factors of pathogenesis, including biofilm formation and toxin secretion. It is predicted that the inhibition of AHL sensing would provide an effective clinical treatment to reduce the expression of virulence factors and increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.Read More

We previously demonstrated that sodium houttuyfonate (SH), commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases, can effectively inhibit QS-regulated processes, including biofilm formation. Here, using a model system, we demonstrate that SH causes the dose-dependent inhibition of AHL production, through down-regulation of the AHL biosynthesis gene, lasI. Addition of SH also resulted in down-regulation of expression of the AHL sensor and transcriptional regulator, LasR, and inhibited the production of the QS-regulated virulence factors, pyocyanin and LasA. These results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of SH may be due to its ability to disrupt QS in P. aeruginosa.

Clin. Exp. Med.
Clin Exp Med 2014 Dec 17. Epub 2014 Dec 17.
Department of Dermatology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, NO. 28, Fuxing Road, Beijing, 100853, China.

This study is to evaluate the association between p73 G4C14-A4T14 polymorphism and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) risk in diverse populations. We searched the PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Chinese Biomedicine databases for all articles on the association between p73 G4C14-A4T14 polymorphism and SCC risk through March 2014. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of six case-control studies that included 1,758 SCC cases and 2,970 case-free controls.Read More

All analyses were performed using STATA 11.0, using two-sided P values. Overall, this meta-analysis showed that the p73 G4C14-A4T14 polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of SCC in three genetic models. However, after excluding one study deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the results then demonstrated that the p73 G4C14-A4T14 polymorphism was only associated with elevated risk of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (for AT/GC vs GC/GC: OR 1.51, 95 % CI 1.14-2.00, P heterogeneity = 0.996; for AT/AT+AT/GC vs GC/GC: OR 1.42, 95 % CI 1.08-1.87, P heterogeneity = 0.994) in subgroup analysis by tumor sites. No publication bias was found in the present study. This meta-analysis suggests that the p73 G4C14-A4T14 polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association.

Community Ment Health J
Community Ment Health J 2014 Dec 23. Epub 2014 Dec 23.
Department of Psychiatry, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3535 Market Street, 2nd Floor, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF).Read More

Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family.

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2014 Dec;34(12):1721-7
Deptartment of Respiratory Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China.E-mail:

To establish a canine cell line with p53 gene knockdown by lentivirus- mediated RNA interference (RNAi).
Four pairs of oligonucleotide sequences of p53 gene were synthesized and cloned into the pGMLV-SC5 RNAi vector. Following confirmation by PCR and DNA sequencing, the recombinant pGMLV-p53 plasmids and packaging mix vectors were packaged into mature lentivirus to infect 293T cells.Read More

The supernatant of the infected cells was harvested to infect WRD cells, in which p53 expression was detected using Western blotting and real-time PCR. The lentivirus with the strongest p53⁻ silencing effect was packaged for infecting WRD cells at the optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) to establish a stably infected cell line (WRD/p53⁻) screened using puromycin.
The lentivirus carrying p53 shRNA was constructed successfully and a virus titer of 1 × 10⁹ TU/ml. The 4 pGMLV-p53 plasmids all produced strong p53 interference affects, and pGMLV- p53A1 with the strongest effect. The stably infected cells line WRD/p53⁻ was established successfully using pGMLV-p53A1 plasmid.
The canine cell line WRD/p53⁻ with stable lentivirus-mediated p53 silencing has been established successfully.

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2014 Dec;32(12):903-8
Library of Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China. E-mail:

To investigate the distribution of authors, funding, institutions, and regions in Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases between 2006 and 2013, to understand the types and characteristics of cooperation, and to identify the core authors, core institutions, and core regions.
Based on the Chinese Science Citation Database, the data on the journal were analyzed by bibliometric methods, including the number of papers, cooperation, core authors, regional distribution of authors, systematic distribution of authors, productive institutions, and funding sources and distribution.
Within the eight years, there were 2488 papers published in the journal, and 1363 authors published only one paper in the journal, accounting for 76.Read More

57%of the number of first authors. A total of 2304 (92.60%) out of 2488 papers were published by co-authors and the degree of cooperation was 4.64. One hundred and eighty-four papers (7.40%) were published by only one author. There were 64 (3.60%) core authors who published 324 papers (13.02%). Nine hundred and sixty-eight papers (38.91%) were published by research institutes, 825 papers (33.16%) by universities, and 272 papers (10.93%) by affiliated hospitals of medical universities. There were 19 productive institutions publishing 838 papers (33.68%), in which Beijing ranked first with 300 papers (12.06%).
The journal has a large number of authors, extensive institutions, a wide regional distribution, a high cooperation rate, and a strong ability to attract funded papers. Research institutes and universities are the main sources of papers in the journal.

To study changes in the nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65)-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway and the effects of Xinfeng capsules (XFC) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).
One hundred twenty patients with AS were randomly divided into an XFC group and a Salazopyrin group. Sixty health subjects were included as a normal control group.Read More

In the two treatment groups, pulmonary functional parameters, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 25% of forced vital capacity (FEF25), forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (FEF50), and forced expiratory flow at 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF75) were determined. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were used for detection of the serum oxidative stress indexes, NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidative capacity (TAOC) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-10, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents. Westergren's method was used for determination of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) was detected with a 7060 full-automatic biochemical analyzer (Hitachi, Japan).
The clinical therapeutic effect in the XFC group was significantly superior to that in the Salazopyrin group (P < 0.01). Compared with the normal control group, FEV1, MVV, PEF, FEF50, FEF75, SOD, CAT, TAOC, IL-4, IL-10 were significantly lower, and NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, ROS, RNS, MDA, IL-1β, TNF-α, ESR, and Hs-CRP significantly higher in patients with AS (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Compared with before treatment, FEV1, MVV, PEF, FEF50, FEF75, SOD, CAT, TAOC, IL-4, and IL-10 were significantly increased, and NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, ROS, RNS, MDA, IL-1β, TNF-α, ESR, CRP, visual analog scales (VAS), Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease active index, Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index, and Bath ankylosing spondylitis global index significantly decreased in the two treatment groups after treatment (P <. 0.01 or P < 0.05), with significant differences between the XFC and Salazopyrin groups (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Spearman correlation analysis indicated that FEV1, MWVV, PEF, FEF50, and FEF75 were positively correlated with SOD, CAT, TAOC, IL-4, and IL-10, and were negatively correlated with NF-κB p65, iNOS, NO, ROS, RNS, MDA, IL-13, TNF-α, ESR, and CRP.
Patients with AS have local pathologic changes in the spinal cord and other joints. They also have decreased pulmonary function, which is negatively correlated with the NF-κB-iNOS-NO signaling pathway, oxidative indexes, and inflammatory factors. XFC improves rigidity and pain in spinal joints and other symptoms, laboratory indexes, and pulmonary function. The mechanism is possibly related to inhibition of the NF-KB-iNOS-NO signaling pathway.

To evaluate the association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and breast cancer incidence among the non-diabetic females in a large-scale cohort study in Kailuan group.
The Kailuan cohort was established on May 1, 2006. Baseline information on demography, lifestyle, medical history, and anthropometry, i.Read More

e., body height and weight, were collected during the baseline interview, and breast cancer incidence, mortality and other related outcome information were obtained by follow-up every two years and the related health condition database information were collected every year. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95%CI (confidence interval) between the level of hsCRP at baseline interview and breast cancer incidence adjusted for age group, body mass index (BMI), marital status (married and single) and tobacco smoking (smokers and non-smokers) when appropriate.
By Dec 31, 2011, a total of 17 402 females were enrolled in the cohort. There were 85 286 person-years of follow-up with a mean follow-up period of (58.81 ± 4.52) months. A total of 75 incident breast cancer cases were collected. Subjects with the highest level (>3 mg/L) of hsCRP at baseline interview were associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted HR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.03-3.15) compared with those with the lowest level (<1 mg/L).
Elevated levels of hsCRP at baseline interview may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-diabetic females. Further follow-up and etiological exploration will help to evaluate the association between the hsCRP level and the risk of breast cancer more reliably.

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2014 Nov;45(6):941-5
Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

To determine T box expressed in T cells (T bet), GATA binding protein-3 (GATA 3), and retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor gammat (RORgammat) in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Thirty rats were randomly divided into a control and a COPD group. The COPD model was established through smoking and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tracheal instillation.Read More

Pulmonary function of the rats was measured 28 d after the establishment of the COPD model by a spirometer. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect serum γ interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17. The expressions of T-bet, GATA-3, and RORgammat protein in lung tissues were determined by Western blot.
Compared with the controls, the COPD rats had decreased pulmonary function and expression of serum IL-4, and increased INF-γ, IL- 17, Th1/Th2, T-bet, T bet /GATA-3, and RORgammat protein (P<0. 05). Forced expiratory volume in 0. 3 seconds (FEV 0.3) was negatively correlated with INF γ and T-bet/GATA-3. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was positively correlated with IL 4. FEV0.3/FVC was negatively correlated with Thl/Th2, T-bet and T-bet/GATA-3. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was negatively correlated with IL-17, T bet, and RORgammat (P<0. 05). Thl/Th2 was positively correlated with T bet/GATA-3. IL-17 was positively correlated with RORgammat. T bet/GATA-3 was positively correlated with RORgammat (P<0. 05).
Imbalanced regulation of T bet / GATA 3 and RORgammat on Th1/Th2 and Th17 cells is associated with the occurrence of COPD.

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Nov;49(11):688-92

To compare the distribution and concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, 2, 3, 8, 9 in human coronal dentin.
The localization of five types of MMP was performed using immunohistochemistry. Molars were demineralized and sectioned into 5 µm thick specimens.Read More

All specimens were randomly divided into five groups according to the antibodies. Each group contained two subgroups (n = 6). Immunoreactivity of each subgroup was visualized with 3, 3-diaminobenzidine solution or fluorescein isothiocyanate and observed under microscopy respectively. Molars were sectioned into slices. The slices were divided into two groups according to superficial or deep dentin and pulverized to fine powder. After dentin protein was extracted, the concentrations of MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9 were detected by using fluorescent microsphere immunoassay.
Immunohistochemical staining revealed that MMP-1, 2, 3, 8, 9 were highly concentrated in the deep dentin. However, intense immunoreactivities of MMP-2, 8, 9 were identified in a 6-10 µm wide zone adjacent to the dentino-enamel junction. The content of MMP-1 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.037±0.025) and (0.433±0.089) ng/mg. The content of MMP-2 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.445±0.115) and (2.730±0.712) ng/mg. The content of MMP-3 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.071±0.069) and (0.460±0.108) ng/mg. The content of MMP-8 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.586±0.246) and (6.159±0.948) ng/mg. The content of MMP-9 in superficial layer and deep layer of dentin were (0.384±0.185) and (1.460±0.251) ng/mg. The concentrations of all tested MMP were significantly higher in deep dentin than those in superficial dentin (P < 0.05).
There are five types of MMP contained in human coronal dentin, and the distribution of MMP shows a decreasing trend from the deep dentin to the superficial dentin.

To obtain a new homoserine dehydrogenase with better properties from Corynebacterium pekinense by the spatial structure transfromation.
Double mutants L200F/D215A, L200F/D215E, L200F/D215G and L200F/D215K were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and expressed in E. coli BL21.Read More

L200F/D215K was characterized for its highest catalytic efficiency and compared with that of L200F.
The Vmax of L200F/D215K was 36.92 U/mg, 1.24 times as that of L200F. The optimum reaction temperature of L200F/D215K was 37 degrees C, 2 degrees C higher than that of L200F. The optimum pH of L200F/D215K was 7.5, the same as that of L200F. The half-life time of L200F/D215K under optimum temperature was 4.16 h and was 1.12 times as that of L200F. Both L200F/D215K and L200F had good resistance to organic solvents and metal ions.
Through the spatial structure transformation, the enzymatic activity was increased, and the enzymology properties was optimized.

To compare therapeutic effects between unilateral decompression technique only and open decompression technique with fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis.
From March 2008 to February 2011, 82 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis were treated with operations, and divided into two groups. There were 13 males and 19 females in group A, with a mean age of (56.Read More

31±4.31) years old. The patients in group A were treated with unilateral decompression via fenestration technique only, including 23 patients obtaining single level decompression and 9 patients obtaining two levels decompression. In group B, there were 18 males and 32 females, with a mean age of (57.53±4.28) years old. The patients in group B were treated with open decompressive technique with fusion and internal fixation, including 38 patients obtaining single level decompression and 12 patients obtaining two levels decompression. The VAS of back pain and leg pain, ODI were recorded before and after surgery to evaluate low back pain,leg pain and walking tolerance.
All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 10.9 to 43.4 months,with a mean of 32.8 months. There were no differences in age, stenosis level, VAS of back and leg pain and ODI before surgery between two groups. Compared with the corresponding ones in group B, the operation time, blood loss, hospitalization time,recovery time of routine daily life and finacial expenditure of patients were all shorter or less in group A. There was no statistically difference in complications between two groups.
"Unilateral decompression via fenestration technique" is a less invasive and more effective decompressive technique for degenerative spinal stenosis without posterior elements damage. It has advantages in operation time, blood loss, hospitalization time, recovery to daily life and financial expenditure. When controlling the operative indications strictly, the technique could be an important procedure for surgical treatment of degenerative spinal stenosis, especially in the elderly population.

J Transl Med
J Transl Med 2014 12;12(1):351. Epub 2014 Dec 12.
Acupuncture and Tuina School, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Acupuncture has analgesic effect to most pain conditions. Many neuroimaging studies were conducted to explore acupoint specificity in pain and other condition, but till now there is still discrepancy. Based on our previous finding, this study investigated the brain metabolism changes of acupuncture analgesia induced by sub-specific acupoint and non-acupoint stimulation.Read More

30 migraineurs were included and randomly assigned to 3 groups: Acupuncture Group (AG), Sham Acupuncture Group (SAG) and Migraine Group (MG). In AG, a combination sub-specific points of Shaoyang meridians, Luxi (TE19), San Yangluo (TE8), and Xi Yangguan(GB33) has been stimulated with electroacupuncture, while non-acupoints for SAG were used and MG received no treatment. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET-CT) was used to identify differences in brain glucose metabolism between groups.
In the AG, brain glucose metabolism increase compared with the MG was observed in the middle frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, the precuneus, parahippocampus, cerebellum and middle cingulate cortex (MCC), and decrease were observed in the left hemisphere of Middle Temporal Cortex (MTC).In the SAG, compared with MG, glucose metabolism increased in the poster cingulate cortex (PCC), insula, inferior temporal gyrus, MTC, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, fusiform, inferior parietal lobe, superior parietal lobe, supramarginal gyrus, middle occipital lobe, angular and precuneus; while, decreased in cerebellum, parahippocampus.
Acupuncture stimulation at both sub-specific acupoint and non-acupoint yields ameliorating effect to migraine pain, but with evidently differed central mechanism as measured by PET-CT. The pattern of brain glucose metabolism change in acupoint is pertinent and targeted, while in non-acupoint that was disordered and randomized. These finding may provide new perspectives into the validation of acupoint specificity, optimizing acupuncture analgesia and revealing central mechanism of acupuncture analgesia by neuroimaging measurement.
This trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, with registration no. ChiCTR-TRC-11001813 .

Int J Clin Exp Med
Int J Clin Exp Med 2014 15;7(12):4967-74. Epub 2014 Dec 15.
Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital Beijing 100029, China.

The aims of this study was to assessed the ability of a combination treatment of bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) and atorvastatin in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI) as an appropriate substitute for current SCI treatments. In the present study, the female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 20) after SCI by New York University Device: SCI, sham, atorvastatin, graft BMSC and graft BMSC plus atorvastatin. Locomotion was assessed using Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) test and walking test after SCI.Read More

In addition, microvessel density (MVD) was calculated by immunohistochemistry after SCI. We also investigate the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression level by western blot after drug treatment. The results showed that BBB scores and walking test were increased in atorvastatin plus BMSC group compared to single atorvastatin and BMSC groups (P < 0.05). In addition, MVD also significantly increased in combination group compared to single treatment group. Compared to sole drug, VEGF and BDNF expression were significantly up-regulated in atorvastatin combination with BMSC group (P < 0.05). These results imply that the combined use of atorvastatin and BMSC treatment may represent a promising strategy for clinically applicable pharmacological therapy for initiation of neuroprotection after SCI.

Biomed Res Int
Biomed Res Int 2014 15;2014:320828. Epub 2014 Dec 15.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The General Hospital of Beijing Military Area Command, No. 5 Nanmencang Road, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100700, China.

Several studies report that the OPG is an important candidate gene in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. This study aimed to detect the potential association of OPG gene polymorphisms with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. We recruited 928 subjects containing 463 with primary postmenopausal osteoporosis and 465 healthy volunteers as controls.Read More

The BMD of neck hip, lumbar spine (L(2-4)), and total hip were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Through the created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and DNA sequencing methods, the g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A have been investigated. As for g.18873C>T, our data indicated that subjects with CC genotype have significantly higher BMD value than those of CT and TT genotypes (all P values < 0.05). As for g.27522G>A, the BMD values of subjects with GG genotype were significantly higher than those of GA and AA genotypes (all P values < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the OPG g.18873C>T and g.27522G>A genetic polymorphisms are associated with the decreased risk for osteoporosis in Chinese postmenopausal women.