Fang Li - Capital Medical University

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Fang Li
Capital Medical University

Publications Authored By Fang Li

Mycopathologia 2014 Oct 9;178(3-4):163-76. Epub 2014 Aug 9.
Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100020, China.

One hundred isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus sensu lato mainly from China, as well as from Australia, France, India, Indonesia, Ireland, UK, and USA were analyzed to infer their sequence types (STs) and population diversity based on partial calmodulin, calcineurin regulatory subunit B, beta-tubulin, cytochrome C and calcineurin catalytic subunit A genes as well as their mating types, using ClonalFrame, Structure and MEGA software. Our results inferred 48 STs and showed that most of the STs or lineages evolved independently and without clear population structure among them. Whereas one lineage was recognized that could be a true population and in which one clade might diverge into another distinct lineage, namely, a cryptic species, A.Read More

neoellipticus. In addition, we found that mutation, parasexual, and sexual recombination could, respectively, play specific roles in the evolution of these fungi. Our results also showed that MAT1-1/MAT1-2 mating type ratios of A. fumigatus sensu lato was biased to nearly 1:1.4 (20/28) when clone-corrected, but when not clone-corrected, the ratio of MAT1-1/MAT1-2 was so biased as near 1:2 (35/65), which might mean that isolates with MAT1-2 are in the process of losing sexual ability preceding those with MAT1-1.

IEEE Trans Image Process
IEEE Trans Image Process 2014 Oct 7;23(10):4242-54. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

In this paper, we extend an existing universal variational framework for image inpainting with new numerical algorithms. Given certain regularization operator Φ and denoting u the latent image, the basic model is to minimize the lp,(p=0,1) norm of Φu preserving the pixel values outside the inpainting region. Utilizing the operator splitting technique, the original problem can be approximated by a new problem with extra variable.Read More

With the alternating minimization method, the new problem can be decomposed as two subproblems with exact solutions. There are many choices for Φ in our approach such as gradient operator, wavelet transform, framelet transform, or other tight frames. Moreover, with slight modification, we can decouple our framework into two relatively independent parts: 1) denoising and 2) linear combination. Therefore, we can take any denoising method, including BM3D filter in the denoising step. The numerical experiments on various image inpainting tasks, such as scratch and text removal, randomly missing pixel filling, and block completion, clearly demonstrate the super performance of the proposed methods. Furthermore, the theoretical convergence of the proposed algorithms is proved.

Metab Brain Dis
Metab Brain Dis 2014 Sep 28;29(3):867-71. Epub 2014 Mar 28.
Department of Pediatrics, The Second Artillery General Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Beijing, 100088, China.

This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5).Read More

The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P < 0.01), respectively, and (2) that taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P < 0.01), respectively. Overall, our results indicated that taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

J Rehabil Med
J Rehabil Med 2014 Sep;46(8):746-53
Department of Rehabilitation, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

To evaluate the reliability of a new scale, the Triple Spasticity Scale (TSS), for assessing spasticity in stroke, through measurement of affected elbow flexors and ankle plantar flexors of hemiplegic patients with stroke, and to compare the new scale with commonly used scales.
Cross-sectional study.
Inpatients at a rehabilitation hospital.Read More

Seventy-one inpatients with hemiplegic stroke.
TSS, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Modified Tardieu Scale (MTS).
Test-retest reliability for TSS total score was good (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.905~0.918). Inter- rater reliability for TSS total score was also good (ICC =  0.778~0.885). Spearman's correlation coefficient demonstrated significant correlation between the TSS and MAS, in both elbow flexors and plantar flexors (r = 0.840~0.946, p = 0.000), and between the TSS and MTS, in both elbow flexors and plantar flexors (r = 0.715~0.795, p = 0.000). There were small, but significant, correlations between the scores for increased resistance and dynamic muscle length in these 2 muscles (r = 0.307~0.564, p = 0.000~0.009).
The TSS has good test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability in measurement of muscle tone. This new scale provides an alternative for measuring spasticity, which avoids some of the shortcomings of previous scales.

J. Biomol. NMR
J Biomol NMR 2014 Sep 17;60(1):15-21. Epub 2014 Aug 17.
Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Direct detection of (13)C can be advantageous when studying uniformly enriched proteins, in particular for paramagnetic proteins or when hydrogen exchange with solvent is fast. A scheme recently introduced for long-observation-window band-selective homonuclear decoupling in solid state NMR, LOW-BASHD (Struppe et al. in J Magn Reson 236:89-94, 2013) is shown to be effective for (13)C(α) decoupling during direct (13)C' observation in solution NMR experiments too.Read More

For this purpose, adjustment of the decoupling pulse parameters and delays is demonstrated to be important for increasing spectral resolution, to reduce three-spin effects, and to decrease the intensity of decoupling side-bands. LOW-BASHD then yields (13)C' line widths comparable to those obtained with the popular IPAP method, while enhancing sensitivity by ca 35 %. As a practical application of LOW-BASHD decoupling, requiring quantitative intensity measurement over a wide dynamic range, the impact of lipid binding on the (13)C'-detected NCO spectrum of the intrinsically disordered protein α-synuclein is compared with that on the (1)H-detected (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectrum. Results confirm that synuclein's "dark state" behavior is not caused by paramagnetic relaxation or rapid hydrogen exchange.

Sci China Life Sci
Sci China Life Sci 2014 Sep 16;57(9):867-75. Epub 2014 Aug 16.
Department of Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, 27710, USA.

Dopaminergic (DA) neuron-like cells obtained through direct reprogramming of primary human fibroblasts offer exciting opportunities for treatment of Parkinson's disease. A significant obstacle is the low efficiency of conversion during the reprogramming process. Here, we demonstrate that the suppression of p53 significantly enhances the efficiency of transcription factor-mediated conversion of human fibroblasts into functional dopaminergic neurons.Read More

In particular, blocking p53 activity using a dominant-negative p53 (p53-DN) in IMR90 cells increases the conversion efficiency by 5-20 fold. The induced DA neuron-like cells exhibit dopamine neuron-specific gene expression, significant dopamine uptake and production capacities, and enables symptomatic relief in a rat Parkinson's disease model. Taken together, our findings suggest that p53 is a critical barrier in direct reprogramming of fibroblast into dopaminergic neurons.

J Chromatogr A
J Chromatogr A 2014 Sep 25;1360:9-16. Epub 2014 Jul 25.
Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China. Electronic address:

Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) towards bisphenols (BPs) were prepared employing 1,1,1-tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane (THPE) and phenolphthalein (PP) as dummy templates. The selectivity of the resulting DMIPs was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Both PP-DMIP and THPE-DMIP showed excellent class selectivity towards bisphenols.Read More

THPE-DMIP prepared using the template molecule with three hydroxyphenyl functionalities achieved higher imprinting factors (IF) for the bisphenols over a range of 7.9-19.8. An efficient approach based on dummy molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (DMISPE) coupled with HPLC-DAD was developed for selective extraction of eight bisphenols in sediment, milk and human urine samples using THPE-DMIP as sorbents. The method showed good recoveries (82-102%) and precision (RSD 0.2-4%, n=3) for these samples spiked at two concentration levels (25 and 250ngg(-1) or ngmL(-1)). The detection limits ranged between 0.6 and 1.1ngg(-1) or ngmL(-1). Efficient removal of sample matrix and interferences was also achieved for these samples after DMISPE process. The results demonstrated great potential of the optimized methods for sample preparation in the routine analysis of trace BPs in complex samples.

Vaccine 2014 Sep 12;32(42):5411-9. Epub 2014 Aug 12.
Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis School of Science, Indianapolis, IN, United States. Electronic address:

The addition of an appropriate adjuvant that activates the innate immunity is essential to subsequent development of the adaptive immunity specific to the vaccine antigens. Thus, any innovation capable of improving the immune responses may lead to a more efficacious vaccine. We recently identified a novel immune modulator using a naturally occurring seed peptide called lunasin.Read More

Lunasin was originally isolated from soybeans, and it is a small peptide containing 43 amino acids. Our studies revealed stimulatory effects of lunasin on innate immune cells by regulating expression of a number of genes that are important for immune responses. The objective was to define the effectiveness of lunasin as an adjuvant that enhances immune responses. The immune modulating functions of lunasin were characterized in dendritic cells (DCs) from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Lunasin-treated conventional DCs (cDCs) not only expressed elevated levels of co-stimulatory molecules (CD86, CD40) but also exhibited up-regulation of cytokines (IL1B, IL6) and chemokines (CCL3, CCL4). Lunasin-treated cDCs induced higher proliferation of allogeneic CD4+ T cells when comparing with medium control treatment in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Immunization of mice with ovalbumin (OVA) and lunasin inhibited the growth of OVA-expressing A20 B-lymphomas, which was correlated with OVA-specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, lunasin was an effective adjuvant for immunization with OVA, which together improved animal survival against lethal challenge with influenza virus expressing the MHC class I OVA peptide SIINFEKL (PR8-OTI). These results suggest that lunasin may function as a vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC maturation, which in turn enhances the development of protective immune responses to the vaccine antigens.

This study evaluated preferences for shared decision making with respect to mental health treatment in a sample of veterans who were diagnosed as having serious mental illness.
Participants were 239 outpatients receiving care from the Department of Veterans Affairs who completed self-report questionnaires assessing demographic factors, shared decision-making preferences, psychiatric symptom severity, and the therapeutic relationship with their second-generation antipsychotic prescribers (N=21). Preferences were assessed in regard to three components of decision making: knowledge about mental illness, options about mental health treatment, and decisions about mental health care.Read More

Most participants (85%) indicated that they preferred to be offered options and to be asked their opinions about mental health treatment. More variability was noted in preferences for obtaining knowledge and making final treatment decisions; 61% preferred to rely on their providers' knowledge and 64% preferred their provider to make treatment final decisions. Greater preferences for participation in shared decision making were found among African American clients, those currently working for pay, those with college or higher education, those with other than a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis, and those who reported a poorer therapeutic relationship with their prescribers.
The degree to which veterans with serious mental illness desired to participate in their mental health care differed in terms of the aspect of care and across demographic and clinical factors. A thorough assessment of shared decision-making preferences is an important component of recovery-oriented, client-centered care.

Human serum albumin (HSA) is a cysteine rich molecule that is most abundant in human blood plasma. To remain viable in the market due to lower marketing costs for HSA, it is important to produce a large quantity in an economical manner by recombinant technology. The objective of this study was to maximize recombinant HSA (rHSA) production using a Mut(s) Pichia pastoris strain by fermentation process optimization.Read More

We evaluated the impact of process parameters on the production of rHSA, including induction cell density (wet cell weight, g/L) and the control of specific growth rate at induction. In this study, we demonstrated that induction cell density is a critical factor for high level production of rHSA under controlled specific growth rate. We observed higher specific productivities at higher induction cell densities (285 g/L) and at lower specific growth rates (0.0022-0.0024/h) during methanol induction phase, and achieved the broth titer of rHSA up to 10 g/L. The temperature shift from 24 to 28(o) C was effective to control the specific growth rate at low level (≤0.0024/h) during methanol induction phase while maintaining high specific productivity [0.0908 mgrHSA /(gwcw h)]. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol
Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014 15;7(8):5144-53. Epub 2014 Jul 15.
General Surgery Center of People's Liberation Army, Military General Surgery Center, Southwest Hospital, The Third Military Medical University Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038, People's Republic of China.

This study investigated the expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein in gastric cancer, and correlated it with clinicopathological parameters. The prognostic significance of Shh protein was analyzed.
Shh protein expression was evaluated in 113 cases of gastric cancer and 60 cases of normal gastric mucosa.Read More

The immunoreactivity was scored semi quantitatively as: 0 = absent; 1 = weak; 2 = moderate; and 3 = strong. All cases were further classified into two groups, namely non-overexpression group with score 0 or 1, and overexpression group with score 2 or 3. The overexpression of Shh protein was correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Survival analysis was then performed to determine the Shh protein prognostic significance in gastric cancer.
In immunohistochemistry study, nineteen (31.7%) normal gastric mucosa revealed Shh protein overexpression, while eighty-one (71.7%) gastric cancer revealed overexpression. The expression of Shh protein were significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues than in normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.001), which was statistically correlated with age (P = 0.006), tumor differentiation (P < 0.001), depth of invasion (P = 0.042), pathologic staging (P = 0.017), and nodal metastasis (P = 0.019). We found no significant difference in both overall and disease free survival rates between Shh overexpression and non-expression groups P = 0.168 and 0.071). However, Shh overexpression emerged as a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio 1.187, P = 0.041).
Shh protein expression is upregulated and is statistically correlated with age, tumor differentiation, depth of invasion, pathologic staging, and nodal metastasis. The Shh protein overexpression is a significant independent prognostic factor in multivariate Cox regression analysis in gastric cancer.

Arch. Dermatol. Res.
Arch Dermatol Res 2014 Sep 9. Epub 2014 Sep 9.
Department of Dermatovenereology, Chengdu Second People's Hospital, No. 165, Caoshi Street, Chengdu, 610017, Sichuan, China.

TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A), a newly identified member of the TNF superfamily, has been proved as an important mediator of inflammation and critically involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and several other autoimmune diseases. The aim of our study was to determine the possible role of TL1A in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this study, serum levels of TL1A in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV) and atopic dermatitis (AD) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Read More

Then, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with PV were isolated, the mRNA expression of TL1A was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The effects of TL1A on the production of T cell cytokines, such as IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in PBMCs were determined. We demonstrated that serum TL1A levels were significantly elevated in patients with PV but not in patients with AD. Besides, the high serum TL1A levels in patients with PV decreased after treatment. PBMCs derived from psoriatic patients showed significantly increased TL1A mRNA levels. Soluble TL1A synergized with IL-23 to stimulate PBMCs from patients with PV to produce IL-17. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that TL1A may play a role in the pathogenesis of PV.


Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily and responsible for the detoxification of xenobiotics. Our previously study demonstrated that PXR is expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) and acts as a master regulator of detoxification genes to protect ECs against xenobiotics. Vascular endothelial cells are key sentinel cells to sense the pathogens and xenobiotics.Read More

In this study, we examined the potential function of PXR in the regulation of innate immunity in vasculatures. Treatments with PXR agonists or overexpression of a constitutively active PXR in cultured ECs increased gene expression of the key pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including toll-like receptors (TLR-2, -4, -9), and NOD-like receptors (NOD-1, -2 and NLRP3). In particular, PXR agonism triggered the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and the ensuing cleavage and maturation of caspase-1 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Conversely, selective antagonism or gene silencing of PXR abrogated NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In addition, we identified NLRP3 as a transcriptional target of PXR by using the promoter-reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. In summary, our findings revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of innate immune by PXR, which may act as a master transcription factor controlling the convergence between the detoxification of xenobiotics and the innate immunity against them.

Am J Community Psychol
Am J Community Psychol 2014 Sep 12. Epub 2014 Sep 12.
University of Maryland School of Social Work, 525 W. Redwood St., Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA,

Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with mental illness. Coping with the strain of shifting roles and multiple challenges of caregiving can have a huge impact. Limited information exists regarding race-related differences in families' caregiving experiences, their abilities to cope with the mental illness of a loved one, or their interactions with mental health service systems.Read More

This study examined race-related differences in the experiences of adults seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family Education Program due to mental illness of a loved one. Participants were 293 White and 107 African American family members who completed measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping, knowledge about mental illness, subjective illness burden, psychological distress, and family functioning. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine race-related differences. African American caregivers reported higher levels of negative caregiving experiences, less knowledge of mental illness, and higher levels of both problem-solving coping and emotion-focused coping, than White caregivers. Mental health programs serving African American families should consider targeting specific strategies to address caregiving challenges, support their use of existing coping mechanisms and support networks, and increase their knowledge of mental illness.

Immunol. Lett.
Immunol Lett 2014 Sep 9. Epub 2014 Sep 9.
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710061, Shaanxi, China; Institute of Advanced Surgical Technology and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, 710061, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10204525 in the 3'-untranslated region (3' UTR) of PD1 gene was shown to be associated with the disease course of HBV infection. This study examined the associations of PD-1 mRNA expression with the clinical and viral profiles and the genotypes of rs10204525 in HBV infection. PD-1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood nuclear cells were determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Read More

PD1 rs10204525 was genotyped by bidirectional PCR amplification of specific alleles. The results showed that patients with chronic HBV infection had significantly elevated PD-1 mRNA levels than healthy controls. Patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma had significantly higher PD-1 mRNA levels than healthy controls. HBeAg (+) patients had significantly higher PD-1 mRNA levels than HBeAg (-) patients (P<0.001). PD-1 mRNA levels were sequentially increased with the elevation of HBV DNA levels. In HBV patients, but not in healthy controls, PD-1 mRNA levels were sequentially decreased from rs10204525 genotypes AA, AG to GG and the levels in genotype AA were significantly higher than in genotype GG (P=0.039). These findings suggest that increased PD-1 expression may affect the disease course of chronic HBV infection by facilitating HBV viral replication, and this may at least partially relate to PD1 3' UTR polymorphism.

Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
Cell Physiol Biochem 2014 Sep 8;34(4):1063-1074. Epub 2014 Sep 8.
Center for Kidney Disease, 2 Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Fibroblast activation is one of the most important mechanisms for Angiotensin II (Ang II) in promoting renal fibrosis. Transcription factor Ets-1 is recognized to play a key role in kidney diseases. However, the role and mechanisms of Ets-1 in Ang-II induced fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis are not fully understood.Read More

Methods: Mice were treated with Ang II via osmotic mini-pumps or Ang II expression plasmid (pAng II). Cultured normal rat kidney interstitial fibroblast (NRK-49F) cells were incubated with Ang II. Role of Ets-1 in renal fibrosis and fibroblast activation were assessed by Western blot, Immunohistochemical staining'MTT, Boyden chamber and Immunofluorescence staining. Effects of miR-221 on Ets-1 and fibroblast activation were investigated by MTT, Boyden chamber, Western blot and Q-PCR. Results: We found that Ets-1 was up-regulated in fibrotic kidneys. Similarly, Ang II could activate NRK-49F cells as demonstrated by up-regulated α-SMA and fibronectin(FN) expression and enhanced cell proliferation and migration. Ang II also induced Ets-1 expression in NRK-49F cells in a dose and time dependent manner. Knock-down of Ets-1 by RNA interference attenuated Ang II-induced activation of NRK-49F cells. Ets-1 was previously reported as a target of microRNA-221 (miR-221). In Ang II-induced fibrotic kidney, miR-221 was down-regulated. Similar results were observed in Ang II treated NRK-49F cells. Ectopic expression of miR-221 mimic attenuated the up-regulation of Ets-1 by Ang II in NRK-49F cells, which further prevented the activation of NRK-49F cells. However, the inhibitor of miR-221 aggravated Ang II induced Ets-1 expression and NRK-49F cells activation. Conclusions: Our study suggests that miR-221/Ets-1 axis takes an important role in mediating AngII induced interstitial fibroblast activation and renal fibrosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Sesame, Sesamum indicum L., is considered the queen of oilseeds for its high oil content and quality, and is grown widely in tropical and subtropical areas as an important source of oil and protein. However, the molecular biology of sesame is largely unexplored.Read More

Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of sesame assembled de novo with a contig N50 of 52.2 kb and a scaffold N50 of 2.1 Mb, containing an estimated 27,148 genes. The results reveal novel, independent whole genome duplication and the absence of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain in resistance genes. Candidate genes and oil biosynthetic pathways contributing to high oil content were discovered by comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses. These revealed the expansion of type 1 lipid transfer genes by tandem duplication, the contraction of lipid degradation genes, and the differential expression of essential genes in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis pathway, particularly in the early stage of seed development. Resequencing data in 29 sesame accessions from 12 countries suggested that the high genetic diversity of lipid-related genes might be associated with the wide variation in oil content. Additionally, the results shed light on the pivotal stage of seed development, oil accumulation and potential key genes for sesamin production, an important pharmacological constituent of sesame.
As an important species from the order Lamiales and a high oil crop, the sesame genome will facilitate future research on the evolution of eudicots, as well as the study of lipid biosynthesis and potential genetic improvement of sesame.

Mycoses 2014 Aug 28;57(8):473-82. Epub 2014 Mar 28.
Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Respiratory and Pulmonary Circulation Disorders, Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing, China.

Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (ATB) is considered as an unusual form of invasive aspergillosis and has a fatal outcome. There is little current information on several aspects of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) complicated by ATB, the frequency of which is expected to increase in the coming years. In a prospective study of invasive bronchial-pulmonary aspergillosis (IBPA) in a critically ill COPD population, three proven cases of ATB were identified.Read More

The three new cases, combined with eight previously reported cases of COPD with ATB over a 30-year period (1983-2013), were analysed. Among 153 critically ill COPD patients admitted to the ICU, eight cases were complicated by ATB [23.5% of IBPA (8 of 34); and 5.2% of COPD (8 of 153)], and three cases were finally diagnosed as proven ATB by histopathological findings. Among the three new cases reported and the eight published cases, the overall mortality rate was 72.7% (8 of 11 cases), with a median of 11.5 days (range, 7-27 days) between admission to death. The mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) [100% (8 of 8 patients)] than in patients without parenchyma invasion [0% (0 of 3 patient), P = 0.006]. Seven patients (77.8%) received systemic corticosteroid therapy and three patients (33.3%) inhaled corticosteroids before diagnosis with ATB. Dyspnoea resistant to corticosteroids (77.8%) was the most frequent symptom. The radiological manifestations progressed rapidly in three patients (75%) who had normal chest X-rays (CXRs) at admission. Pseudomembranous lesions were the most frequent form (54.5%) observed by bronchoscopy. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most frequently isolated pathogen (40%). ATB is an uncommon cause of exacerbation in approximately 5% of critically ill COPD patients admitted to the ICU, and may progress rapidly to IPA with a high mortality rate. Dyspnoea resistant to corticosteroids and appropriate antibiotics with a negative CXR should raise the suspicion of ATB. Early diagnosis of ATB is based on bronchoscopic examination and proven diagnosis maybe safely established with a bronchial mucous biopsy.

Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2014 Aug 25;41(8):1624-34. Epub 2014 Apr 25.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Wangfujing Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an increasingly recognized clinicopathological disorder with immune-mediated inflammatory lesions mimicking malignancies. A cohort study was prospectively designed to investigate the value of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in characterizing IgG4-RD.
Thirty-five patients diagnosed with IgG4-RD according to the consensus criteria were enrolled with informed consent.Read More

All patients underwent baseline (18)F-FDG PET/CT evaluation. Among them, 29 patients underwent a second (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan after 2 to 4 weeks of steroid-based therapy.
All 35 patients were found with (18)F-FDG-avid hypermetabolic lesion(s); 97.1% (34/35) of these patients showed multi-organ involvement. Among the 35 patients, 71.4% (25/35) patients were found with more organ involvement on (18)F-FDG PET/CT than conventional evaluations including physical examination, ultrasonography, and computed tomography (CT). (18)F-FDG PET/CT demonstrated specific image characteristics and pattern of IgG4-RD, including diffusely elevated (18)F-FDG uptake in the pancreas and salivary glands, patchy lesions in the retroperitoneal region and vascular wall, and multi-organ involvement that cannot be interpreted as metastasis. Comprehensive understanding of all involvement aided the biopsy-site selection in seven patients and the recanalization of ureteral obstruction in five patients. After 2 to 4 weeks of steroid-based therapy at 40 mg to 50 mg prednisone per day, 72.4% (21/29) of the patients showed complete remission, whereas the others exhibited > 81.8% decrease in (18)F-FDG uptake.
F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool for assessing organ involvement, monitoring therapeutic response, and guiding interventional treatment of IgG4-RD. The image pattern is suggested to be updated into the consensus diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD.

Hum. Immunol.
Hum Immunol 2014 Aug 24;75(8):709-14. Epub 2014 Apr 24.
Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, Shaanxi, China; Institute of Advanced Surgical Technology and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 is involved in viral infection through regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity. The SOCS1 gene polymorphisms may affect the outcome of viral infection. The relationship between SOCS1 polymorphisms and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has not yet been explored.Read More

This study genotyped SOCS1 rs243327 and rs33932899 polymorphisms in 477 patients with chronic HBV infection, 93 HBV infection resolvers and 215 healthy controls. In statistical analysis, p-values less than 0.05 in multiple comparisons were corrected by Bonferroni method and presented as pc. The results showed that the allele T-containing genotypes (CT+TT) of rs243327 were higher in HBV patients than resolvers and lower in resolvers than healthy controls although the difference was not significant. The allele T of rs243327 was significantly lower in resolvers than controls (p = 0.033). The genotype GC and allele C of rs33932899 were significantly less frequent in HBV patients than controls (pc < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). The haplotype T/G of rs243327/rs33932899 was significantly more frequent in HBV patients than resolvers (pc < 0.001) or controls (pc = 0.009). These data indicate that SOCS1 polymorphisms might affect the susceptibility and outcome of HBV infection.

Tumour Biol.
Tumour Biol 2014 Aug 23;35(8):8259-65. Epub 2014 May 23.
Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 410008, Changsha, People's Republic of China.

This study aims to investigate the influence of ATP7B genetic polymorphism to platinum-based chemotherapy in Chinese Han lung cancer patients. A total of 338 Chinese Han lung cancer patients were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent at least two cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy.Read More

Four tag SNPs of ATP7B (rs1061472, rs9535826, rs7999812, and rs9535828) were selected to evaluate their impacts to platinum-based chemotherapy in these patients. ATP7B rs9535828 and rs9535826 were found to be associated with platinum resistance in Chinese Han lung cancer patients. Patients with A allele in ATP7B rs9535828 presented an increased susceptibility to platinum drugs (OR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.17-3.30, p < 0.01). Patients with G allele in ATP7B rs9535826 had the highest susceptibility to platinum drugs (OR 2.05, 95 % CI 1.19-3.52, p < 0.01). Our findings suggest that ATP7B genetic polymorphisms could affect the therapeutic efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy, and ATP7B gene might be considered as predictive markers for the efficacy evaluation of platinum-based chemotherapy in Chinese Han lung cancer patients.

Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2014 Aug 11;51:80-8. Epub 2014 Jun 11.
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7613, Raleigh, NC 27695-7613, USA. Electronic address:

The New World screwworm and the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina are devastating pests of livestock. The larvae of these species feed on the tissue of the living animal and can cause death if untreated. The sterile insect technique or SIT was used to eradicate screwworm from North and Central America.Read More

This inspired efforts to develop strains containing complex chromosomal rearrangements for genetic control of L. cuprina in Australia. Although one field trial was promising, the approach was abandoned due to costs and difficulties in mass rearing the strain. As the efficiency of SIT can be significantly increased if only sterile males are released, we have developed transgenic strains of L. cuprina that carry a dominant tetracycline repressible female lethal genetic system. Lethality is due to overexpression of an auto-regulated tetracycline repressible transactivator (tTA) gene and occurs mostly at the pupal stage. Dominant female lethality was achieved by replacing the Drosophila hsp70 core promoter with a Lucilia hsp70 core promoter-5'UTR for tTA overexpression. The strains carry a dominant strongly expressed marker that will facilitate identification in the field. Interestingly, the sexes could be reliably sorted by fluorescence or color from the early first instar larval stage as females that overexpress tTA also overexpress the linked marker gene. Male-only strains of L. cuprina developed in this study could form the basis for a future genetic control program. Moreover, the system developed for L. cuprina should be readily transferrable to other major calliphorid livestock pests including the New and Old World screwworm.

Intrathoracic lymph node metastases in patients with extrathoracic malignancies are a common clinical manifestation. Several studies evaluating intrathoracic lymph node metastases in patients with extrathoracic malignancy by using the endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) have been reported. The objective of this meta-analysis is to investigate the diagnostic value of EBUS-TBNA for diagnosing intrathoracic lymph node metastases in patients with extrathoracic malignancies.Read More

We systematically searched Cochrane Library, Medline and Embase for relevant studies published prior to May 2013. Studies specifically designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for intrathoracic lymph node metastases in patients with an extrathoracic malignancy were selected. Diagnostic accuracy meta-analysis was conducted by pooling estimates of sensitivity, specificity, negative likelihood ratio (NLR), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) derived from a summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) analysis of the original studies. Six studies were included, which provided a dataset of 533 patients. EBUS-TBNA pooled estimates had 0.85 sensitivity (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80-0.89), 0.99 specificity (95% CI: 0.95-1.00), PLR 28.63 (95% CI: 11.51-71.22) and NLR 0.16 (95% CI: 0.12-0.21). The overall DOR was 179.77 (95% CI: 66.29-487.50). The area under the SROC curve and the diagnostic accuracy were 0.9247 and 0.8588, respectively. Evidence gathered from studies of moderate quality reveals a high degree of diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for diagnosing intrathoracic lymph node metastases in patients with extrathoracic malignancies.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2014 Aug;39(8):675-9
From the *Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pecking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing; †Department of Oncology, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Qingdao; and ‡Department of Pathology, Pecking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

It was reported that BRAF mutation correlates with radioactive iodine refractory papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in local recurrence, whereas its relationship with I uptake status in distant metastatic PTC remains uncertain. This prospective study tried to explore the association between I uptake in distant metastases (DM) of PTC and BRAF mutation status in their primary tumor.
Seventy-three patients with DM were divided into BRAF mutation group (n = 19) and wild-type BRAF group (n = 54) according to the BRAF mutation status.Read More

After posttherapy I whole-body scan was performed, the relation between I uptake in DM, BRAF mutation status, and clinicopathological characteristics of 2 groups were compared.
The mean age of mutation group was older than that of the wild-type group (P < 0.05). In the mutation group, 16 patients (84.2%, 16 of 19) were found to be with non-iodine-avid DM, whereas in wild-type group, only 5.6% (3 of 54) were with non-iodine-avid DM. The sensitivity and specificity of using BRAF mutation for the identification of non-iodine-avid DM were 84.2% and 94.4%, respectively.
BRAF mutation in primary tumor might be a promising molecular marker to predict the status of I uptake in distal metastases.

J Clin Rheumatol
J Clin Rheumatol 2014 Aug;20(5):275-7
From the *Department of Endocrinology and Rheumatology, The Second Affiliated Clinical College in Chengdu of Chongqing Medical University, and The Third People's Hospital of Chengdu; and †Department of Rheumatology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; and ‡Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, The First Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B,a type of dysferlinopathy, is caused by mutations in the dysferlin gene (DYSE). It is characterized by predominant weakness and atrophy of muscles of the pelvic and shoulder girdles, massive elevation of serum CK concentration, slow progression, and onset usually within the second or third decade of life. We present a Chinese patient whose disease onset was at the age of 50 years with persistent elevation of transaminases for 3 years before weakness appeared.Read More

She had been considered as having liver disease for a long time and then polymyositis. Finally, biceps brachii biopsy revealed dystrophic morphology and depletion of dysferlin in immunohistochemistry. This case should remind readers that late-age onset of dysferlinopathy can be misdiagnosed as liver disease or polymyositis.

Chemistry 2014 Aug 10;20(32):9852-7. Epub 2014 Jul 10.
Henan Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (P.R. China).

A gigantic Co14-containing 36-niobate, Na12K8[Co14(OH)16(H2O)8Nb36O106]⋅71H2O (1), has been prepared by the hydrothermal method and structurally characterized. Polyanion [Co14(OH)16(H2O)8Nb36O106](20-) (1 a) comprises a central Co7 core, surrounded by another seven isolated Co(2+) ions and six Lindqvist-type (Nb6O19) hexaniobate fragments. This is the first example of a high-nuclear cobalt-cluster-containing polyoxoniobate.Read More

The photocatalytic H2 evolution activity of Pt-loaded 1 was observed in methanol solution under irradiation using a 300 W Xe lamp.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Aug 21;111(31):11461-6. Epub 2014 Jul 21.
Department of Neuroscience, Center for Neurovirology and The Comprehensive NeuroAIDS Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140;

AIDS remains incurable due to the permanent integration of HIV-1 into the host genome, imparting risk of viral reactivation even after antiretroviral therapy. New strategies are needed to ablate the viral genome from latently infected cells, because current methods are too inefficient and prone to adverse off-target effects. To eliminate the integrated HIV-1 genome, we used the Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) system, in single and multiplex configurations.Read More

We identified highly specific targets within the HIV-1 LTR U3 region that were efficiently edited by Cas9/gRNA, inactivating viral gene expression and replication in latently infected microglial, promonocytic, and T cells. Cas9/gRNAs caused neither genotoxicity nor off-target editing to the host cells, and completely excised a 9,709-bp fragment of integrated proviral DNA that spanned from its 5' to 3' LTRs. Furthermore, the presence of multiplex gRNAs within Cas9-expressing cells prevented HIV-1 infection. Our results suggest that Cas9/gRNA can be engineered to provide a specific, efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic approach against AIDS.

J. Org. Chem.
J Org Chem 2014 Aug 31;79(16):7572-82. Epub 2014 Jul 31.
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaoxing University , Shaoxing 312000, China.

A new photoinduced three-component reaction between a cyanoarene, an alkene and an N-protected pyrrole has been developed. This reaction extended the scope of the photo-NOCAS reaction by introducing pyrrole as a neutral carbon-centered nucleophile. The cyanoarenes used include tetracyanobenzene (TCB), 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-1,4-dicyanobenzene (TFDCB) and 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB).Read More

N-Methyl, N-phenyl and N-Boc pyrroles are suitable nucleophiles in the reaction. Taking advantage of the strong electron acceptor ability of the singlet excited TCB, a wide range of alkenes, including the highly electron deficient 4-fluoro-, 4-chloro-, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrenes and N-methylmaleimide take part in this reaction, leading to the simultaneous 1,2-diarylation of the alkene and the regioselective 2-alkylation of the pyrrole ring via sequential formation of two new C-C bonds between the three reactants.

Mol. Pharm.
Mol Pharm 2014 Aug 11. Epub 2014 Aug 11.
Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University ; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases (NCRC-ND); Beijing Key Laboratory of Brian Tumor, Beijing, China.

Integrin αvβ3 is overexpressed in both neovasculature and glioma cells. We aimed to evaluate (68)gallium-BNOTA-PRGD2 ((68)Ga-PRGD2) as a new reagent for noninvasive integrin αvβ3 imaging in glioma patients. With informed consent, 12 patients with suspicious brain glioma, as diagnosed by enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, were enrolled to undergo (68)Ga-PRGD2 PET/CT and (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans before surgery.Read More

The preoperative images were compared and correlated with the pathologically determined WHO grade. Next, the expression of integrin αvβ3, CD34, and Ki-67 were determined by immunohistochemical staining of the resected brain tumor tissue. Our findings demonstrated that (68)Ga-PRGD2 specifically accumulated in the brain tumors that were rich of integrin αvβ3 and other neovasculature markers, but not in the brain parenchyma other than the choroid plexus. Therefore, (68)Ga-PRGD2 PET/CT was able to evaluate the glioma demarcation more specifically than (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of (68)Ga-PRGD2, rather than those of (18)F-FDG, were significantly correlated with the glioma grading. The maximum tumor-to-brain ratios (TBRmax) of both tracers were significantly correlated with glioma grading, whereas (68)Ga-PRGD2 seemed to be more superior to (18)F-FDG in differentiating high-grade glioma (HGG) from low-grade glioma (LGG). Moreover, (68)Ga-PRGD2 PET/CT showed different accumulation patterns for HGG of WHO grades III and IV. This is the first noninvasive integrin imaging study, to the best of our knowledge, conducted in preoperative patients with different grades of glioma, and it preliminarily indicated the effectiveness of this novel method for evaluating glioma grading and demarcation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 7;2014:483294. Epub 2014 Jul 7.
Acupuncture and Moxibustion Department, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 23 Meishuguanhou Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100010, China.

Oxidative stress participates in the pathological process of various diseases. Acupuncture is a component of the health care system in China that can be traced back for at least 3000 years. Recently, increased evidences indicate that acupuncture stimulation could reduce oxidative damage in organisms under pathological state, but the exact mechanism remains unclear.Read More

This review focuses on the emerging links between acupuncture and redox modulation in various disorders, such as vascular dementia, Parkinson's disease, and hypertension, ranging from redox system, antioxidant system, anti-inflammatory system, and nervous system to signaling pathway. Although the molecular and cellular pathways studies of acupuncture effect on oxidative stress are preliminary, they represent an important step forward in the research of acupuncture antioxidative effect.

Workplace Health Saf
Workplace Health Saf 2014 Aug 11:1-9. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

The excessive workload from employment and household duties may negatively affect married female nurses' health. This study explored job stress, family stress, social support, and health status among married female nurses to identify predictors of nurses' health status. Using a cross-sectional design, 233 married female nurses were recruited from two regional teaching hospitals.Read More

The results showed that working hours per week, job stress, and overcommitment to their jobs were significant determinants of health status. Based on study findings, nursing supervisors should avoid scheduling nurses to work more than 48 hours per week. Job stress adjustment courses could enable nurses to relax after work, avoiding overcommitment. [Workplace Health Saf 20XX;XX(X):XX-XX.].

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Aug 11;111(34):12516-21. Epub 2014 Aug 11.
Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455;

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) currently spreads in humans and causes ∼36% fatality in infected patients. Believed to have originated from bats, MERS-CoV is genetically related to bat coronaviruses HKU4 and HKU5. To understand how bat coronaviruses transmit to humans, we investigated the receptor usage and cell entry activity of the virus-surface spike proteins of HKU4 and HKU5.Read More

We found that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), the receptor for MERS-CoV, is also the receptor for HKU4, but not HKU5. Despite sharing a common receptor, MERS-CoV and HKU4 spikes demonstrated functional differences. First, whereas MERS-CoV prefers human DPP4 over bat DPP4 as its receptor, HKU4 shows the opposite trend. Second, in the absence of exogenous proteases, both MERS-CoV and HKU4 spikes mediate pseudovirus entry into bat cells, whereas only MERS-CoV spike, but not HKU4 spike, mediates pseudovirus entry into human cells. Thus, MERS-CoV, but not HKU4, has adapted to use human DPP4 and human cellular proteases for efficient human cell entry, contributing to the enhanced pathogenesis of MERS-CoV in humans. These results establish DPP4 as a functional receptor for HKU4 and host cellular proteases as a host range determinant for HKU4. They also suggest that DPP4-recognizing bat coronaviruses threaten human health because of their spikes' capability to adapt to human cells for cross-species transmissions.

Biomed Res Int
Biomed Res Int 2014 9;2014:980767. Epub 2014 Jul 9.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Monmouth Medical Center, 300 2nd Avenue, Long Branch, NJ 07740, USA.

Background. To evaluate the outcomes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods.Read More

Between September 2007 and August 2012, 190 newly diagnosed NPC patients were treated with HT. Thirty-one patients were treated with radiation therapy as single modality, 129 with additional cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy, and 30 with concurrent anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapy. Results. Acute radiation related side effects were mainly grade 1 or 2. Grade 3 and greater toxicities were rarely noted. The median followup was 32 (3-38) months. The local relapse-free survival (LRFS), nodal relapse-free survival (NRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) were 96.1%, 98.2%, 92.0%, and 86.3%, respectively, at 3 years. Cox multivariate regression analysis showed that age and T stage were independent predictors for 3-year OS. Conclusions. Helical tomotherapy for NPC patients achieved excellent 3-year locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival, with relatively minor acute and late toxicities. Age and T stage were the main prognosis factors.

Eur. J. Med. Res.
Eur J Med Res 2014 15;19:41. Epub 2014 Aug 15.
Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710021, People's Republic of China.

Saponins of several herbs are known to induce apoptosis in many cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the growth inhibitory effect of Paris saponin VII (PS VII), a kind of steroidal saponins from Chonglou (Rhizoma Paridis Chonglou), on the human cervical cancer cell line Hela and the relative molecular mechanisms.
Hela cells were exposed to different concentrations of PS VII (1 to 100 μM).Read More

Inhibition of cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays. The amount of apoptotic cells was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. And the protein level of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9, Bax, and Bcl-2 was evaluated by Western blot.
The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of PS VII for the growth inhibition of Hela cells was 2.62 ± 0.11 μM. PS VII increased the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax while decreased that of Bcl-2, suggesting that PS VII may induce apoptosis through intrinsic apoptotic ways.
These data indicate that PS VII has the potential for the treatment of cervical cancer.

Int J Endocrinol
Int J Endocrinol 2014 14;2014:745093. Epub 2014 Jul 14.
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, China.

Previous studies had shown that elevated admission plasma glucose (APG) could increase mortality rate and serious complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but whether fasting plasma glucose (FPG) had the same role remains controversial. In this retrospective study, 253 cases of AMI patients were divided into diabetic (n = 87) and nondiabetic group (n = 166). Our results showed that: compared with the nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients had higher APG, FPG, higher plasma triglyceride, higher rates of painless AMI (P < 0.Read More

01), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and reinfraction (P < 0.05). They also had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol and rate of malignant arrhythmia, but in-hospital mortality rate did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). While nondiabetic patients were subgrouped in terms of APG and FPG (cut points were 11.1 mmol/L and 7.0 mmol/L, resp.), the mortality rate had significant difference (P < 0.01), whereas glucose level lost significance in diabetic group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that FPG (OR: 2.014; 95% confidence interval: 1.296-3.131; p < 0.01) but not APG was independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for nondiabetic patients. These results indicate that FPG can be an independent predictor for mortality in nondiabetic female patients with AMI.

Soc Work Health Care
Soc Work Health Care 2014 Aug;53(7):679-92
a College of Public Administration , Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing , China.

China faces an overwhelming and urgent need for long-term care (LTC). We explored long-term care insurance (LTCI) plans in China and the factors associated with each plan's contribution rate. A cross-sectional survey of 814 residents (18-59 years) was conducted to assess the expectations of elderly care, public and private LTCI features.Read More

Public LTCI may be more popular whether in terms of participation or contribution. The factors associated with public LTCI contribution rate were healthcare costs, household income, and number of daughters; for private LTCI, the factors were the proportion of living expenditures, worry about future care problems, and healthcare costs. Policymakers should develop public LTCI as a solid foundation and improve private LTCI as a substitute to meet the urgent LTC needs in China.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2014 Aug 19. Epub 2014 Aug 19.
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

A Sister Mary Joseph nodule represents an umbilical metastasis, which is more commonly caused by a primary malignancy in gastrointestinal tract or from reproductive system. We report Sister Mary Joseph nodules caused by neuroendocrine tumor and revealed on Tc HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy.Read More

J. Hazard. Mater.
J Hazard Mater 2014 Aug 7;280C:111-117. Epub 2014 Aug 7.
Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China. Electronic address:

Atmospheric polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) ranging from mono-CNs to octa-CNs were detected using isotope-dilution gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The developed instrumental method was successfully applied to the determination of PCNs in technical products. It was observed that there were significant differences in concentrations, homologue profiles, chlorinated contents and total toxic equivalents (∑TEQs) of PCNs for four Halowax products.Read More

Subsequently, the validation of the analytical method was evaluated for the determination of PCNs in air samples in terms of method detection limit (MDL), recovery and matrix effect. The results demonstrated that this method could provide satisfactory sensitivity and adequate selectivity with lower cost. It was conducted to comprehensively evaluate the levels, composition patterns, ∑TEQs, and daily intake exposure of PCNs in indoor and outdoor air samples. Concentrations and ∑TEQs of PCNs in air samples ranged 47.7-832.7pgm(-3) and 1.31-5.99fgm(-3), respectively, and the predominant homologues were di- and tri-CNs in the gas phase. The results indicated that this analytical method was useful for the accurate and specific evaluation of dioxin-like toxicity and human exposure levels of PCNs in the atmosphere.

Cancer Lett.
Cancer Lett 2014 Aug 19. Epub 2014 Aug 19.
Department of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Activation of the BTLA-HVEM co-inhibitory signaling pathway impairs antitumor immunity. Our previous study demonstrated that the extracellular domain of murine BTLA (the soluble form of BTLA) can facilitate HSP70 vaccine-triggered antitumor immunity by blocking BTLA-HVEM interactions in a murine TC-1 non-metastatic tumor model. However, it is unknown whether this strategy has beneficial effects on highly malignant metastatic tumors, such as melanoma.Read More

To address this question, we expressed the soluble form of BTLA (sBTLA) in combination with HSP70 vaccine and examined the resulting antitumor activity in a melanoma pulmonary metastasis model. A recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector was used for the sBTLA gene delivery because of its high transfection efficiency and low toxicity. In vitro expression of AAV-sBTLA enhanced lymphocyte activation and induced specific cytotoxicity against B16F1 murine melanoma cells, while in vivo administration of AAV-sBTLA plus HSP70 vaccine by tail vein injection exerted a limited, late-stage antitumor effect against the existing B16F1 cells. However, the combination treatment generated a potent prophylactic antitumor response in the melanoma lung metastasis model in B6 mice. In this case, most of the metastatic foci were inhibited, and mouse survival was prolonged. Furthermore, the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ were up-regulated, while the negative regulatory molecules IL-10 and TGF-β were down-regulated. The number of regulatory T cells also decreased in the tumor environment. Therefore, AAV-sBTLA plus HSP70 vaccine may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of metastatic melanoma.

J Behav Health Serv Res
J Behav Health Serv Res 2014 Aug 29. Epub 2014 Aug 29.
Veterans Affairs Capitol Health Care Network (VISN 5) Mental Illness, Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Attn: MIRECC (Annex Building), 10 N. Greene Street, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA,

To distinguish the impact of mental illness stigma from that of other negative caregiving experiences, this study examined the unique relationships between stigma and caregiver/family functioning. Adult relatives (n = 437) of individuals with mental illness completed questionnaires regarding caregiving experiences, distress, empowerment, and family functioning, as part of a larger study. Regression analyses examined the relationship between stigma and caregiver/family variables, while controlling for other negative caregiving experiences.Read More

Stigma was uniquely associated with caregiver distress, empowerment, and family functioning. Mental illness stigma is a potent source of distress for families and an important target of family services.

Dent Mater
Dent Mater 2014 Aug 30. Epub 2014 Aug 30.
State Key laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Bonding stability of resinous adhesives to dentin is still problematic and may involve regional variations in dentin composition. This study is to evaluate the effect of dentin depth on the stability of resin-dentin bonds under thermocycling challenge.
Dentin slabs with two flat surfaces parallel to the tooth axis were obtained from extracted human third molars.Read More

The slabs were randomized into eight groups according to the location of dentin [deep dentin (DD) or superficial dentin (SD)], the adhesive treatment (Single Bond 2 or Clearfil S(3) Bond), and the storage treatment (thermocycling for 5000 times vs. no). After the adhesive treatment and composite buildup on the dentin slabs, the micro-shear bond strength (μSBS) of each group was detected. The concentrations of cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were also evaluated using an immunoassay to detect the degree of collagen degradation in each group.
Dentin depth, adhesive treatment and storage treatment all showed significant effects on both the μSBSs and the ICTP values (P<0.05). Regardless of the adhesive type, thermocycling decreased the μSBSs and increased the ICTP values (P<0.05). The DD groups showed significantly lower μSBSs and higher ICTP values than SD groups after thermocycling aging (P<0.05). The treatment with Single Bond 2 significantly increased the ICTP values (P<0.05), whereas Clearfil S(3) Bond showed no effect on the ICTP values (P>0.05).
Deep dentin showed significantly more bond degradation after thermocycling than did superficial dentin.

This paper presents an effective utilization of slag from acid leaching of coal-waste with a novel approach, namely low-temperature co-melting method, for preparation of sodium silicate (Na2O x nSiO2) using slag from acid leaching of coal-waste as feedstock. It is very interesting that the co-melting reaction temperature of the mixture of Na2CO3 and the feedstock (50-100 microm) was as low as 850 degrees C, which was significantly lower than the temperature used in traditional sodium silicate production (1400 degrees C). The optimum SiO2/Na2O ratio was identified as 7:3 according to the results of thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC), ICP-AES, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses.Read More

In this condition, the main product was sodium disilicate (Na2O x 2SiO2), with water solubility of 85.0%. More importantly, the impurities such as aluminum in the feedstock, which had adverse effect on subsequent treatment, were concentrated almost completely in the filter residue as insoluble sodium alumunosilicates, i.e., Na(Si2Al)O6 x H2O. The lower co-melting temperature of this process demonstrates a significant energy-saving opportunity and thus a promising approach for highly effective utilization of coal-waste. Implications: Recently, alumina extraction from coal-waste has been extensively investigated and industrial applied in China. However, the slag-containing silica generated from the acid leaching process of coal-waste led to a secondary pollution, which hindered large-scale production. The proposed low-temperature co-melting method for preparation of sodium silicate (Na2O x nSiO2) using slag from acid leaching of coal-waste as feedstock indicated that it is an efficient approach for the recovery of silica from the acid-leached slag of coal-waste with minimal environmental impact.

J. Virol. Methods
J Virol Methods 2014 Jul 27;203:48-53. Epub 2014 Mar 27.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Key Laboratory of Fertility Preservation and Maintenance of Ministry of Education, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China. Electronic address:

Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been shown to be associated with acute respiratory tract infection in children. The aim of the work was to develop a novel integrated strategy for human bocavirus detection: heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples. The detection limit of the heminested PCR assay was 1.Read More

2 copies of a recombinant DNA plasmid, and no cross-reaction with other respiratory viruses or bacteria was observed. By using the integrated strategy, a total of 202 secretions of the lower respiratory tract of children with acute respiratory diseases were collected and tested. The samples were treated and lysed in boiling lysis buffer rather than extracting viral DNA from secretions, then these sample lysates could be templates and tested by heminested PCR assay, and the amplification of HBoV DNA was detected by using agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that, only 7 samples were found to be positive by conventional single-round PCR; importantly, the other new 41 samples were positive by heminested PCR assay. Additionally, the genomic viral DNA was extracted from all positive and some negative specimens, amplified, and sequenced. The results were perfectly consistent with those of the integrated strategy. Taken together, these results suggest that the novel integrated strategy (heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples) is a convenient, sensitive, cost-effective and reliable detective method for HBoV detection and will have broad application prospects in clinical diagnosis.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2014 Jul;39(7):655-7
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Two adult male patients with myocardial infarction underwent Ga-BNOTA-PRGD2 (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid [RGD]) PET/CT scans. The initial images that were acquired within 1 week after the cardiac event showed RGD retention in the infarcted regions in both patients. At follow-up Ga-BNOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT scans, RGD uptake was again noticed in the infracted region in the patient who was still had symptoms.Read More

However, in the patient who had become asymptomatic, RGD uptake in the infarcted region was no longer visualized.

Fish Shellfish Immunol.
Fish Shellfish Immunol 2014 Jul 2;39(1):17-23. Epub 2014 May 2.
College of the Environment & Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, we identified three white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains (WSSV-CN01, WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03) with significant differences in virulence. Among them, WSSV-CN01 caused significant higher and earlier mortality in redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, thus was determined as high-virulent, while WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03 were moderate-virulent and low-virulent. By investigating the total number of the circulating haemocytes and the activity of immune relative enzymes, we demonstrated that the different virulent WSSV strains induced distinct immune response in the host.Read More

Notably, a dramatic reduction of circulating haemocytes was observed in the crayfish infected with WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 but not WSSV-CN03. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 might be responsible for the decrease of circulating haemocytes.

Cancer Sci.
Cancer Sci 2014 Jul 3;105(7):755-62. Epub 2014 Jul 3.
169th Hospital, School of Medicine, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, China.

Osteosarcoma typically arises in tissues of mesenchymal origin, and is the most malignant bone tumor characterized by high local aggressiveness, with poor therapeutic outcome. Busulfan has been widely used to treat CML. So far, there are no reports on the therapeutic effect of busulfan on osteosarcoma.Read More

Here, we showed that busulfan dose-dependently reduced the cell viability and proliferation, and induced cell apoptosis, senescence, and reactive oxygen species levels in two osteosarcoma cell lines. Moreover, a series of loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments further indicated that busulfan may have its anti-osteosarcoma effect by upregulating the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family which subsequently downregulated its target genes ZEB1 and ZEB2. Furthermore, treatment with busulfan potentially inhibited the growth of implanted osteosarcoma in nude mice. Taken together, our data suggest that busulfan may have an anti-osteosarcoma effect through downregulating ZEB1 and ZEB2 through activating the miR-200 family, highlighting a possibility of using busulfan as a novel therapy for osteosarcoma.

Mol Med Rep
Mol Med Rep 2014 Jul 8;10(1):322-8. Epub 2014 May 8.
Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Soochow University, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Stem Cells, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215007, P.R. China.

Placental mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) have important biological properties and the potential for application in numerous clinical fields, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and myocardial repair. There are two types of MSCs in the placenta, amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) and chorion mesenchymal stem cells (CMSCs). By comparing the biological characteristics of human placental AMSCs with CMSCs, the present study identified that CD90‑ and CD166‑positive cells were located in the amniotic stroma and chorion stroma surrounding the vessels.Read More

In addition, the cultured AMSCs and CMSCs expressed high levels of CD73, CD90, CD105, CD29 and CD44; however they did not express CD14, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR. Furthermore, the amplification of the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL) in AMSCs and CMSCs was investigated in vitro. The results demonstrated that FL is able to promote the proliferation of AMSCs and CMSCs effectively in vitro, particularly that of CMSCs. In the FL group, the phenotype and the ability of AMSCs and CMSCs to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages did not change. Flt3, the receptor of FL, is expressed in AMSCs and CMSCs. In conclusion, mesenchymal stem cells with low immunogenicity were identified in the placental amniotic membrane and around the chorion axis. Furthermore, FL has a positive effect on the proliferation of AMSCs and CMSCs in vitro; however, does not affect their differentiation potential. It is particularly promising that FL is able to stimulate CMSCs to proliferate in vitro.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2014 Jul;39(7):605-8
From the Departments of *Nuclear Medicine, and †Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

The evaluation of the remaining pituitary tissue and recurrent or residual tumor after the pituitary adenoma resection is difficult. However, it is essential to assess the size of the recurrent tumor and remaining pituitary reserve before resurgery. This study aimed to distinguish the remaining pituitary tissue from pituitary adenoma with Ga 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N″,N″'-tetraacetic acid-D-Phe,Tyr3-octreotate (DOTATATE) and F-FDG PET imaging in patients status post transsphenoidal adenomectomy.Read More

Thirty-five patients with suspected recurrent/residual pituitary tumors were retrospectively evaluated. All of these patients underwent DOTATATE and FDG PET/CT within 1 week before additional surgery. The DOTATATE and FDG uptake levels were compared. The image findings were then compared with pathology results after the additional surgery.
Residual or recurrent pituitary adenoma were confirmed pathologically in all 35 patients. One recurrent pituitary adenoma did not have either DOTATATE or FDG uptake. In the remaining 34 adenomas, 33 had higher FDG uptake than DOTATATE uptake. In comparison, DOTATATE had significant higher uptake than FDG in the remaining pituitary tissues in all cases.
Different degree of uptake of Ga DOTATATE and F-FDG PET/CT in the remaining pituitary tissue and recurrent/residual pituitary tumor indicated that combined analysis of Ga DOTATATE and F-FDG PET/CT might be of clinical value in differentiating recurrent/residual pituitary adenoma from the remaining pituitary tissue.

Eur Spine J
Eur Spine J 2014 Jul 8. Epub 2014 Jul 8.
First Affliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Zhong shan road no. 222, Dalian, 116011, Liaoning, People's Republic of China,

The debate on the effects and outcome of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) has remained unresolved for nearly 20 years. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of OEC transplantation in chronic SCI patients.
Electronic databases, including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and MEDLINE, were searched to identify clinical therapeutic trials studying the use of OEC transplantation for SCI in humans.Read More

Each trial was analyzed in accordance with the criteria of the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0 and MOOSE. Data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.2 and Meta-Analyst Beta 3.13 software.
Eleven articles concerning 10 studies of 1,193 patients with chronic SCI treated with OEC transplantation were selected for review. All the articles had low methodological quality. Studies reported their outcomes using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale; the AISA motor, light touch, pinprick score; the Functional Independence Measure and (or) other measure methods. According to the available relevant data, the incidences of total adverse events and mortality were 7.68 % (n = 742) and 0.35 % (n = 566), respectively. The most frequently reported adverse events were fever, mild anemia, and syringomyelia; however, the statistical adverse events occurring in different studies were cerebrospinal fluid leakage (7.00 %, n = 586, 2 trials), sensory deterioration (0.70 %, n = 573, 2 trials), and both motor and sensory deterioration (0.68 %, n = 586, 2 trials).
Given the results from our study, we conclude that OEC transplantation appears to be safe, although the evidence for efficacy is modest and requires the support of prospective, randomized trials in larger cohorts of patients. Further randomized controlled trials utilizing strict therapy programs and implanted cell selections are needed to confirm these findings.

PLoS One 2014 15;9(7):e101406. Epub 2014 Jul 15.
Institute of Respiratory Disease, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

LPS-binding protein (LBP) and its ligand CD14 are located upstream of the signaling pathway for LPS-induced inflammation. Blocking LBP and CD14 binding might prevent LPS-induced inflammation. In previous studies, we obtained a peptide analog (MP12) for the LBP/CD14 binding site and showed that this peptide analog had anti-endotoxin activity.Read More

In this study, we used in vitro directed evolution for this peptide analog to improve its in vivo and in vitro anti-endotoxin activity.
We used error-prone PCR (ep-PCR) and induced mutations in the C-terminus of LBP and attached the PCR products to T7 phages to establish a mutant phage display library. The positive clones that competed with LBP for CD14 binding was obtained by screening. We used both in vivo and in vitro experiments to compare the anti-endotoxin activities of a polypeptide designated P1 contained in a positive clone and MP12.
11 positive clones were obtained from among target phages. Sequencing showed that 9 positive clones had a threonine (T) to methionine (M) mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. Compared to polypeptide MP12, polypeptide P1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α expression and NF-κB activity in U937 cells (P<0.05). Compared to MP12, P1 significantly improved arterial oxygen pressure, an oxygenation index, and lung pathology scores in LPS-induced ARDS rats (P<0.05).
By in vitro directed evolution of peptide analogs for the LBP/CD14 binding site, we established a new polypeptide (P1) with a threonine (T)-to-methionine (M) mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. This polypeptide had high anti-endotoxin activity in vitro and in vivo, which suggested that amino acid 287 in the C-terminus of LBP may play an important role in LBP binding with CD14.

Transl Stroke Res
Transl Stroke Res 2014 Jul 22. Epub 2014 Jul 22.
Cerebrovascular Diseases Research Institute, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 45 Changchun Street, Beijing, 100053, People's Republic of China.

Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) has been proved to protect the brain from stroke, but the precise mechanism remains not fully understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether RIPostC attenuates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. CHOP, a multifunctional transcription factor in ER stress, regulates the expression of genes related to apoptosis, such as Bim and Bcl-2.Read More

Male SD rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion, and RIPostC was induced by three cycles of 10 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion on bilateral femoral arteries immediately after ischemia. CHOP siRNA (CHOPi) and control siRNA (Coni) were injected into the right lateral ventricle 30 min before the beginning of ischemia. RIPostC, CHOPi, or RIPostC + CHOPi application reduced infarct volume, improved the neurological function, and decreased cell apoptosis. RIPostC increased the protein level of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and decreased the protein level of phosphorylated-EIF2α, caspase-12, and CHOP. Furthermore, the expression of CHOP, Bim and cleaved-caspase-3 was decreased, while Bcl-2 expression was increased in response to application of RIPostC, CHOPi, or RIPostC + CHOPi. In sum, RIPostC protects against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury in rats by attenuating ER stress response-induced apoptosis.

This paper investigates the feasibility of the resonant metalens for the imaging beyond the diffraction limit using a single sensor in the far-field. It is shown that the resonant metalens can be related to the super-resonance phenomenon. We demonstrate that the super-resonance supports the enhancement of the information capacity of an imaging system, which is responsible for the subwavelength imaging of the probed objects by using a single sensor in combination with a broadband illumination.Read More

Such imaging concept has its unique advantage of producing real-time data when an object is illuminated by broadband waves, without the harsh requirements such as near-field scanning, mechanical scanning, or antenna arrays. The proposed method is expected to find its applications in nanolithography, detection, sensing, and subwavelength imaging in the near future.

Acta Biomater
Acta Biomater 2014 Jun 27;10(6):2804-13. Epub 2014 Feb 27.
Department of Endodontics, Prosthodontics and Operative Dentistry, University of Maryland Dental School, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD 21250, USA. Electronic address:

Antibacterial and remineralizing dental composites and adhesives were recently developed to inhibit biofilm acids and combat secondary caries. It is not clear what effect these materials will have on dental pulps in vivo. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial and remineralizing restorations in a rat tooth cavity model, and determine pulpal inflammatory response and tertiary dentin formation.Read More

Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and antibacterial dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) were synthesized and incorporated into a composite and an adhesive. Occlusal cavities were prepared in the first molars of rats and restored with four types of restoration: control composite and adhesive; control plus DMADDM; control plus NACP; and control plus both DMADDM and NACP. At 8 or 30days, rat molars were harvested for histological analysis. For inflammatory cell response, regardless of time periods, the NACP group and the DMADDM+NACP group showed lower scores (better biocompatibility) than the control group (p=0.014 for 8days, p=0.018 for 30days). For tissue disorganization, NACP and DMADDM+NACP had better scores than the control (p=0.027) at 30days. At 8days, restorations containing NACP had a tertiary dentin thickness (TDT) that was five- to six-fold that of the control. At 30days, restorations containing NACP had a TDT that was four- to six-fold that of the control. In conclusion, novel antibacterial and remineralizing restorations were tested in rat teeth in vivo for the first time. Composite and adhesive containing NACP and DMADDM exhibited milder pulpal inflammation and much greater tertiary dentin formation than the control adhesive and composite. Therefore, the novel composite and adhesive containing NACP and DMADDM are promising as a new therapeutic restorative system to not only combat oral pathogens and biofilm acids as shown previously, but also facilitate the healing of the dentin-pulp complex.

Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2014 Jun 15;98(12):5607-18. Epub 2014 Mar 15.
Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Biometrology and Inspection and Quarantine, College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310018, People's Republic of China,

Ssk1-type response regulator proteins are the core elements of histidine-to-aspartate systems that mediate fungal stress tolerance, a determinant to the biocontrol potential of fungal entomopathogens. We characterized the functions of Beauveria bassiana Ssk1 (Bbssk1) by analyzing multi-phenotypic changes in ΔBbssk1 and differentially expressed genes in the digital gene expression (DGE) libraries of ΔBbssk1 and wild-type constructed under osmotic stress. The Bbssk1 disruption caused 25 % reductions in conidial yield and virulence to Spodoptera litura larvae and significant defects in tolerances to two osmotic salts (81-84 %), H2O2 oxidation (23 %), two fungicides (21-58 %), three cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors (25-36 %), and three metal ions (~8 %) during colony growth, respectively, but little changes in cell sensitivity to menadione oxidation and in conidial thermotolerance and UV-B resistance.Read More

RNA-seq analysis with the DGE libraries revealed differential expressions of 1,003 genes in the ΔBbssk1 genome. Of those, many associated with conidiation, stress response, xenobiotic transport, cell wall integrity, and protein/carbohydrate metabolism were remarkably down-regulated, including the genes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway that downstream of Bbssk1. Our results indicate that Bbssk1 regulates positively the expressions of the MAPK cascade in the pathway of B. bassiana and many more downstream genes associated with conidiation, multi-stress tolerance, and virulence.

J. Pathol.
J Pathol 2014 Jun;233(2):113-23
Department of Surgery, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Cullin4A (Cul4A) is a scaffold protein that assembles cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (E3) complexes and regulates many cellular events, including cell survival, development, growth and cell cycle control. Our previous study suggested that Cul4A is oncogenic in vitro, but its oncogenic role in vivo has not been studied. Here, we used a Cul4A transgenic mouse model to study the potential oncogenic role of Cul4A in lung tumour development.Read More

After Cul4A over-expression was induced in the lungs for 32 weeks, atypical epithelial cells were observed. After 40 weeks, lung tumours were visible and were characterized as grade I or II adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed decreased levels of Cul4A-associated proteins p21(CIP1) and tumour suppressor p19(ARF) in the lung tumours, suggesting that Cul4A regulated their expression in these tumours. Increased levels of p27(KIP1) and p16(INK4a) were also detected in these tumours. Moreover, the protein level of DNA replication licensing factor CDT1 was decreased. Genomic instability in the lung tumours was further analysed by the results from pericentrin protein expression and array comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Furthermore, knocking down Cul4A expression in lung cancer H2170 cells increased their sensitivity to the chemotherapy drug cisplatin in vitro, suggesting that Cul4A over-expression is associated with cisplatin resistance in the cancer cells. Our findings indicate that Cul4A is oncogenic in vivo, and this Cul4A mouse model is a tool in understanding the mechanisms of Cul4A in human cancers and for testing experimental therapies targeting Cul4A.

J. Virol.
J Virol 2014 Jun 9;88(12):7045-53. Epub 2014 Apr 9.
State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China

Prophylactic and therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to combat infections caused by the newly emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here, we have developed a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb), designated Mersmab1, which potently blocks MERS-CoV entry into human cells. Biochemical assays reveal that Mersmab1 specifically binds to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the MERS-CoV spike protein and thereby competitively blocks the binding of the RBD to its cellular receptor, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4).Read More

Furthermore, alanine scanning of the RBD has identified several residues at the DPP4-binding surface that serve as neutralizing epitopes for Mersmab1. These results suggest that if humanized, Mersmab1 could potentially function as a therapeutic antibody for treating and preventing MERS-CoV infections. Additionally, Mersmab1 may facilitate studies of the conformation and antigenicity of MERS-CoV RBD and thus will guide rational design of MERS-CoV subunit vaccines.
MERS-CoV is spreading in the human population and causing severe respiratory diseases with over 40% fatality. No vaccine is currently available to prevent MERS-CoV infections. Here, we have produced a neutralizing monoclonal antibody with the capacity to effectively block MERS-CoV entry into permissive human cells. If humanized, this antibody may be used as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against MERS-CoV infections. Specifically, when given to a person (e.g., a patient's family member or a health care worker) either before or after exposure to MERS-CoV, the humanized antibody may prevent or inhibit MERS-CoV infection, thereby stopping the spread of MERS-CoV in humans. This antibody can also serve as a useful tool to guide the design of effective MERS-CoV vaccines.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2014 Jun 15;18(6):425-9. Epub 2014 Apr 15.
1 Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University , Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China .

Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) plays an important role in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids and hepatocyte function and was recently proposed to be a functional receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV).
This study investigated the association of the functional polymorphism c.800C>T (p.Read More

S267F) (rs2296651) of the NTCP gene with HBV infection.
The study included 244 patients with chronic HBV infection, 76 HBV infection resolvers, and 113 healthy controls. The polymorphism was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method.
The distribution of the genotype and allele frequency of rs2296651 polymorphism was significantly different among the HBV patients, HBV infection resolvers, and healthy controls (p=0.034 and p=0.039, respectively). The frequency of genotype CT in HBV patients was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (11.9% vs. 4.4%, p=0.026, odds ratios [OR]=2.913, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI]=1.097-7.738). The frequency of allele T in HBV patients was also significantly higher than that in healthy controls (5.9% vs. 2.2%, p=0.029, OR=2.793, 95% CI=1.067-7.312). The frequency of genotype CT and allele T in HBV patients was higher than that in HBV infection resolvers although the difference was not significant. The genotype and allele frequency between infection resolvers and healthy controls and between HBV patients with different clinical diseases had no significant difference.
These findings suggest that the rs2296651 polymorphism may predispose the susceptibility to and chronicity of HBV infection.

Int. Immunopharmacol.
Int Immunopharmacol 2014 Jun 13;20(2):298-306. Epub 2014 Apr 13.
Clinical Laboratory Diagnostic Center, Urumqi General Hospital of Lanzhou Military Region, Urumqi 830000, Xinjiang, China. Electronic address:

Inflammatory responses are important to host immune reactions, but uncontrolled inflammatory mediators may aid in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory diseases. Geniposide, an iridoid glycoside found in the herb gardenia, is believed to have broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory effects in murine models but its mechanism of action is unclear. We investigated the action of this compound in murine macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as the stimulation of macrophages by LPS is known to induce inflammatory reactions.Read More

We determined the effect of geniposide on LPS-induced production of the inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the mRNA and protein expression of the NO and PGE2 synthases, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), respectively, and the mRNA and protein expression of the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein (AP)-1 activity were assayed. To understand the action of geniposide on the NF-κB and MAPK pathways, we studied the effect of NF-κB and MAPK inhibitors on the LPS-induced production of NO, PGE2 and TNF-α. Our findings clearly showed that geniposide mainly exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the LPS-induced NF-κB, MAPK and AP-1 signaling pathways in macrophages, which subsequently reduces overexpression of the inducible enzymes iNOS and COX-2 and suppresses the expression and release of the inflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-6, NO and PGE2. Thus, geniposide shows promise as a therapeutic agent in inflammatory diseases.

Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2014 Jun 16;112(6):519-24. Epub 2014 Apr 16.
Section of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Potential vitamin D-related influences on inflammatory diseases such as asthma are controversial, including the suggestion that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with increased asthma morbidity. Vitamin D-binding protein transports vitamin D metabolites in the circulation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the GC gene encoding vitamin D-binding protein are associated with circulating vitamin D metabolite levels in healthy infants and toddlers.Read More

To test the hypothesis that GC single nucleotide polymorphisms encoding the D432E and T436K variants predict subsequent development of asthma in healthy children.
A retrospective medical record review was performed to determine the development of asthma in 776 children in whom GC genotype, vitamin D-binding protein concentration, and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D had been determined at 6 to 36 months of age. Demographic and detailed current clinical data were collected and criteria for asthma were recorded.
GC genotype was available for 463 subjects. After an initial analysis of all subject data, the analysis was limited to the predominant Hispanic population (72.1%) to minimize potential confounding effects of ethnicity. Asthma was diagnosed in 87 children (26%). Subjects with the GC genotype encoding the ET/ET (Gc1s/Gc1s) variant had lower odds of developing asthma, representing a protective effect compared with subjects with the DT/DT (Gc1f/Gc1f) variant.
In the Hispanic population of inner-city New Haven, Connecticut, the ET/ET (Gc1s/Gc1s) genotype of vitamin D-binding protein might confer protection against the development of asthma compared with the wild-type genotype DT/DT (Gc1f/Gc1f).

PLoS One 2014 30;9(5):e98251. Epub 2014 May 30.
Department of General Surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital to Nantong University, Wuxi, China.

Breast cancer, one of the most common malignancies diagnosed among women worldwide, is a complex polygenic disease in the etiology of which genetic factors play an important role. Thus far, a subset of breast cancer genetic susceptibility loci has been addressed among Asian woman through genome-wide association studies (GWASs). In this study, we identified numerous long, intergenic, noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) enriched in these breast cancer risk-related loci and identified 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the sequences of lincRNA exonic regions.Read More

We examined whether these 16 SNPs are associated with breast cancer risk in 2539 cancer patients and 2818 control subjects from eastern, southern, and northern Chinese populations. We found that the C allele of the rs12325489C>T polymorphism in the exonic regions of lincRNA-ENST00000515084 was associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.50-2.12), compared with the rs12325489TT genotype. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the C to T base change at rs12325489C>T disrupts the binding site for miRNA-370, thereby influencing the transcriptional activity of lincRNA-ENST00000515084 in vitro and in vivo, and affecting cell proliferation and tumor growth. Our findings indicate that the rs12325489C>T polymorphism in the lincRNA-ENST00000515084 exon may be a genetic modifier in the development of breast cancer.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2014 Jun 3. Epub 2014 Jun 3.
Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

Opioid addiction is a major social, economic, and medical problem worldwide. Long-term adverse consequences of chronic opiate exposure not only involve the individuals themselves but also their offspring. Adolescent maternal morphine exposure results in behavior and morphologic changes in the brain of their adult offspring.Read More

However, few studies investigate the effect of adult opiate exposure on their offspring. Furthermore, the underlying molecular signals regulating the intergenerational effects of morphine exposure are still elusive. We report here that morphine exposure of adult male and female rats resulted in anxiety-like behavior and dendritic retraction in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus in their adult offspring. The behavior and morphologic changes were concomitant with the downregulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-2 signaling in the granular zone of DG. Overexpression of hippocampal IGF-2 by bilateral intra-DG injection of lentivirus encoding the IGF-2 gene prevented anxiety-like behaviors in the offspring. Furthermore, exposure to an enriched environment during adolescence corrected the reduction of hippocampal IGF-2 expression, normalized anxiety-like behavior and reversed dendritic retraction in the adult offspring. Thus, parental morphine exposure can lead to the downregulation of hippocampal IGF-2, which contributed to the anxiety and hippocampal dendritic retraction in their offspring. An adolescent-enriched environment experience prevented the behavior and morphologic changes in their offspring through hippocampal IGF-2 signaling. IGF-2 and an enriched environment may be a potential intervention to prevention of anxiety and brain atrophy in the offspring of parental opioid exposure.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 9 July 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.128.

Chin. Med. J.
Chin Med J (Engl) 2014 ;127(11):2101-4
Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China. Email:

Knowledge on Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) kinetics in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with long-term adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) treatment is limited. The aims of this study were to investigate HBsAg kinetics in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection treated with long-term ADV and to evaluate different characteristics between patients with and without HBsAg loss.
We retrospectively evaluated HBsAg kinetics in 24 Chinese patients with chronic HBV infection who achieved continuous virologic suppression during ADV therapy.Read More

HBV genotype was determined at baseline. Liver biochemistry, hepatitis B e antigen status, serum HBV DNA, and HBsAg levels were measured at baseline, 6 months, and once every year thereafter.
Of these 24 patients, 3, 1, and 20 patients were followed up for 3, 5, and 6 years, respectively. Baseline serum HBsAg level had a moderate correlation with baseline HBV DNA level (r = 0.52, P = 0.01). The median rate of HBsAg reduction during the therapy period was 0.08 lg IU × ml(-1) × y(-1). Baseline serum HBsAg level was significantly higher than other time points (P ranges from 0.046 to 0.002). The HBsAg reduction rate during the first year was similar to that in other years (P > 0.05). The HBsAg reduction rate during the first year in patients with eventual HBsAg loss was significantly faster than that in patients without HBsAg loss (P = 0.005).
Serum HBsAg levels in Chinese CHB patients receiving long-term ADV demonstrated a gradual reduction. Patients with eventual HBsAg loss had a significantly faster HBsAg reduction rate during the first year than those without HBsAg loss.

PLoS One 2014 6;9(6):e98476. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

About 350-400 million people are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically and 1 million people die of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver diseases. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) have been used for the treatment against HBV. However, few studies have investigated the long-term effects of different nucleos(t)ide analogues on levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).Read More

The aims of this study were to measure the magnitude of HBsAg reduction by long-term monotherapy with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and entecavir (ETV), to compare HBsAg reduction between the two drugs of different potency and to predict the expected time needed to achieve HBsAg loss.
We retrospectively evaluated the kinetics of HBsAg in 67 patients with CHB who all exhibited persistent viral suppression. These patients were treated with ADV or ETV for at least 6 years. HBV genotype was determined at baseline. Liver biochemistry, HBV serological markers, serum HBV DNA and HBsAg titers were determined at baseline, half year and yearly from year 1 to 6.
Serum HBsAg titers after treatment with ADV or ETV were significantly lower than the baseline titers (P<0.05). HBsAg reduction rate of patients treated with ETV (0.11 log10 IU/mL/ year) was higher than that treated with ADV (0.10 log10 IU/mL/year), and the calculated expected time to HBsAg loss for patients treated with ETV (approximate 24.99 years) was shorter than that with ADV (approximate 30.33 years), but there was no statistically significant difference between two groups (P>0.05).
Serum HBsAg titers gradually decreased during long-term treatment with either ADV or ETV. It appears that the potency of ADV on HBsAg reduction is close to that of ETV, as long as patients have achieved persistent viral suppression.

Theranostics 2014 25;4(8):778-86. Epub 2014 May 25.
1. Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China;

Ischemic vascular diseases, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, have been found to be associated with elevated expression of αvβ3-integrin, which provides a promising target for semi-quantitative monitoring of the disease. For the first time, we employed (68)Ga-S-2-(isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid-PEG3-E[c(RGDyK)]2 ((68)Ga-PRGD2) to evaluate the αvβ3-integrin-related repair in post-MI and post-stroke patients via positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT).
With Institutional Review Board approval, 23 MI patients (3 days-2 years post-MI) and 16 stroke patients (3 days-13 years post-stroke) were recruited.Read More

After giving informed consent, each patient underwent a cardiac or brain PET/CT scan 30 min after the intravenous injection of (68)Ga-PRGD2 in a dose of approximately 1.85 MBq (0.05 mCi) per kilogram body weight. Two stroke patients underwent repeat scans three months after the event.
Patchy (68)Ga-PRGD2 uptake occurred in or around the ischemic regions in 20/23 MI patients and punctate multifocal uptake occurred in 8/16 stroke patients. The peak standardized uptake values (pSUVs) in MI were 1.94 ± 0.48 (mean ± SD; range, 0.62-2.69), significantly higher than those in stroke (mean ± SD, 0.46 ± 0.29; range, 0.15-0.93; P < 0.001). Higher (68)Ga-PRGD2 uptake was observed in the patients 1-3 weeks after the initial onset of the MI/stroke event. The uptake levels were significantly correlated with the diameter of the diseases (r = 0.748, P = 0.001 for MI and r = 0.835, P = 0.003 for stroke). Smaller or older lesions displayed no uptake.
(68)Ga-PRGD2 uptake was observed around the ischemic region in both MI and stroke patients, which was correlated with the disease phase and severity. The different image patterns and uptake levels in MI and stroke patients warrant further investigations.

Int Urol Nephrol
Int Urol Nephrol 2014 Jun 26. Epub 2014 Jun 26.
Department of Blood Purification Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou, 213003, People's Republic of China,

Previous observational studies using differing methodologies have yielded inconsistent results regarding the association between glycemic control and outcomes in diabetic patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between HbA1c and survival in diabetic MHD patients in Han Chinese population.
A 5-year cohort (October 2007-December 2013) of 236 diabetic MHD patients with HbA1c data was examined for associations between HbA1c and mortality.Read More

Death hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regressions.
Two hundred and thirty-six diabetes patients undergoing MHD in clinics over 5 years were included in our study. Unadjusted survival analyses indicated paradoxically lower death HRs with higher HbA1c values. However, after adjusting for potential confounders (demographics, dialysis vintage, comorbidity, anemia, and inflammation), higher HbA1c values were incrementally associated with higher death risks.
Poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8 %) appears to be associated with decreased survival in the general population of diabetic MHD patients. Our study suggests that moderate hyperglycemia increases the risk for all-cause mortality of diabetic MHD patients in Han Chinese population.

Mater Sociomed
Mater Sociomed 2014 Jun 21;26(3):156-7. Epub 2014 Jun 21.
Department of Gynecology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

To evaluate the effects and safeness of combined hysterolaparoscopy on evaluation the causes of infertility.
This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Gynecology (The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) from January 2011 to April 2014. Patients aged 21-43 years with infertility were included in this study.Read More

The prevalence of different lesions was collected to analyze.
132 infertile patients were included, 71 (53.8%) women had primary infertility and the rest 61 (46.2%) had secondary infertility. Laparoscopic abnormalites were more common than hysteroscopy abnormalites both in primary infertility group and secondary infertility group. Pelvic inflammatory disease (59.09 %) and endometriosis (29.55%) were the most common abnormalities in two groups. The most common intrauterine pathology was uterine polyps and the most common uterine malformation was uterine septum in two groups. Out of 12 patients having malformation uterus, only one was double uterus and double cervical with double vagina. There was no major surgical or anesthetic complication in any of our patients, other than mild abdominal pain.
Hysterolaparoscopy is an effective and safe tool in comprehensive evaluation of infertility to diagnosis and treat the lesions of pelvic and uterus in the same time. Hysterolaparoscopy may be recommended as the first and final procedure for evaluation of female infertility.

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Jun;49(6):367-70
Department of Prosthodontics, College of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

To systematically investigate the aging effect of thermocycling, water storage and bacteria aggression on the stability of resin-dentin bonds.
Forty molars were sectioned perpendicularly to the axis of the teeth to expose the middle-coronal dentin surfaces. The dentin surfaces were then treated with Single Bond 2 and made a core build-up.Read More

According to random digits table, the bonding specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10) as follows: immediate control group, aging group with thermocycling for 5 000 times, aging group with artificial saliva storage for 6 months and aging group with bacteria aggression for 14 days. The specimens in each group were then subjected to microtensile bond strengths (µTBS) testing and nanoleakage evaluation respectively.
After aging treatments, the three aging groups showed significantly lower µTBS than the immediate control group [(44.24 ± 12.75) MPa, P < 0.05]. The immediate control group also showed the lowest value of nanoleakage. The µTBS of aging group with bacteria aggression [(25.53 ± 7.39) MPa] was significantly lower than those of the other aging groups with artificial saliva storage[(29.72 ± 6.51) MPa] and thermocycling [(31.92 ± 11.87) MPa, P < 0.05]. There were no differences in the nanoleakage values among the three aging groups (P > 0.05).
All the aging treatments with artificial saliva storage, thermocycling and bacteria aggression could accelerate the degradation of bonding interfaces between an etch-and-rinse adhesive and dentin. Bacteria aggression showed the most impairing effect on the stability of resin-dentin bonds.

Behav. Brain Res.
Behav Brain Res 2014 May 22;265:76-83. Epub 2014 Feb 22.
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, XiangYa School of Medicine, Central South University, Tongzipo Road 172, Changsha, Hunan, PR China. Electronic address:

An enriched environment has been shown to influence brain plasticity and function by involving the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF, which is synthesized as a precursor molecule (proBDNF) that undergoes proteolytic cleavage, plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and contributes to several brain functions such as memory, learning, and behavior. The neurotrophins and proneurotrophins often play opposite roles in the brain, suggesting that proteolytic cleavage of proneurotrophins controls the action of neurotrophins.Read More

However, few studies have focused on the expression and cleavage of proBDNF after exposure to an enriched environment. Our study aimed to explore the effects of an early-enriched environment on the conversion of proBDNF to BDNF in the adult rats' hippocampus. We found that there was no difference in the expression of proBDNF in the hippocampus between the SE (standard environment) and EE (enriched environment) rats, but a significantly increased BDNF protein level was found in the EE rats. Thus, a remarkably enhanced ratio of BDNF to proBDNF (BDNF/proBDNF) was observed in the EE rats. In addition, the EE resulted in a remarkably up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the hippocampus, which played a key role in converting proBDNF to BDNF in the extracellular space. Furthermore, the expression of synapse-related proteins (NR1 and NR2A) was analyzed, and the results indicated that EE could significantly increase the expression of NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus. In addition, the behavioral results showed that EE reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test and reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, the EE resulted in an increased preference for sucrose compared to the SE. These results suggested that the EE up-regulated MMP-9 levels within the hippocampus, which might facilitate the conversion of proBDNF to BDNF, thereby contributing to the long lasting alterations of synaptic plasticity and behavior.

Neurosci. Lett.
Neurosci Lett 2014 May 28;567:74-9. Epub 2014 Mar 28.
Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China. Electronic address:

Migraine is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent moderate-to-severe headaches often associated with numerous autonomic nervous system symptoms, and it is more prevalent in women. To fully understand the underlying mechanism, standard electrophysiology was performed with trigeminal ganglion neurons (TGNs) isolated from adult rats of both genders using the whole-cell patch clamp technique to test the distribution, neuroexcitability, and chemosensitivity to histamine. In addition to traditionally classified A- and C-type TGNs, myelinated Ah-type TGNs were also observed in females.Read More

The electrophysiological features showed low firing threshold and the capability to fire repetitively upon stimulation. Ah-type neurons also functionally expressed persistent TTX-R Na(+) channels with more hyperpolarized activating voltage. Iberiotoxin and NS11021 significantly altered the discharge profiles of Ah-type TGNs. Finally, Ah-type TGNs showed a more potent reaction to histamine, with relatively larger inward currents and membrane depolarization compared with C-types. These data provide evidence of the gender-specific distribution of myelinated Ah-type TGNs in adult female rats, characterized by a low threshold and high frequency of firing that are at least partially attributable to persistent TTX-R Na(+) and BK-KCa channel expression and potent chemosensitivity to histamine, suggesting that Ah-type TGNs may play a key role in gender differences in migraine.

Oxid Med Cell Longev
Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014 23;2014:376515. Epub 2014 Mar 23.
Department of Cardiology, Beijing An Zhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Vessel Disease, Beijing 100029, China.

Nitrates are the most frequently prescribed and utilized drugs worldwide. The elderly are a major population receiving nitrate therapy. Both nitrates and aging can increase in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS).Read More

To date, the effects of aging upon nitrate-induced ROS/RNS alteration are unknown. The present study tested the effects of aging upon nitrate-induced ROS/RNS alteration in vivo. 32 adults and 43 elderly unstable angina (UA) patients were subjected to 48 hours of isosorbide dinitrate intravenous injection (50  μg/minutes) in this clinical study. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and conclusion. Outcome measures of oxidative stress included plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and reduced glutathione (GSH). Plasma concentrations of NOx and nitrotyrosine served as markers of RNS. Because of the significant differences in basic clinical characters between adults and the elderly, we designed an additional experiment determining ROS/RNS stress in rat cardiac tissue. Additionally, rat thoracic aortic NOS activity served as a marker indicating endothelial function. Our study demonstrated that nitrate therapy significantly increased in vivo ROS/RNS stress in the elderly compared to adult patients, confirmed by animal data. Decreased NOS activity was observed in old rats. Taken together, the present study's data suggests a synergism between nitrate treatment and the aging process.

Ind Health
Ind Health 2014 May 7. Epub 2014 May 7.
Department of Nursing, Meiho University, Taiwan.

The purposes of this study were to explore the relationships among family stress, social support and job stress in female married hospital nurses. Married female nurses had to face both paid hospital work and unpaid domestic work, and double workloads might lead to more stress of female married nurses. Most studies were limited to explore the correlations of job stresses caused from jobs only, and ignored the affecting factors from family stresses.Read More

233 hospital nurses were recruited in this study. The results showed that the family stresses (p<0.01) and working units (p=0.01) were important predictors of the Effort-Reward imbalance (high job stress). Nurses' ladder levels (p=0.004) and family stress (p=0.002) were the main factors related to married female nurses' presence of high overcommitment. Family stress, working units and nurse's ladder levels have a significant difference on job stresses among hospital married female nurses. Nurse managers may provide educational programs related to family stress reliefs to married female nurses and their husbands to alleviate their family stresses. Future studies might incorporate personalities and coping strategies to further investigate the relationships between social supports and job stresses.

J. Microbiol.
J Microbiol 2014 May 9;52(5):407-12. Epub 2014 May 9.
Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, 266580, P.R. China,

In the effluents of a biologically treated wastewater from a heavy oil-refining plant, C5-C8 fatty acids including pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, and 2-methylbutanoic acid are often detected. As these residual fatty acids can cause further air and water pollution, a new Myroides isolate ZB35 from activated sludge was explored to degrade these C5-C8 fatty acids in this study. It was found that the biodegradation process involved a lag phase that became prolonged with increasing acyl chain length when the fatty acids were individually fed to this strain.Read More

However, when fed as a mixture, the ones with longer acyl chains were found to become more quickly assimilated. The branched 2-methylbutanoic acid was always the last one to be depleted among the five fatty acids under both conditions. Metabolite analysis revealed one possible origin of short chain fatty acids in the biologically treated wastewater. Aroma volatiles including 2-methylbutyl isovalerate, isoamyl 2-methylbutanoate, isoamyl isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate were subsequently identified from ZB35 extracts, linking the source of the fruity odor to these esters excreted by Myroides species. To our best knowledge, this is the first finding of these aroma esters in bacteria. From a biotechnological viewpoint, this study has revealed the potential of Myroides species as a promising source of aroma esters attractive for food and fragrance industries.

J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
J Interferon Cytokine Res 2014 May 8. Epub 2014 May 8.
1 Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University , Xi'an, China .

B-lymphocyte activation is a common characteristic of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. B cell-activating factor (BAFF) plays a crucial role in the development and activation of B lymphocytes. This study investigated serum BAFF levels in 232 patients with different clinical diseases of chronic HBV infection [33 chronic asymptomatic HBV carrier (ASC), 53 chronic hepatitis (CH), 72 liver cirrhosis (LC), and 74 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)] and 61 gender- and age-matched healthy controls.Read More

Serum BAFF levels in HBV patients were significantly elevated compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). HCC patients had significantly higher levels of serum BAFF than ASC, CH, and LC (all P<0.001). Serum levels of BAFF in LC were significantly higher than in ASC (P<0.001) and CH (P=0.002). Serum level of BAFF was an independent variable associated with the presence of HCC in comparison with other disease groups in multivariate analysis. The area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of BAFF levels was 0.914 for HCC versus ASC, 0.825 for HCC versus CH, and 0.607 for HCC versus LC, respectively. The AUC value of BAFF levels was 0.854 for LC versus ASC and 0.748 for LC versus CH, respectively. The AUC value of BAFF (0.888) for HCC was higher than that of alpha-fetoprotein (0.776). We first demonstrate that serum BAFF levels in chronic HBV infection are elevated, correlated with clinical diseases, and could be used as a biomarker for indicating disease mechanisms, activity, and diagnosis.

PLoS One 2014 9;9(5):e96517. Epub 2014 May 9.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Previously we observed that dual phase 11C-acetate positron emission tomography (AC-PET) could be employed for differential diagnosis of liver malignancies. In this study, we prospectively evaluated the effect of dual phase AC-PET on differential diagnosis of primary hepatic lesions of 1-3 cm in size.
33 patients having primary hepatic lesions with size of 1-3 cm in diameter undertook dual phase AC-PET scans.Read More

Procedure included an early upper-abdomen scan immediately after tracer injection and a conventional scan in 11-18 min. The standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated for tumor (SUVT) and normal tissue (SUVB), from which 11C-acetate uptake ratio (as lesion against normal liver tissue, SUVT/SUVB) in early imaging (R1), conventional imaging (R2), and variance between R2 and R1 (ΔR) were derived. Diagnoses based on AC-PET data and histology were compared. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0.
20 patients were found to have HCC and 13 patients had benign tumors. Using ΔR>0 as criterion for malignancy, the accuracy and specificity were significantly increased comparing with conventional method. The area under ROC curve (AUC) for R1, R2, and ΔR were 0.417, 0.683 and 0.831 respectively. Differential diagnosis between well-differentiated HCCs and benign lesions of FNHs and hemangiomas achieved 100% correct. Strong positive correlation was also found between R1 and R2 in HCC (r2 = 0.55, P<0.001).
Dual phase AC-PET scan is a useful procedure for differential diagnosis of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma and benign lesions. The dynamic changes of 11C-acetate uptake in dual phase imaging provided key information for final diagnosis.

PLoS One 2014 9;9(5):e97265. Epub 2014 May 9.
College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

Anaerobic digestion is a promising alternative to disposal organic waste and co-digestion of mixed organic wastes has recently attracted more interest. This study investigated the effects of temperature and carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio on the performance of anaerobic co-digestion of dairy manure (DM), chicken manure (CM) and rice straw (RS). We found that increased temperature improved the methane potential, but the rate was reduced from mesophilic (30∼40°C) to thermophilic conditions (50∼60°C), due to the accumulation of ammonium nitrogen and free ammonia and the occurrence of ammonia inhibition.Read More

Significant ammonia inhibition was observed with a C/N ratio of 15 at 35°C and at a C/N ratio of 20 at 55°C. The increase of C/N ratios reduced the negative effects of ammonia and maximum methane potentials were achieved with C/N ratios of 25 and 30 at 35°C and 55°C, respectively. When temperature increased, an increase was required in the feed C/N ratio, in order to reduce the risk of ammonia inhibition. Our results revealed an interactive effect between temperature and C/N on digestion performance.

Chin. Med. J.
Chin Med J (Engl) 2014 May;127(10):1879-83
Department of Urology, Ningbo First Hospital, Medical College of Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315000, China.

Shang Ring male circumcision (MC) is a safe surgery with good short-term effects. This retrospective study was performed to investigate the long-term result of patients who had undergone Shang Ring MC.
A total of 103 patients who underwent the surgery were recruited in the study.Read More

Before and after the surgery, a questionnaire inquiring sexual function and sexual satisfaction was filled up. Face-to-face interview was executed. Physical examination of the external genitals was performed and complications were evaluated.
The median follow-up duration was 19.1 months (range from 9 to 28 months). The mean width of penile mucosa was (9.3 ± 2.5) mm. The mean width of scar was (3.7 ± 1.6) mm. No tender pain was found in participants when palpating the penis. No significant or functional complication was observed except of mucosa asymmetry in one case and scar hyperplasia in two cases. The postoperative sexual function did not differ from the preoperative one, although partners showed better satisfaction toward sexual life.
Shang Ring MC represents a good long-term cosmetic result with no significant complication or adverse effects on sexual function.

Australas Phys Eng Sci Med
Australas Phys Eng Sci Med 2014 May 17. Epub 2014 May 17.
Digital Medical Research Center, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, PO Box 251, 138 Yixueyuan Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

The authors present a tablet-based image-guided neurosurgery system that transmits navigation information from a host to a movable tablet PC via a wireless local area network, and displays this information on the tablet screen. With this new system, surgeons can obtain standard navigation information on the tablet screen to avoid large view switching between the surgical field and the navigation screen of the computer monitor. In addition, this system can also provide additional navigation information by displaying arbitrary sectional images and maximum intensity projection images on the tablet screen.Read More

These images are generated according to the position and orientation of the tablet screen, and can be used to locate intracranial tumor for preoperative planning and intraoperative procedures in neurosurgery. The average tracking error was approximately 1.25 mm. A dry skull specimen study verified the feasibility of the proposed system. Furthermore, an actual patient's surgery with this system showed its clinical applicability.

Reservoir computing is a new bio-inspired computation paradigm. It exploits a dynamical system driven by a time-dependent input to carry out computation. For efficient information processing, only a few parameters of the reservoir needs to be tuned, which makes it a promising framework for hardware implementation.Read More

Recently, electronic, opto-electronic and all-optical experimental reservoir computers were reported. In those implementations, the nonlinear response of the reservoir is provided by active devices such as optoelectronic modulators or optical amplifiers. By contrast, we propose here the first reservoir computer based on a fully passive nonlinearity, namely the saturable absorption of a semiconductor mirror. Our experimental setup constitutes an important step towards the development of ultrafast low-consumption analog computers.

In the present paper, the authors calculated the plasma's peak electron temperatures under different heat source separation distance in laser- pulse GMAW hybrid welding based on Boltzmann spectrometry. Plasma's peak electron densities under the corresponding conditions were also calculated by using the Stark width of the plasma spectrum. Combined with high-speed photography, the effect of heat source separation distance on electron temperature and electron density was studied.Read More

The results show that with the increase in heat source separation distance, the electron temperatures and electron densities of laser plasma did not changed significantly. However, the electron temperatures of are plasma decreased, and the electron densities of are plasma first increased and then decreased.

J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2014 Apr 19;140(4):633-43. Epub 2014 Feb 19.
Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410078, People's Republic of China.

Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is a pattern recognition receptor and plays key roles in inflammatory responses against pathogen infection. Recent evidence suggests that TLR5 is expressed in a wide variety of tumors and exhibits either pro-tumor or anti-tumor activities. In this study, we explored expression of TLR5 in the context of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and evaluated the effects of TLR5 signaling in NSCLC cells.Read More

The lung carcinoma samples were collected from 113 patients diagnosed as NSCLC at Tumor Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine from January 2005 to December 2008. Immunohistochemistry was performed for TLR5 and the protein expression score was quantified using an established scoring system. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in all patients. TLR5 expression levels were correlated with DFS and OS using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Expression and subcellular localization of TLR5 were analyzed in NSCLC cell lines including SPC-A1, A549, H1975, and H1299 cells. Activation of TLR5 signaling pathway by flagellin was characterized by western blotting. Effects of flagellin on NSCLC cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion were analyzed by BrdU incorporation assay, soft agar colony formation assay, wound-healing migration assay, and transwell invasion assay, respectively.
High expression of TLR5 was significantly associated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. We further demonstrated that activation of TLR5 by flagellin in NSCLC cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro.
TLR5 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC patients.

Clin Nucl Med
Clin Nucl Med 2014 Apr;39(4):409-12
From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Crossed cerebellar hypometabolism on 18F-FDG PET has been well described. However, crossed cerebellar hypermetabolism is rare. We described a case of crossed cerebellar hypermetabolism in a middle-aged woman.Read More

The patient underwent FDG PET to assess epileptogenic focus during her subclinical seizure episode, which was shown on video electroencephalography. The crossed cerebellar hypermetabolism was no longer visualized when her subclinical seizure was controlled.

Nanoscale 2014 Apr;6(8):4063-6
Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha, P.R. China.

Plate-like heterogeneous NiO/WO₃ nanocomposites have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH)₂ and H₂WO₄ in air. These NiO/WO₃ nanocomposites have shown excellent sensitivity towards NO₂ and ultrafast response at room temperature due to their p-n heterogeneous characteristics.Read More

To explore the expression of breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2), p-glycoprotein (P-gp) in residual breast cancer tissue after chemotherapy and their correlation with epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT).
Seventy-six cases of breast cancer were collected. The expression of ABCG2, P-gp and EMT markers E-cadherin and vimentin in residual breast cancer tissue after chemotherapy was detected by immunohistochemistry (EnVision method).Read More

MCF7 cells were divided into three group:untreated control group, positive control (TGF-β1 induced) group and drug surviving cells (DSC) group (selected viable MCF7 cells after docetaxel and epirubicin treatment). The expression of EMT markers E-cadherin and vimentin was detected by immunofluorescence. The mRNA and protein expression of ABCG2, P-gp and EMT markers were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively.
Compared with breast cancer tissue before chemotherapy, ABCG2, P-gp and vimentin protein were highly expressed in residual breast cancer tissue after chemotherapy. The expression of ABCG2 and P-gp correlated positively with vimentin protein (r1=0.97, P1=0.000; r2=0.83, P2=0.001) and negatively with E-cadherin protein (r3=-0.55, P3=0.010; r4=-0.43, P4=0.020) expression. RT-PCR results showed that ABCG2, P-gp and vimentin mRNA were highly expressed in residual breast cancer tissue after chemotherapy. The expression of ABCG2 and P-gp mRNA correlated positively with vimentin mRNA (r1=0.99, r2=0.96, P<0.05) but negatively with E-cadherin protein (r3=-0.99, r4=-0.98, P<0.05); Western blot showed that ABCG2, P-gp and vimentin protein were highly expressed in residual breast cancer tissue after chemotherapy. The expression of ABCG2 and P-gp protein correlated positively with vimentin protein (r1=0.98, r2=0.89, P<0.05) and negatively with E-cadherin protein (r3=-0.47, r4=-0.33, P<0.05).
The expression of resistance-associated proteins in the residual breast cancer tissue after chemotherapy is significantly correlated with EMT. The expression of EMT profile may be one of important mechanisms for multidrug resistance in breast cancer.

Chlorophyll concentration and photosynthesis activity fluorescence parameters of Chlorella pyrenoidosa stressed by different concentrations of Cd2+ were measured based on algal growth inhibition tests and photosynthetic activity inhibition tests. The relationship between the algal photosynthetic activity inhibition rate and 96 h inhibition rate of specific growth rate at different Cd2+ stress times was studied by sigmoidal curve fitting and one-way ANOVA analysis. The result shows that S function relevance exists between the algal photosynthetic activity inhibition rates for 48 h, 53 h, 72 h, 77 h and 96 h respectively and 96 h inhibition rate of specific growth rate (R2 > 0.Read More

95). Consequently, EC10 (10% effective concentration) after 48 h and 53 h inhibition in photosynthetic activity inhibition tests could be used to represented EC50 (50% effective concentration) in 96 h algal growth inhibition tests for evaluating the Cd2+ toxicity. Dose-response relationships between the algal photosynthetic activity inhibition rates after 48 h and 53 h inhibition and Cd2+ toxic equivalency quantity were further analyzed. The method provided a rapid and viable new thought to monitoring single Cd2+ toxicity in lab and early warn integrated toxicity of pollution in water.

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Apr;49(4):244-6

To compare the distribution and concentration of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2) in different dentin depth of premolar and molar of young people.
Freshly extracted human premolars and molars (aged between 20-30) were sectioned to 1.5 mm thick slices along the longitudinal axis of the tooth separately.Read More

Enamel and pulp of each slice was removed, and then the premolar and molar slices were respectively divided into two subgroups according to superficial or deep dentin and pulverized to fine powder. After dentin protein was extracted, the concentrations of MMP-2 in different tooth were detected using fluorescent microsphere immunoassay.
The content of MMP-2 in superficial layer dentin of premolar was (0.022 ± 0.006) ng/mg. The content of MMP-2 in deep layer dentin of premolar was (2.087 ± 0.090) ng/mg. The content of MMP-2 in superficial layer dentin of molar was (0.336 ± 0.037) ng/mg. The content of MMP-2 in deep layer dentin of molar was (3.312 ± 0.308) ng/mg.
MMP-2 exists in human coronal dentin. In the same type of teeth of young people, the concentration of MMP-2 in deep dentin was significant higher than those in superficial dentin. In the same dentin depth, the concentration of MMP-2 in molar was significant higher than those in premolar.

BMC Public Health
BMC Public Health 2014 20;14:181. Epub 2014 Feb 20.
United States Military HIV Research Program, Henry M, Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Fort Bragg, a large Army installation with reported high Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection rates, is characterized by a highly mobile population and a surrounding Ct-endemic community. We assessed the rates of Ct incidence and recurrence among the installation's active component Army personnel and determined the association of soldier transience, sociodemographic factors, and history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) with these rates.
A cohort of soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg during 2005 to mid-2010 was followed for incident and recurrent Ct infection using laboratory-confirmed reportable disease data.Read More

Linkage to demographic and administrative data permitted multivariate analysis to determine association of covariates with initial or recurrent infection.
Among 67,425 soldiers, 2,198 (3.3%) contracted an incident Ct infection (crude incidence, 21.7 per 1,000 person-years). Among soldiers followed for incident infection, 223 (10.6%, crude incidence 110.8 per 1,000 person-years) contracted a recurrent Ct infection. Being female, of lower rank, under 26 years of age, of non-white race, single, or with a high school diploma or less was significantly associated with incident Ct infection. Having breaks in duty or having deployments during follow-up was associated with a lower infection rate. Among women, having prior deployments was associated with a lower rate of both incident and recurrent infection. Specifically associated with recurrent infection in women was age under 21 years or no education beyond high school.
This analysis reaffirms risk factors for Ct infection determined in other studies. In addition, infection risk was lower for more mobile soldiers and tied to the specific location of their regular duty assignment. The findings support the STI prevention efforts at Fort Bragg and the surrounding community, regardless of how often or for how long soldiers have deployed for military operations.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 28;2014:659268. Epub 2014 Jan 28.
Acupuncture and Tuina College, Chengdu University of TCM, Chengdu, Sichuan 610075, China.

Background. The objective of this study was to identify potential biomarkers of electroacupuncture (EA) on relieving acute migraine through metabolomic study. Methods.Read More

EA treatments were performed on both acupoints and nonacupoints on the nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced migraine rat model. NMR experiments and multivariate analysis were used for metabolomic analysis. Results. The number of head-scratching, the main ethology index of migraine rat model, was significantly increased (P < 0.01) after NTG injection. The plasma metabolic profile of model group was distinct from that of the control group. Glutamate was significantly increased (P < 0.01), whereas lipids were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in model rats. After EA at acupoints, the metabolic profile of model rats was normalized, with decreased glutamate (P < 0.05) and increased lipids (P < 0.01). In contrast, EA at nonacupoints did not restore the metabolic profile, but with six metabolites significantly different from acupoints group. Interestingly, the number of head-scratching and glutamate level were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after receiving EA at both acupoints and nonacupoints. Conclusions. EA at acupoints may relieve acute migraine by restoring the plasma metabolic profile and plasma glutamate, while EA at nonacupoints may modestly relieve acute migraine by decreasing plasma glutamate.

Anal. Chem.
Anal Chem 2014 Mar 4;86(6):2857-61. Epub 2014 Mar 4.
CAS Key Laboratory of Soft Matter Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei, Anhui 230026, People's Republic of China.

Despite much progress in functionalized gold nanomaterial (GNMs), chemiluminescent (CL) functionalized GNMs with high CL efficiency are far from fully developed. In this work, we report a general strategy for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) bifunctionalized by CL reagent and catalyst metal complexes (BF-GNPs) by taking N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) as a model of CL reagents. The complexes of 2-[bis[2-[carboxymethyl-[2-oxo-2-(2-sulfanylethylamino)ethyl]amino]ethyl]amino]acetic acid (DTDTPA) with various metal ions, including Co(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Hg(2+), Cr(3+), Eu(3+), La(3+), Gd(3+), Sm(3+), Er(3+), Dy(3+), Ce(4+), and Ce(3+), were grafted on the surface of ABEI functionalized GNPs (ABEI-GNPs) to form a series of BF-GNPs.Read More

These BF-GNPs exhibited excellent CL activity. In particular, the CL intensity of DTDTPA/Co(2+)-ABEI-GNPs was over 3 orders of magnitude higher than ABEI-GNPs. This work demonstrates for the first time that metal complexes grafted on the surface of GNPs have unique catalytic activity on the CL reaction, superior to that in the liquid phase. Such BF-GNPs may find future applications in bioassays, microchips, and molecular/cellular imaging.

Chin J Integr Med
Chin J Integr Med 2014 Mar 4;20(3):184-93. Epub 2014 Mar 4.
College of Acupuncture and Tuina, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 610075, China.

To investigate whether the neural representations underlying alternating two acupoint combinations (ACs) are the same or not.
In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, two sets of analgesia ACs were utilized, including Waiguan (TE5) and Qiuxu (GB40) for Group A, and Neiguan (PC6) and Taichong (LR3) for Group B, which are the most commonly adopted in clinical treatment. Each group had 20 healthy subjects.Read More

An experimental design was proposed, which consisted of a pre-needling resting phase, a needling phase and a post-needling resting phase. This paradigm optimally mimics the clinical protocol as well as focuses on both the stimulation and the resting periods. The results were subjected to general linear model analysis, conjunction analysis and the functional connectivity analysis.
The rostral anterior cingulated cortex was engaged in the initiative period of the acupuncture effect in both groups, and it was chosen as the seed region for the functional connectivity analysis for the following resting period. The results showed that several shared brain regions were involved in both groups, in particular the insula, amygdala and hypothalamus. Moreover, significant differences were located at the posterior cingulated cortex as revealed by a two sample -test (P<0.05, corrected). Other regions showed no significant differences. This finding was further supported by the spatial correlation analysis that the two groups were significantly correlated (r =0.51, P<0.01).
This preliminary research helps us understand the neurophysiological mechanisms of acupuncture when following clinical guidelines on ACs, as well as provides an important opportunity to develop better treatment strategies for reducing, or even preventing pain.

Pharmacogenomics 2014 Mar;15(4):433-47
Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Molecular Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

We investigated candidate genes associated with thiopurine metabolism and clinical response in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
We performed genome-wide SNP association studies of 6-thioguanine and 6-mercaptopurine cytotoxicity using lymphoblastoid cell lines. We then genotyped the top SNPs associated with lymphoblastoid cell line cytotoxicity, together with tagSNPs for genes in the 'thiopurine pathway' (686 total SNPs), in DNA from 589 Caucasian UK ALL97 patients.Read More

Functional validation studies were performed by siRNA knockdown in cancer cell lines.
SNPs in the thiopurine pathway genes ABCC4, ABCC5, IMPDH1, ITPA, SLC28A3 and XDH, and SNPs located within or near ATP6AP2, FRMD4B, GNG2, KCNMA1 and NME1, were associated with clinical response and measures of thiopurine metabolism. Functional validation showed shifts in cytotoxicity for these genes.
The clinical response to thiopurines may be regulated by variation in known thiopurine pathway genes and additional novel genes outside of the thiopurine pathway.

J Comput Assist Tomogr
J Comput Assist Tomogr 2014 Mar-Apr;38(2):179-84
From the *Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; †Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC; ‡Siemens Healthcare China, Beijing, China; §The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD; and ∥Affiliated Hospital, Hebei United University, Hebei, China.

To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CCTA) using filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) of different strength factors with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard.
Fifty consecutive patients (32 men and 18 women) prospectively underwent electrocardiogram-triggered CCTA on a dual-source CT system. The acquisition window was set depending on the heart rate (HR): HR of less than 60 beats per minute (bpm) at the 70% RR interval, 61 to 80 bpm at 30% to 80% RR interval, and greater than 80 bpm at 30% to 50% RR interval; 100 kV and 359 to 377 mA s for patients with a body mass index of less than 24 kg/m, and 410 to 438 mA s at 120 kV for patients with a body mass index of 24 kg/m or greater.Read More

Image data were reconstructed using both FBP and SAFIRE. Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction series were reconstructed using 3 different strength factors. Two blinded observers independently assessed the image quality and image impression of each coronary segment using a 4-point scale (1, non-diagnostic; and 4, excellent). Image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured. Filtered back projection and all SAFIRE series were independently evaluated for coronary artery stenosis (>50%), and their diagnostic accuracy was compared with invasive coronary angiography.
Statistically significant increases in SNR and CNR were obtained when higher strength factors were used. The highest SNR and CNR were found with the highest SAFIRE strength factor of 5; however, this strength also resulted in a more unfamiliar, "plasticlike" image appearance. Imaging quality scores of FBP and different SAFIRE strengths were 3.37 ± 0.49, 3.41 ± 0.47, 3.52 ± 0.30, and 3.48 ± 0.35, respectively (P < 0.001). The diagnostic accuracies were 92.91%, 93.76%, 95.28%, and 94.94% on per-segment level, respectively (P = 0.993). A tendency toward higher diagnostic performance was observed with SAFIRE strength factor 3 on per-segment analysis, albeit without reaching statistical significance. The effective radiation dose equivalent was 5.7 ± 1.6 mSv.
Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction provides significant improvements in image noise, SNR, and CNR compared with FBP, which are progressive with increasing SAFIRE strength factors. Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction strength factor 3 or 5 is recommended for use with CCTA.

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2014 Mar;16(3):263-7
Department of Pediatric Cardiovascular Diseases, Children's Medical Center, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University and Institute of Pediatrics of Central South University, Changsha 410011, China.

To investigate the effects of different tilt angles of head-up tilt test (HUTT) and different responses to HUTT on the psychological fear in children undergoing the test.
HUTT was performed on children with unexplained syncope or pre-syncope (107 cases: 52 males and 55 females), aged 5.5-17.Read More

8 years (mean 12.0±2.8 years). All subjects were randomly assigned to undergo HUTT at an angle of 60°, 70° or 80°; the negative cases underwent sublingual nitroglycerin-provocation HUTT at the same tilt angle. The Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale was used for self-assessment of psychological fear in subjects during HUTT at the end point of the test.
The positive rate, hemodynamic changes and distribution of response types showed no significant differences between children at tilt angles of 60°, 70° and 80° (P>0.05). The greater the tilt angle, the higher the degree of psychological fear in children undergoing the test, but there were no significant differences between them (P>0.05). The degree of psychological fear in children who showed a positive response to HUTT (n=76) was significantly higher than that in children who showed a negative response (n=31) (P<0.01).
HUTT can cause psychological fear in children undergoing the test, and the degree of psychological fear increases in children tested at tilt angles from 60° to 80°, but the differences have no statistical significance. A positive response to HUTT can significantly increase the psychological fear in children.

Far-field imaging beyond the Rayleigh limit is one of the most important challenges in optics, microwave, and ultrasonics. We propose a novel sparsity-promoted super-oscillation imaging scheme for reconstructing more universal objects in subwavelength scales, which solves a weighted optimization problem constrained by lp-norm-based sparsity regularization (0≤p≤1). We demonstrate numerically that the proposed imaging technique improves the resolution related to existing approaches remarkably for the case of very high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), including the traditional super-oscillation imaging and sparsity-based super-resolution imaging.Read More

The standard superoscillation based super-resolution imaging approach can be regarded as the first-iteration solution of the proposed scheme. Numerical results for one- and two-dimensional super-resolution imaging are presented for validation.

Theranostics 2014 26;4(5):546-55. Epub 2014 Feb 26.
2. Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, USA.

(18)F-DPA-714 is a PET tracer that recognizes macrophage translocator protein (TSPO), and (18)F-Alfatide II ((18)F-AlF-NOTA-E[PEG4-c(RGDfk)]2) is specific for integrin αvβ3. This study aims to apply these two tracers for longitudinal PET imaging of muscular inflammation, and evaluate the value of (18)F-DPA-714 in differentiating inflammation from tumor.
RAW264.Read More

7 mouse macrophage cells were used for cell uptake analysis of (18)F-DPA-714. A mouse hind limb muscular inflammation model was established by intramuscular injection of turpentine oil. For the inflammation model, PET imaging was performed at different days using (18)F-DPA-714 and (18)F-Alfatide II. The specificity of the imaging probes was tested by co- or pre-injection of PK11195 or unlabeled RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide. PET imaging using (18)F-DPA-714 was performed in A549, HT29, U87MG, INS-1, and 4T1 xenograft models. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to evaluate infiltrated macrophages and angiogenesis in inflammation and/or tumors.
Uptake of (18)F-DPA-714 in RAW264.7 cells was 45.5% at 1 h after incubation, and could be blocked by PK11195. PET imaging showed increased (18)F-DPA-714 and (18)F-Alfatide II uptake at inflammatory muscles. Peak uptake of (18)F-DPA-714 was seen on day 6 (4.02 ± 0.64 %ID/g), and peak uptake of (18)F-Alfatide II was shown on day 12 (1.87 ± 0.35 %ID/g) at 1 h p.i.. Tracer uptakes could be inhibited by PK11195 for (18)F-DPA-714 or cold RGD for (18)F-Alfatide II. Moreover, macrophage depletion with liposomal clodronate also reduced the local accumulation of both tracers. A549, HT29, U87MG, INS-1, and 4T1 tumor uptakes of (18)F-DPA-714 (0.46 ± 0.28, 0.91 ± 0.08, 1.69 ± 0.67, 1.13 ± 0.33, 1.22 ± 0.55 %ID/g at 1 h p.i., respectively) were significantly lower than inflammation uptake (All P < 0.05).
PET imaging using (18)F-DPA-714 as a TSPO targeting tracer could evaluate the dynamics of macrophage activation and infiltration in different stages of inflammatory diseases. The concomitant longitudinal PET imaging with both (18)F-DPA-714 and (18)F-Alfatide II matched the causal relationship between macrophage infiltration and angiogenesis. Moreover, we found (18)F-DPA-714 uptake in several types of tumors is significantly lower than that in inflammatory muscles, suggesting (18)F-DPA-714 PET has the potential for better differentiation of tumor and non-tumor inflammation.

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2014 Mar;35(3):231-6
Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing 100021, China. Email:

To evaluate the association and its strength between body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and cancer incidence in a large-scale population-based cohort study.
A dynamic cohort was established on May 1, 2006. Baseline information on demography, lifestyle, anthropometry such as body height and weight, were collected during the first interview, and cancer incidence, mortality and other related outcome information were obtained through active follow-up every two years and passive follow-up every year.Read More

Cancer cases diagnosed within 1 year follow-up period were excluded. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs)and 95% confidence interval (CI) between BMI and cancer incidence after adjusted for age group, education level, tobacco smoking (smokers and non-smokers), alcohol consumption (drinkers or non-drinkers) and HBsAg status (positive or negative, for liver cancer only) when appropriate. Repeated analysis was carried out on male lung cancer, male liver cancer and female breast cancer, stratified by tobacco smoking, HBsAg status and menopausal status respectively.
By December 31, 2011, a total of 133 273 subjects, including 106 630 (80.01%)males and 26 643(19.99%)females were enrolled in the cohort. There were 570 531.02 person-years of follow-up and 4.28-year of average follow-up period. According to the Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Adults, study subjects were divided into groups as: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 18.5 kg/m(2)-23.9 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 24.0 kg/m(2)-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obese(BMI≥28.0 kg/m(2)). In males, 2 387 (2.24%) were underweight, 45 090(42.29%)were normal weight, 43 774 (41.05%) were overweight and 15 379 (14.42%) were obese. Meanwhile, in females, 858 (3.22%)were underweight, 14 037 (52.69%) were normal weight, 8 507 (31.93%) were overweight and 3 241 (12.16%) were obese. A total of 1 647 incident cancer cases among different cancers were collected during the follow-up, including 1 348 in men and 299 in women. Results from Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression model showed that 'underweight' increased the risk on both gastric cancer incidence (adjusted HR = 3.82, 95% CI: 1.97-7.38) and liver cancer incidence (adjusted HR = 3.00, 95% CI:1.36-6.65) in males, while both 'overweight' (adjusted HR = 1.98, 95% CI:1.03-3.82) and 'obesity' (adjusted HR = 2.75, 95% CI: 1.25-6.06) increased the risk of colon cancer incidence in males. But for bladder cancer incidence in males, overweight seemed being protective (adjusted HR = 0.44, 95%CI:0.23-0.84). And for lung cancer incidence in males, both overweight and obesity were protective as well (adjusted overweight vs. normal weight, HR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.46-0.76;adjusted obese vs. normal weight, HR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.44-0.92). In females, obesity increased the risk of breast cancer incidence(adjusted HR = 1.86, 95%CI:1.05-3.31). Further analysis for lung cancer cases stratified by tobacco smoking, data showed that overweight decreased the risk of lung cancer in both male non-smokers (adjusted HR = 0.50, 95%CI:0.35-0.72) and male smokers (adjusted HR = 0.70, 95%CI:0.50-0.98) while obesity decreased the risk of lung cancer in male non-smokers(adjusted HR = 0.57, 95% CI:0.33-0.97), but not in smokers (adjusted HR = 0.72, 95%CI:0.43-1.21). Stratified analysis in females by menopausal status, data showed that obesity increased the incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal subjects (adjusted HR = 1.97, 95% CI:1.01-3.82), but not in premenopausal subjects.
The association between BMI and cancer incidence varied by cancer site. Underweight increased the risk of gastric cancer and liver cancer in males, and obesity increased the risk of colon cancer in males, breast cancer and ovarian cancer in females. However, overweight might played a protective role in lung cancer incidence and bladder cancer incidence in males and obesity might play a protective role in lung cancer incidence in male non-smokers.

To improve the phosphorus (P) removal/recovery efficiency of a biological P removal system, the study used an alternating anaerobic/aerobic biofilter system to treat synthetic domestic sewage with a low carbon (C) to P ratio. The effects of using periodical carbon source amplification for P recovery on the P removal efficiency and the microbial characteristics within the biofilm were investigated. Intracellular storage polymer dyeing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods were employed to characterize the changes of microbial communities in the biofilm during three continuous operation cycles of P bio-accumulating-P recovery (PB-PR).Read More

The results showed: through three cycles of operation process of PB-PR, the P removal efficiency of biofilter was increased from 60.3%, 82.9%, 86.6% (before P harvesting) to 87.2%, 91.2%, 93.5% (after P harvesting), respectively; the dominant microbial community morphotypes within the biofilter transformed from big cocci to small cocci, bacilli and filamentous and the group of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) got rising predominance, which was increased from 43% to 70% after three times of PB-PR; the proportion of PAOs in the biofilm increased unceasingly with the height of the up-flow biofilter. The results showed that the periodical carbon source amplification could improve the P removal efficiency of the biofilter and help the PAOs to become the dominant bacteria within the biofilm.

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2014 Feb;94(5):364-7
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China. Email:

To compare and analyze the positron emission tomography (PET) images with other multi-modalities in the diagnosis of hepatic tumors.
A total of 158 patients undergoing (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET were enrolled along with another 55 cases with (11)C acetate-PET (AC-PET) imaging within 1 week. The pathological results were taken as the golden criteria.Read More

Tumor marker, contrast ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results were collected.SPSS 19.0 was used for statistical analysis.
Contrast MRI, ultrasound and CT were more effective than PET in the differential diagnosis of hepatic tumor.FDG-PET showed a better accuracy in the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, metastasis and rare primary hepatic carcinoma. AC-PET was a good complementary method to FDG-PET. Consideration of tumor size, amount, laboratory results and history could improve the diagnostic accuracy of PET and enhanced CT.
PET must be combined with other image modalities to differentiate hepatic tumors more effectively and accurately.

Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online 2014 Feb 8;70(Pt 2):o118. Epub 2014 Jan 8.
The School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, People's Republic of China.

The complete mol-ecule of the title compound, C24H21N3O6, is generated by the application of threefold rotation symmetry about an axis perpendicular to the central ring. The mol-ecule exhibits a propeller-like shape. The dihedral angle between each benzene ring and the heterocyclic ring is 74.Read More

0 (1)°. The mol-ecules pack with no specific inter-molecular inter-actions between them. The SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155] was used to model disordered solvent mol-ecules, presumed to be acetone; the calculated unit-cell data do not take into account the presence of these.

Biomed Mater Eng
Biomed Mater Eng 2014 Jan;24(6):3207-14
Digital Medical Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention of Shanghai, Shanghai 200032, China.

Surface registration is widely used in image-guided neurosurgery to achieve spatial registration between the patient space and the image space. Coarse registration, followed by fine registration, is an important premise to ensure the robustness and efficiency of surface registration. In this paper, a coarse registration algorithm based on the principal axes is proposed to achieve this goal.Read More

The extraction of the principal axes relies on the approximated surface with an adaptive Gaussian kernel, the width of which is consistent with neighborhood relation so that it is applicable for various scanning data. Determining the corresponding centers of translation is another problem for aligning different scanning data, which is solved through heuristics. Six pairs of points on two surfaces with the farthest projections on the principal axes were regarded as the candidates of translation centers, and then through tentative alignments of local regions around them, a pair of candidates with the minimum registration error was selected as the optimal translation centers. Automatic registration of two scans of a head phantom is presented in this paper. Experimental results confirmed the robustness of the algorithm and its feasibility in clinical applications.

Neural Regen Res
Neural Regen Res 2013 Nov;8(33):3077-86
PLA Institute of Orthopedics, Beijing Army General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100700, China.

This is an expert consensus on the evaluation and treatment of thoracolumbar spinal injury, established from February 2009 to July 2010. The expert consensus consists mainly of six parts with a total of 54 recommendations including the overview (one item); pre-hospital care (one item); evaluation and diagnosis (13 items); treatment (23 items); prevention and treatment of major complications (12 items); and rehabilitation (four items). This is the first time that Chinese experts have published a consensus on spine and spinal cord injury.Read More

The expert consensus was established based on Delphi methods, literature analysis, and clinical experiences. Each recommendation is supported by and was interpreted using multi-level evidences. The level of agreement with the recommendation among the panel members was assessed as either low, moderate, or strong. Each panel member was asked to indicate his or her level of agreement on a 5-point scale, with "1" corresponding to neutrality and "5" representing maximum agreement. Scores were aggregated across the panel members and an arithmetic mean was calculated. This mean score was then translated into low, moderate, or strong. After all of the votes were collected and calculated, the results showed no low-level recommendations, 10 moderate-level recommendations, and 44 strong-level recommendations. An expert consensus was reached and was recognized by Chinese spine surgeons. Wide-scale adoption of these recommendations is urgent in the management of acute thoracolumbar spine and spinal cord injury in a broader attempt to create a standard evaluation and treatment strategy for acute thoracolumbar spine and spinal cord injury in China.