Constantine I Vardavas - University of Crete
Constantine I Vardavas
University of Crete
Publications Authored By Constantine I Vardavas
The effects of the recent cigarette excise tax increase were calculated on outcome measures: total price per pack, including specific excise, ad valorem tax, and value-added tax consumption; tax revenue; and per capita consumption of cigarettes. Additionally, smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses were estimated. Projected effects of an additional €2.00 per pack tax increase on consumption and tax revenue were also assessed.
The cigarette excise tax increase in 2011 created €558 million in new tax revenue. Cigarette consumption reached a recent low of 24.9 billion sticks sold or 2197 sticks per person in 2011, indicating a 16% decrease in per capita cigarette consumption from the previous year. An additional €2.00 per pack increase in Greek cigarette taxes is projected to result in reduced cigarette sales by an additional 20% and lead to an increase in total cigarette tax revenues by nearly €1.2 billion and the prevention of 192,000 premature deaths.
Nations such as Greece, should employ taxation as a crucial measure to promote public health and economic development in such dire times. International economic organisations should aggressively pursue programmes and policies that champion the economic benefits of tobacco taxation.
All venues had at least 1 entire wall open to allow for free air exchange. Indoor concentrations of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) attributable to SHS were assessed during a work shift, while 1 non-smoking employee responsible for indoor and outdoor table service from each venue provided a post work shift urine sample for analysis of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL).
Post work shift NNAL concentrations were correlated with work shift PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS (r = 0.376, p = 0.0076). Urinary NNAL concentrations among employees increased by 9.5%, per 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS after controlling for the time of day and day of week.
These results indicate that the commonly proposed practice of maintaining open sliding walls as a means of free air exchange does not lead to the elimination of employee exposure to tobacco specific carcinogens attributable to workplace SHS.
S. smokers using data from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
The analyses were performed on 4486 current cigarette smokers aged ≥20years old. Cigarette rod length included regular (68-72mm), king (79-88mm), long (94-101mm), and ultra-long (110-121mm) cigarettes currently smoked. Overall and gender stratified multivariate linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for other influential covariates.
Gender stratified analysis indicated that female smokers of long and ultra-long cigarette had 20% and 27% higher mean Cd levels compared to smokers of regular sized cigarettes respectively, despite the fact that all the ultra-long cigarettes were slim cigarettes. Furthermore, among females, slim cigarette users did not reduce blood cadmium levels compared to non-slim users.
Female smokers of long or ultra-long cigarettes had higher mean blood Cd levels compared to smokers of regular cigarettes independent of slim design. Further research into this association is warranted.
Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to assess for correlates of use of any recommended aid with proven efficacy, defined as use of pharmacotherapy or psychosocial counselling (p<0.05). The regression analyses assessed for socio-demographic characteristics, EU region, as well as scope of national smoking cessation policies.
Among current smokers who had made a quit attempt and ex-smokers, 19.9% had used any recommended aid with proven efficacy. Respondents from Northern (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.90), Western (aOR=3.21) and Eastern Europe (aOR=1.69) were more likely to have used an efficacious smoking cessation aid compared to respondents from Southern Europe (all p<0.05). Respondents in countries with comprehensive tobacco cessation programmes that offered cost-covered national quit lines, medication, and other cessation services had increased likelihood of using efficacious cessation aids (OR=1.29; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.07-1.55).
These findings underscore the need for enhanced and sustained efforts to ensure increased access to cessation services and aids as part of a comprehensive tobacco control programme.
2%) than to a physician (64.8%). Among physician patients who were advised to quit, 52.7% received at least 1 form of assistance beyond the simple advice to quit; 24.5% of dental patients received such assistance (P < .05). Approximately 9.4 million smokers who visited a dentist in 2010 to 2011 did not receive any cessation counseling.
Our results indicate a need for intensified efforts to increase dentist involvement in cessation counseling. System-level changes, coupled with regular training, may enhance self-efficacy of dentists in engaging patients in tobacco cessation counseling.
Among all school personnel, there was a significant association between the presence of tobacco outlets on school premises and current cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=3.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.17-7.20), current smokeless tobacco use (aOR=2.63; 95%CI: 1.04-6.65), and permissiveness towards tobacco industry sponsorship activities in school (aOR=2.27; 95%CI: 1.37-3.78). Complete smoke-free school policies were associated with lower odds of current cigarette smoking (aOR=0.42; 95%CI: 0.23-0.74), but were not significantly associated with current smokeless tobacco use. Among lifetime any tobacco users, there was a significant association between the presence of tobacco outlets on school premises and use of combustible (aOR=2.03; 95%CI: 1.09-3.75) and smokeless (aOR=3.85; 95%CI: 1.51-9.81) tobacco products on campus within the past year.
Policies limiting the distance of tobacco outlets from schools, coupled with complete tobacco-free school policies may reduce tobacco use among school personnel.
Thirty-three per cent of the respondents reported living in a smoke-free home. Smokers (p < 0.001) and single individuals (p < 0.017) were less likely to prohibit smoking at home. SHS exposure at work, in restaurants and in bars/clubs/cafes was frequently mentioned by 41.6, 84.2 and 90.5%, respectively. SHS exposure in a bar/club/cafe was noted more among single individuals (p = 0.004) and those aged 18-34 years (p = 0.007). Inhabitants of rural areas were more likely to report someone smoking indoors in all the above venues. Public health education and effective enforcement of the nationwide smoke-free legislation are imperative.
Estimates were compared using chi-square statistics. The effect of the relative change in gross domestic product (GDP) on the change in support for increased taxation during 2009-2012 was calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression models. Results: Between 2009 and 2012, population support for increased taxes on tobacco products declined (56.1% to 53.2%; p<0.001). However, support for other tobacco control measures increased significantly. After adjusting for baseline GDP per capita (2009), a 10% increase in GDP per capita was associated with 4.5% increase in support of tax increases. When Latvia and Lithuania were excluded from the analyses (because of their marked deviation from the general trend), there was a strong correlation between the change in GDP and support for increased taxes (ρ=0.64; p<0.001). Also, after adjusting for baseline GDP, support for higher taxes on tobacco increased by 7.0% for every 10% increase in GDP between 2009 and 2012.
POPULATION SUPPORT FOR TAX INCREASES DECLINED IN THE EU BETWEEN 2009 AND 2012, ESPECIALLY IN COUNTRIES WITH DECLINES IN GDP NONETHELESS, PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR OTHER TOBACCO CONTROL MEASURES REMAINS HIGH, THUS INDICATING A VIABLE ENVIRONMENT FOR MORE COMPREHENSIVE TOBACCO CONTROL:
7% of the national hospital budget. These results pose a compelling reason for the European Union to champion tobacco control as a means of reducing the financial and social burden of disease in Greece and other countries currently facing a financial maelstrom.
This study assessed poly-tobacco use patterns among persons aged ≥15 years old from 44 countries.
Data from 44 countries in all six World Health Organization regions were obtained from the 2008 to 2012 Global Adult Tobacco Surveys (n=19 countries), and the Special Eurobarometer 385 (77.1) survey, 2012 (n=25 countries). Correlates of poly-tobacco use were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses (p<0.05).
Overall prevalence of poly-tobacco use ranged from 0.8% (Mexico) to 11.9% (Denmark). In 28 countries, 20% or more of current smokers of manufactured cigarettes concurrently used at least one other tobacco product and this proportion was highest in India (66.2%) and lowest in Argentina (4.4%). After adjusting for other factors, the likelihood of being a poly-tobacco user among all respondents was lower among females (aOR=0.09; 95% CI: 0.08-0.11), and among respondents from upper-middle-income (aOR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.43-0.66), and lower-middle-income countries (aOR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.51-0.81) compared to high-income countries. Increased likelihood of poly-tobacco use was observed among respondents from the South-East Asian region compared to those from the European region (aOR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.35-1.85), as well as among respondents aged ≥65 years (aOR=2.10; 95% CI: 1.73-2.54), compared to those aged <25 years.
The pattern of tobacco use varied widely, underscoring the need for intensified efforts towards implementing policies that address all tobacco products, not only manufactured cigarettes.
Among all US adults, a significantly greater proportion supported smoke-free cars when it was specified that the occupant was a child compared to when not specified (93.4 vs. 73.7 %, p < 0.05). Age, race/ethnicity, gender, current tobacco use, marital status, and the existence of household smoke-free regulations all mediated population support for smoke-free cars. Conclusion: While differences within the US population were noted, this study however showed overwhelming support for smoke-free car policies, particularly when children are present. Policies which prohibit smoking in indoor or confined areas such as cars may benefit public health by protecting nonsmoking children and adults from involuntary SHS exposure.
Knowledge, perception of harm, and determinants of e-cigarettes use were assessed, while separate regression analyses among current (n=7352) and former cigarette smokers (n=5782) were performed. National estimates of the number of e-cigarette users were also extrapolated.
20.3% of current smokers, 4.7% of ex-smokers, and 1.2% of never cigarette smokers in the EU reported having ever used an e-cigarette (overall approximately 29.3 million adults). Among smokers, ever e-cigarette use was more likely among 15-24-year-olds (aOR 3.13, 95% CI 2.22 to 4.54) and 25-39-year-olds (aOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.78) in comparison to older smokers, and among those who smoked 6-10 cigarettes/day (aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.13) or 11-20 cigarettes/day (aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.81) in comparison to very light smokers (≤5 cigarettes/day). Moreover, e-cigarette use was more likely among smokers who had made a past year quit attempt (aOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.67 to 2.58). E-cigarette use among ex-smokers was associated only with the respondents' age, with younger ex-smokers being more likely to have ever used an e-cigarette.
A substantial number of EU adults have ever used e-cigarettes. Ever users were more likely to be younger, current smokers, or past-year quit attempters. These findings underscore the need to evaluate the potential long term impact of e-cigarette use on consumer health, cessation and nicotine addiction and formulate a European framework for e-cigarette regulation within the revised EU Tobacco Product Directive.
Data were obtained from the 2000-2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Trends during 2000-2009 were assessed using binary logistic regression (p<0.05).
The proportion of all students, who reported being asked to show proof of age prior to a cigarette purchase in the past 30 days did not change significantly between 2000 (46.9%) and 2009 (44.9%) (p=0.529 for linear trend). No significant trend in the proportion of students aged < 18 years who were refused a sale when attempting to buy cigarettes was observed between 2000 (39.8%) and 2009 (36.7%) (p=0.283 for linear trend). Refusal of a cigarette sale was significantly higher among under-aged boys compared to girls (adjusted odds ratio=1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.28-1.70).
About half of U.S. middle and high school students who reported making a cigarette purchase were not asked for proof of age, and about three of five under-aged buyers successfully made a cigarette purchase in 2009. Intensified implementation and enforcement of policies requiring age verification among youths is warranted to reduce access and use of tobacco products.
S. smokers aged ≥20 years during 1999 through 2012.
Data were obtained from the 1999/2000 through 2011/2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The proportion of current smokers who reported using long/ultra-long cigarettes during each survey year was calculated and compared using χ(2) statistics. Linear and quadratic trends during 1999 through 2012 were assessed using binary logistic regression (p<0.05). Multi-variable analyses were performed to assess current disparities in smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes.
Despite overall declines in current smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during the 1999 through 2012 period (p<0.001 for both linear and quadratic trends), the proportion of smokers of long/ultra-long brands increased in recent years, with over a third (38.7%) of current smokers reporting smoking of long/ultra-long cigarettes during 2011/2012. Current smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were more likely to be female compared to males (aOR=3.09; 95%CI: 2.09-4.58), of black race compared to whites (aOR=2.07; 95%CI: 1.30-3.28), or aged 45-64, or ≥65 years (aOR=2.39 and 5.27, respectively), compared to 18-24 year olds.
Specific gender, age and race/ethnic characteristics of smokers of long/ultra-long cigarettes were noted, hence potentially contributing to the widening of health disparities. Cigarette rod length should be considered an important aspect of cigarette engineering/design in regulatory efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco-related disease.
5 from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study, recruited from Crete Greece. Smoking and SHS exposure was assessed via serum cotinine concentrations. Cytokines (Interleukin-1β, 2, 4, 5 and 6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, tumor growth factor-β1), immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM, complement factors C3, C4, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and endothelial inflammatory markers [soluble E-selectin, soluble L-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecules (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules-1 (sVCAM-1)] were assessed. Inflammatory markers in the lower 25th percentile and upper 75th percentile groups of cotinine levels were compared and multivariate linear regression analysis was performed controlling for age, sex and BMI.
Cotinine concentrations were notably elevated (geometric mean 0.82ng/ml, 95%CI 0.62-1.07) in this study population. A significant decrease in IL-4 (130.09 vs. 25.77pg/ml, p=0.014) and IL-6 (19.52 vs. 5.52pg/ml, p=0.008) concentrations between the upper 75th percentile cotinine level group and lower 25th percentile cotinine level group was observed. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, cotinine concentrations had a weak inverse association with IL-4 and IL-6 (p=0.028 and p=0.06) which was not statistically significant when adjusted for multiple comparisons (modified Bonferroni, p>0.016). No differences in the other variables was noted.
Among highly SHS exposed adolescents, cotinine levels had weak inverse association with IL-4 and IL-6, which did not achieve statistical significance. However, our results potentially indicate an immunosuppressive role of SHS. Further research is warranted to explore this hypothesis.
The first wave was conducted in 2006 (n = 1005), the second in 2008 (n = 1490) and the third in 2011 (n = 1008). Samples were representative of the Greek adult population in terms of age and residency. Smoking status, height, weight and fruit and vegetable consumption were self-reported. Physical activity levels were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.
The prevalence of smoking in Greece decreased from 42.6 to 38.1% during the crisis period 2008-11 (P = 0.026), but not during 2006-8. The prevalence of high levels of physical activity increased among Greek adults (from 21.9 to 31.7%, P < 0.001) in all socio-economic and demographic groups, with the exception of the highest socio-economic status (SES) group. On the contrary, the consumption of at least five portions of fruit and vegetables per day significantly decreased during the crisis among those of lower SES (from 9.0 to 4.1%, P = 0.006). Prevalence of obesity did not show significant trends.
During the economic crisis, fruit and vegetable consumption alarmingly decreased, especially among those of lower SES, whereas trends in smoking prevalence and physical activity levels seem favourable. These results indicate that the economic crisis may unequally impact cardiovascular risk factors among different socio-economic groups.
Biomarker levels were summarized using geometric means (GMs). Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of cigarette rod length on log-transformed serum cotinine and creatinine-adjusted urinary total NNAL levels.
The GM of serum cotinine level was higher among smokers of long/ultralong cigarettes (263.15ng/ml) compared with smokers of regular-sized (173.13ng/ml) or king-sized (213.79ng/ml) cigarettes. Similarly, the GM of creatinine-adjusted NNAL levels was higher among smokers of long/ultralong cigarettes (0.48ng NNAL/mg of creatinine) compared with smokers of regular-sized (0.34ng NNAL/mg of creatinine) or king-sized (0.33ng NNAL/mg of creatinine) cigarettes. After adjusting for potential confounders, mean cotinine and NNAL levels were both significantly higher among smokers of long/ultralong cigarettes compared with levels observed in smokers of either regular-sized or king-sized cigarettes. However, no significant differences were observed between smokers of regular-sized and king-sized cigarettes in mean levels of cotinine or NNAL.
Significantly elevated tobacco biomarker levels were observed among smokers of long/ultralong cigarettes compared with smokers of regular-sized or king-sized cigarettes. This underscores the need to educate the public about the dangers of all tobacco products.
S. students aged 13-15 years. Country-specific prevalence of current smoking, current SLT use, and concurrent use patterns were assessed.
The national prevalence of current cigarette smoking among students aged 13-15 years ranged from 1.8% (Rwanda) to 32.9% (Latvia), whereas current SLT use ranged from 1.1% (Montenegro) to 14.4% (Lesotho). In the U.S. and most European countries surveyed, current smoking prevalence was significantly higher than SLT prevalence, in contrast to patterns observed in low- and middle-income countries. Also, in most of the surveyed countries outside of Europe and the United States, SLT use among girls was as common as their use of cigarettes, and not significantly different from use by boys. When compared with U.S. adolescents, the odds of SLT use were highest among African adolescents (adjusted odds ratio = 3.98; 95% CI: 2.19-7.24) followed by those in the Southeast Asian region (adjusted odds ratio = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.38-5.53).
Region-specific patterns of tobacco use were noticed. Furthermore, it is alarming that in several low- and middle-income countries, the prevalence of SLT use among females did not differ from that among males, suggesting the possibility of a future shared burden of disease between both males and females.
3% [in 2006] to 42.4% [in 2011], p=0.002), among respondents aged >54years (26.9% [in 2006] to 45.1% [in 2011], p=0.019) and among residents of rural areas (26.4% [in 2006] to 46.7% [in 2011], p=0.001). Both highest (32.1% [in 2006] to 49.4% [in 2011], p=0.036) and lowest (31.7% to 46.0%, p=0.021) socioeconomic (SE) strata showed an increase in the proportion of smokers who intend to quit. However, in 2011, quit attempts were more frequent (35.3%, p=0.009) in smokers of high socioeconomic status. Moreover, smoking prevalence has significantly decreased (43.1% [in 2006] to 38.1% [in 2011], p=0.023), mainly among men (52.4% to 45.7%, p=0.037), respondents of low socioeconomic status (38.9% to 29.4%, p=0.008) and residents of urban areas (45.2% to 37.9%, p=0.005).
Over the past 5years and possibly as a combined result of the implemented tobacco control policies and austerity measures, the intention to quit smoking has increased among all SE strata, however actual quit attempts were higher among those less disadvantaged. Further effort should be made to support quit attempts, especially among vulnerable populations.
, this study assessed trends in indoor SHS exposure among U.S. adolescents in grades 6-12 during 2000-2009.
Data were obtained from the 2000-2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey - a national survey of U.S. middle and high school students. SHS exposure within an indoor area within the past seven days was self-reported. Trends in indoor SHS exposure during 2000-2009 were assessed overall and by socio-demographic characteristics, using the Wald's test in a binary logistic regression. Within-group comparisons were performed using chi-squared statistics (p<0.05).
The proportion of U.S. middle and high school students who were exposed to indoor SHS declined from 65.5% in 2000 to 40.5% in 2009 (p<0.05 for linear trend). Significant declines were also observed across all population subgroups. Between 2000 and 2009, prevalence of indoor SHS exposure declined significantly among both middle (58.5% to 34.3%) and high school (71.5% to 45.4%) students. Prevalence of indoor SHS exposure was significantly higher among girls (44.0% in 2009) compared to boys (37.2% in 2009) during each survey year. Similarly, prevalence of indoor SHS exposure during 2000-2009 was highest among non-Hispanic whites (44.2% in 2009) and lowest among non-Hispanic Asians (30.2% in 2009). During each survey year, prevalence was highest among the oldest age group (≥18 years) and lowest among the youngest (9-11 years). Also, prevalence was significantly higher among current cigarette smokers (83.8% in 2009) compared to nonsmokers (34.0% in 2009).
Significant declines in indoor SHS exposure among U.S. middle and high school students occurred during 2000-2009. While the results are encouraging, additional efforts are needed to further reduce youth indoor SHS exposure.
Optimal urinary total NNAL concentrations for discriminating SLT-only users from nonusers of any tobacco were determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Percentage agreement between self-reported SLT use status and NNAL levels was calculated overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. All analyses were weighted and performed with Stata, Version 11, and MedCalc for Windows, Version 126.96.36.199.
In total, 264 individuals reported exclusively using SLT (and no other combustible tobacco product) within the past 5 days, whereas 14,824 were self-reported nonusers of any combustible or smokeless tobacco product. The optimal NNAL cutoff point was 34.0 pg/ml, which was associated with a high sensitivity (95.2%), specificity (93.4%), and overall correct classification rate (93.5%). The area under the curve was 98.3% and the corresponding Youden's Index was 88.7%. There was high agreement between the proposed NNAL cutoff point and self-reported SLT-only use (95.6%) and self-reported SLT nonuse (93.9%).
The proposed cutoff point of 34.0 pg/ml had high sensitivity and specificity and may be used by clinicians and researchers to verify or detect recent SLT use. This study also indicated that self-reported SLT use among adults is a reliable measure and has high agreement with biochemical assessment.
It was found that being overweight and having systolic blood pressure higher than the recommended were highly prevalent (>75%) among both age groups as well as abdominal obesity (about 50%). Hypercholesterolemia was highly prevalent in the younger population (68.8%), while smoking rates were relatively low among elderly. The daily meat consumption of SCS participants had doubled, from 35g in the 1960s to 76g among the SCS survivors in 2010 (p=0.002), while daily fruit and vegetable consumption had dropped from 656g to 266g (p<0.001). The younger participants also had increased dietary meat (130g/day) (p<0.001) and decreased fruits-vegetables intake (412g/day) (p<0.001) compared to 50 years ago. However, the younger population and elderly subjects showed higher fish intake (91g/day and 38g/day respectively, p<0.001) compared to 1960 and favorable olive oil consumption. In regard to nutrient intake, the majority of the subjects did not meet the recommendations for CVD prevention.
The study population is at increased risk for the development of CVD, while current dietary habits of the SCS survivors partially differed from those of 50 years ago.
A sample of 1000 adults (mean age 47.1 ± 17.1 years) were interviewed. Individuals who had smoked at least once during the past 30 days were classified as smokers. Results were compared with those from the similar 'Hellas Health I' study, which was conducted in 2006.
The prevalence of smoking was calculated at 41% (45% among men and 38% in women, P = 0.04). Greek men smoke more cigarettes (23.2 vs. 19.3 per day, P = 0.002), and they become regular smokers earlier in life. In age groups <55 years, most gender inequalities are attenuated. Socio-economic status does not affect tobacco use in Greece. In comparison with 2006, smoking prevalence, especially among young adults, has fallen from 48 to 35% in 2010. Moreover, a substantial reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked among all age groups was noticed.
Trends in smoking prevalence and consumption among adults seem favourable in Greece during the past 4 years; a substantial reduction of younger smokers and in the number of cigarettes smoked among all age groups is documented. This constitutes a significant public health achievement and an indicator that young adults are a susceptible population to legislative action.
Respiratory resistance (R), reactance (X), and impedance (Z) were assessed through impulse oscillometry. The participants' fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) was measured. All tests were performed immediately before and after smoking one single cigarette.
Smoking a single cigarette was found to immediately increase airway impedance (Z 5 Hz) by 0.024 kPa/(L/s) (P = .002), airway resistance at R 5 Hz, R 10 Hz, and R 20 Hz by 0.024 kPa/(L/s)(P < .001), 0.016 kPa/(L/s)(P = .019), and 0.023 kPa/(L/s) (P = .007), respectively, after adjusting for BMI, age, gender, and pack years. FENO concentrations also decreased from 11.70 ppb to 9.85 ppb, P < .001. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the participants' number of pack years and cigarettes per day influenced pulmonary reactance at 10 Hz and 20 Hz, however only at baseline with these differences found to disappear immediately after smoking.
The present study indicates that the consumption of a single cigarette may alter lung mechanics and FENO production among young smokers. Further research is needed to assess the mechanisms and washout period after which these parameters return to normal.
Following the ban, tobacco industry billboards around schools were eradicated (from 44 to 0). The proportion of POS that had external advertisements dropped from 98% to 66% (p<0.001), more so in regulated convenience stores (from 97% to 35%, p<0.001) than in kiosks (98% to 92%, p=0.192), which were exempt from the ban. The proportion of convenience stores that had advertisements on the door (79.5% to 20.4%, p<0.001), ads that could be seen from the street (92.3% to 22.4%, p<0.001) or illuminated exterior ads (46.2% to 10.2%, p<0.001) was also significantly reduced. Overall, the average number of exterior advertisements per POS fell from 7.4 to 3.9 (p<0.05). This reduction was noted in regulated convenience stores (4.8±3.0 vs 0.9±2.1, p<0.001) and in unregulated kiosks (9.0±6.7 vs 6.5±4.5, p=0.019).
The outdoor advertising restriction in Greece has led to a reduced number of tobacco advertisements per POS, and the eradication of billboard advertising. Nevertheless, there is a need to regulate kiosks, which were identified as a key vector for tobacco advertising, and to increase compliance among regulated convenience stores.
6% (n = 960). Among all students, 5.0% used chewing tobacco, snuff, or dip; 1.9% used snus; and 0.3% used dissolvable tobacco products. Among users of any smokeless tobacco, 64.0% used only conventional products, 26.8% were concurrent users of novel plus conventional products, whereas 9.2% exclusively used novel products. Approximately 72.1% of current any smokeless tobacco users concurrently smoked combustible tobacco products, and only 40.1% expressed an intention to quit all tobacco use. Regression analyses indicated that peer (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 9.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.14-12.80) and household (aOR: 3.32; 95% CI: 2.23-4.95) smokeless tobacco use were associated with smokeless tobacco use, whereas believing that all forms of tobacco are harmful was protective (aOR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.38-0.79).
Conventional smokeless tobacco products remain the predominant form of smokeless tobacco use. Most users of novel smokeless tobacco products also concurrently smoked combustible tobacco products. Smokeless tobacco use was associated with lower perception of harm from all tobacco products and protobacco social influences, indicating the need to change youth perceptions about the use of all tobacco products and to engage pediatricians in tobacco use prevention and cessation interventions.
5 micrometers (PM 2.5 ) concentrations attributable to SHS smoke every six months for two years (n=455 venue/measurements).
Following the implementation of the 2010 smoke-free legislation, mean PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS fell from 175.3 µg/m(3) pre-ban to 84.52 µg/m(3) immediately post-ban, increasing over subsequent waves (103.8 µg/m(3) and 158.2 µg/m(3) respectively). Controlling for potential influential factors such as ventilation, time of day, day of week, city and venue type, all post-ban measurements were still lower than during the pre-ban period (Wave 2 beta: -118.7, Wave 3 beta: -87.6, and Wave 4 beta: -69.9). Outdoor or indoor signage banning smoking was not found to affect SHS concentrations (beta: -10.9, p=0.667 and beta: -18.1, p=0.464 respectively). However, ashtray or ashtray equivalents were strong determinants of the existence of indoor SHS (beta: +67 µg/m(3), p=0.017).
While the public may be supportive of smoke-free legislation, adherence may decline rapidly if enforcement is limited or nonexistent. Moreover, enforcement agencies should also focus on the comprehensive removal of ashtray equivalents that could act as cues for smoking within a venue.
Fifteen non-smoking volunteers were exposed to sidestream SHS concentrations of 5000 µg/m(3), within a simulated car setting. The Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) was calculated, dynamic flow volumes were assessed through spirometry; while airway impedance (Z), resistance (R), and reactance (X) was assessed through impulse oscillometry before and after exposure. 3. Exposure to sidestream SHS within this experimental condition did not affect dynamic flow volumes, however FENO decreased from 15.34 ppb to 11.15 ppb, (p < 0.001). Increases in airway resistance at R5Hz by 0.114 kPa/(L/s) (p = 0.002), at R10Hz by 0.093[kPa/(L/s)] (p = 0.006) and at R20Hz by 0.093[kPa/(L/s)] (p = 0.008) were noted. Correspondingly overall peripheral and central airway resistance was also found to increase by 40% (by 0.083 kPa/(L/s), p = 0.038) and 25% (by 0.045 kPa/(L/s), p = 0.047) respectively. 4. Brief but elevated exposure to sidestream SHS can alter airway resistance, and impedance indicating a potential additional mechanistic pathway between exposure to SHS and the development of respiratory disease. Further research is needed to verify these pilot results.
612 pmol/ml, in comparison to the 0.100 pmol/ml of ex-smokers and 0.0795 pmol/ml of non-smokers exposed to SHS. Exposure to SHS in the home was associated with a 4.40 ng/ml increase in urinary cotinine levels, while reported exposure to SHS in cars was associated with an even higher (8.73 ng/ml) increase in cotinine concentrations and was strongly related to NNAL concentrations. Exposure to SHS in the workplace and in public places was also shown to increase cotinine and NNAL concentrations. The NNAL:cotinine ratio was found to be higher among pregnant women who were exposed to SHS but did not smoke (p<0.001).
Using cotinine levels as an indicator of NNK, exposure due to SHS during pregnancy leads to an underestimation of exposure to NNK uptake. Moreover, each source of exposure contributed to the increase in cotinine levels, indicating the importance of avoiding SHS exposure from any source.
partial ban vs. complete ban). Comparisons with previously collected data in 2006 when no ban was in place also was performed.
Indoor air levels of PM(2.5) attributable to SHS dropped following the transition from a partial to a complete ban by 34% (137 μg/m(3) vs. 90 μg/m(3), p=0.003). This drop was larger in bars (from 195 μg/m(3) to 121 μg/m(3)), than in cafes (124 μg/m(3) vs. 87 μg/m(3)) or restaurants (42 μg/m(3) vs. 39 μg/m(3)). PM(2.5) concentrations between 2006 (no ban) and the partial ban of 2010 were also found to decrease by 94 μg/m(3); however, among matched venues, the levels of indoor air pollution were not found to change significantly (218 μg/m(3) vs. 178 μg/m(3), p=0.58). Comparing the 2010 complete ban results (n=120) with previously collected data from 2006 when no ban was in place (n=43), overall PM(2.5) concentrations were found to fall from 268 μg/m(3) to 89 μg/m(3), while a matched analysis found a significant reduction in PM(2.5) concentrations (249 μg/m(3) vs. 46 μg/m(3), p=0.011).
The complete ban of smoking in hospitality venues in Greece led to a reduction in SHS exposure, in comparison to when the partial ban or no ban was in place; however, exposure to SHS was not eliminated indicating the need for stronger enforcement.
Biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure measurements were performed.
Of the boys 27.4% were classified as overweight or obese (obese 10.8%). The respective percentage for girls was 28.5% (obese 9%); 7.4% percent of the boys and 7.9% of the girls had blood pressure above the ninety-fifth percentile. TC of > 200 mg / dl was found in 14.4% and LDL-C of > 130 mg / dl in 13.8% of the children. Children with serum TG of > 100 mg / dl had a significantly higher mean WC and BMI than those with triglyceride levels of ≤ 80 mg / dl (59.7 vs. 55.9 cm and 17.9 vs. 16.6 kg / m(2); P < 0.05). Similarly, children with HDL-C < 45 mg / dl had significantly higher WC and BMI than children with HDL-C ≥ 60 mg / dl (57.7 vs. 53.5 cm and 17.1 vs. 16.5 kg / m(2); P < 0.05). Obese children had an Odds Ratio of 2.87 (95% confidence interval, 1.05 - 7.85, P = 0.041) for hypertriglyceridemia, as compared to non-obese children.
Levels of obesity and especially central obesity were strongly related to other atherogenic risk factors in Cretan preschool children indicating the presence of this major public health problem in early ages.
Sleepiness was measured using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and through electronic monitoring of CPAP usage per night of sleep.
Mean CPAP usage was 4.5 ± 0.5 h per night. Comparisons between quality of life indexes before and after CPAP treatment showed an improvement in the total SAQLI score (3.8 ± 0.9 vs. 5.8 ± 0.8 after CPAP, p < 0.01), in daily functioning (4.2 ± 1.4 vs. 6.0 ± 0.9, p < 0.01), social interactions (4.8 ± 1.3 vs.6.3 ± 0.7, p < 0.01), emotional functioning (4.4 ± 1.4 vs. 5.7 ± 1.0, p < 0.01), symptoms (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 5.8 ± 1.2, p < 0.01), and in the ESS (13.7 ± 6.5 vs. 3.9 ± 3.8, p < 0.01). Regarding the patients' symptoms, improvement was noticed for "sleepiness while watching a spectacle" (96%), "reading" (95%), "carrying on a conversation" (95%), "driving" (92.9%), "restless sleep" (87.8%), and "urinating more than once per night" (84.8%). Smaller improvements were observed for the reported "dry mouth-throat upon awakening" (36.1%),"excessive fatigue" (54.5%), and "decreased energy" (55.3%).
We conclude that OSAS patients who adhere to nighttime CPAP therapy show significant improvement of their quality of life, daytime sleepiness, and other symptoms after 6 months of treatment with CPAP.
Ab lib use of an e-cigarette for 5 min with the cartridge included (experimental group, n = 30) or removed from the device (control group, n = 10) was assessed.
Using an e-cigarette for 5 min led to an immediate decrease in Feno within the experimental group by 2.14 ppb (P = .005) but not in the control group (P = .859). Total respiratory impedance at 5 Hz in the experimental group was found to also increase by 0.033 kPa/(L/s) (P < .001), and flow respiratory resistance at 5 Hz, 10 Hz, and 20 Hz also statistically increased. Regression analyses controlling for baseline measurements indicated a statistically significant decrease in Feno and an increase in impedance by 0.04 kPa/(L/s) (P = .003), respiratory resistance at 5 Hz by 0.04 kPa/(L/s) (P = .003), at 10 Hz by 0.034 kPa/(L/s) (P = .008), at 20 Hz by 0.043 kPa/(L/s) (P = .007), and overall peripheral airway resistance (β, 0.042 kPa/[L/s]; P = .024), after using an e-cigarette.
e-Cigarettes assessed in the context of this study were found to have immediate adverse physiologic effects after short-term use that are similar to some of the effects seen with tobacco smoking; however, the long-term health effects of e-cigarette use are unknown but potentially adverse and worthy of further investigation.
Data was analyzed from 694 and 1066 respondents aged 18 years or more, respectively. Logistic regression models were fitted to measure the adjusted relationship between socio-economic factors for the former, and support for increased taxation on tobacco products for the latter.
In 2012 amidst the Greek financial crisis, population support for a flat two euro tax increase reached 72.1%, if earmarked for health care and tobacco control, a percentage high both among non-smokers (76%) and smokers (64%) alike. On the contrary, when not earmarked, only 43.6% of the population was in support of the equivalent increase. Women were more likely to change their mind and support a flat two-euro increase if the revenue was earmarked for health care and tobacco control (aOR = 1.70; 95% C.I: 1.22-2.38, p = 0.002). Furthermore, support for an increase in tobacco taxation was not associated with SES and income.
Despite dire austerity measures in Greece, support for an increase in tobacco taxation was high among both smokers and non-smokers, however, only when specifically earmarked towards health care and tobacco control. This should be taken into account not only in Greece, but within all countries facing social and economic reform.
97% of total fat content, with no sample found to have TFA in a concentration more than 1% of the total fat content. Increased levels of either saturated or cis-unsaturated was observed in each brand. Saturated, cis-monounsaturated and cis-polyunsaturated were found in the ranges of 11.26-51.75%, 22.98-60.37% and 12.09-56.30% of total fat content respectively, with mean values of 30.81 ± 10.40%, 34.41 ± 10.46% and 34.28 ± 14.02% of total fat. The chemical analysis of Greek margarines over the past decades has indicated that the TFA content of Greek margarines has declined over the past 20 years by approximately 95%.
The objective of this paper is to document our approach to building the intervention, to describe the planned intervention, and to explore the conceptual issues regarding the intervention and its evaluation.
This project is being developed using an iterative approach. We are currently in the middle of Stage 1. In this first stage, Intervention Development, we have already conducted a comprehensive search of the professional literature and internet resources, consulted with experts in the field, and conducted several Design Workshops. The planned intervention consists of parental group support therapy, a website to allow use of an "online/offline" approach, involvement of pediatricians, use of a video simulation game ("Dr. Cruz") to teach parents about child TSE, and personalized biochemical feedback on exposure levels. As part of this stage we will draw on a social marketing approach. We plan to use in-depth interviews and focus groups in order to identify barriers for behavior change, and to test the acceptability of program components.In Stage II, we plan to pilot the planned intervention with 5-10 groups of 10 parents each.In Stage III, we plan to implement and evaluate the intervention using a cluster randomized controlled trial with an estimated 540 participants.
The major challenges in this research are twofold: building an effective intervention and measuring the effects of the intervention. Creation of an effective intervention to protect children from TSE is a challenging but sorely needed public health endeavor. We hope that our approach will contribute to building a stronger evidence base for control of child exposure to tobacco smoke.
Extensive questionnaire data on active and passive smoking were collected. Urinary cotinine was measured to validate self-reported exposure and non-smoking status. Smokers had higher concentrations of Cd (1.0 µg/L) as compared with non-smokers (0.29 µg/L, P < 0.001) and a tendency for higher As and Hg. Among non-smokers, blood As and Hg concentrations were also associated with exposure to passive smoking in public venues and the family home and to overall greater secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure (As: 0.97µg/L among heavy-exposed compared with 0.20 µg/L among the low-exposed, P < 0.05; Hg: 2.1 µg/L vs. 0.9 µg/L respectively, P < 0.05). Controlling for fish and seafood intake altered the statistical significance but not the direction of the above associations. Smoking was associated with higher Cd concentrations in pregnant women, although the association between passive smoking and elevated As and Hg concentrations was indicative, however inconclusive.
During February 2009, we conducted a cross sectional national survey among all 3rd year nursing students of the two university based nursing departments in Greece (University of Athens, University of the Peloponnese). The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) questionnaire was applied and following written informed consent 73% provided a completed questionnaire (n = 192/263 enrolled students).
Overall, 33% were current active smokers, while 74% reported ever to experiment smoking. In regards to their beliefs towards tobacco control policies, non smokers were more positive in regards to banning smoking in restaurants (94% vs. 61%, p < 0.001), in bars and cafes (82% vs. 34%, p < 0.001), and all public places (93% vs. 51%, p < 0.001) when compared to current smokers. In comparison with students who had not received training on the importance of asking patients about their smoking habits, those that did were more likely to believe that nurses should have a role in smoking cessation and should act as role models for their patients.
Resources should be invested in improving the quality of undergraduate education in nursing departments in Greece with respect to tobacco control and smoking cessation.
92). The reliability of equivalent types in 16 stabilized patients also was high (ICC = 0.99). In general the domains within the CCQ were strongly correlated with each other, while each domain in separate was strongly correlated with the overall CCQ score (r2 = 0.953, r2 = 0.915 and r2 = 0.842 in regards to the functional, symptomatic and mental domain, respectively). The CCQ scores were also correlated with FEV1, (r2 = -0.252, p < 0.001), FEV1/FVC, (r2 = -0.135, p < 0.001) as also with the quality of life questionnaire SF-12 (r2 = -0.384, p < 0.001). Smoking cessation also lead to a significant reduction in CCQ score and increase in the SF-12 score.
The self administered CCQ indicates satisfactory validity, reliability and responsiveness and may be used in clinical practice to assess patient quality of life. Moreover the CCQ indicated the health related quality of life gains attributable to smoking cessation among COPD patients, projecting smoking cessation as a key target in COPD patient management.
5) in 50 semiopen air venues in Greece during the summer. Cotinine levels from a nonsmoking employee of each of these venues were measured from a postshift urine sample.
In these semiopen-air venues, the mean level of indoor PM 2.5 levels were 113.5 ± 72.3 μg/m(3). The mean postshift urinary cotinine levels of nonworking workers in these venues was 15 ng/mL. PM2.5 levels were strongly correlated with urinary cotinine concentrations (Spearman's r = 0.914). Linear regression analyses indicated that when taking into account the time of the measurement, the day of the week, for each 1 cigarette/100 m(3) the indoor PM2.5 concentrations increased by 26.6 μg/m(3) [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.6-45.7 μg/m(3), p = 0.007) and urinary cotinine levels of nonsmoking workers increased by 5.0 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.4 to 9.6, p = 0.034).
In a sample of bars and restaurants with windows and doors open, indoor PM2.5 concentrations were elevated and increased proportionately to the density of smoking. Cotinine levels of nonsmoking employees increased with indoor PM2.5 concentrations, and also with the density of smoking. Open windows and doors do not protect workers from exposure to second-hand smoke.
The non-smokers were older, more educated (odds ratio, OR 1.4), and were more likely to be annoyed by the smell of environmental tobacco smoke (OR 2.4) or report that it irritates their eyes (OR 1.8). Policymakers should evaluate how non-smokers could actively support smoke-free laws through reporting of violations using media campaigns that inform them of their rights, and other measures.
In total 19 GP's from 14 health care units in rural Crete were invited to participate, covering a total turnover patient population of approximately 25, 000 subjects. For the purpose of this study an electronic record database was constructed and used as the main tool for monitoring HZ and PHN incidence. Stress related data was also collected with the use of the Short Anxiety Screening Test (SAST).
The crude incidence rate of HZ was 1.4/1000 patients/year throughout the entire network of health centers and satellite practices, while among satellite practices alone it was calculated at 1.3/1000 patients/year. Additionally, the standardised incidence density within satellite practices was calculated at 1.6/1000 patients/year. In regards to the stress associated with HZ and PHN, the latter were found to have lower levels of anxiety, as assessed through the SAST score (17.4 ± 3.9 vs. 21.1 ± 5.7; p = 0.029).
The implementation of an electronic surveillance system was feasible so as to measure the burden of HZ and PHN within the rural general practice setting in Crete.
Prospective participants will be pregnant smokers of more than 5 cigarettes per week, recruited up to the second trimester of pregnancy. Urine samples for biomarker analysis of cotinine will be collected at three time points: at baseline, at around the 32nd week of gestation and at six months post partum. The control group/low intensity intervention will include: brief advice for 5 minutes and a short leaflet, while the experimental group/intensive intervention will include: 30 minutes of individualized cognitive-behavioural intervention provided by a trained health professional and a self-help manual especially tailored for smoking cessation during pregnancy, while counselling will be based on the ''5 As.'' After childbirth, the infants' birth weight, gestational age and any other health related complications during pregnancy will be recorded. A six months post-partum a follow up will be performed in order to re-assess the quitters smoking status.
If offering pregnant smokers a high intensity intervention for smoking cessation increases the rate of smoking cessation in comparison to a usual care low intensity intervention in Greek pregnant smokers, such a scheme if beneficial could be implemented successfully within clinical practice in Greece.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01210118.
B cell (CD19+), T cell (CD4+CD45RO+, CD4+CD45RA+, CD3+CD45RO+, CD3+CD45RA+) and natural killer (CD3+CD16CD56+) lymphocyte subsets relative to exposure to SHS. Blood was drawn from healthy, verified non-smoker, adolescent subjects (n = 68, mean age 14.2) and analysed for cotinine, antioxidants and lymphocyte immunophenotyping. SHS exposure was assessed using serum cotinine. Biomarker quantified exposure to SHS was correlated with a linear dose-response reduction in the percentages of memory CD4+CD45RO+ (p = 0.005) and CD3+CD45RO+ T-cell subsets (p = 0.005 and p = 0.003, respectively) and a linear increase in the percentage of naïve CD4+CD45RA+ and CD3+CD45RA+ T-cell subsets (p = 0.006 and p = 0.003, respectively). Additionally, higher exposure to SHS was associated with a higher CD4+CD45RA+ count (532 vs. 409 cells/ml, p = 0.017). Moreover, after controlling for age, gender, body mass index and plasma antioxidants, SHS exposure was found to be associated with the percentage of circulating naïve and memory CD4+ and CD3+ T-cell subpopulations, as revealed through a linear regression analysis. These findings indicate a systemic immunological response in healthy adolescents exposed to population-based levels of SHS exposure and imply an additional biological pathway for the interaction between exposure to SHS and its adverse effects on human health.
Active smoking at some time during pregnancy was reported by 36% of respondents, and 17% were current smokers at week 12 of gestation. Those less likely to quit smoking during pregnancy were those married to a smoker (OR, 1.76; P = 0.008), those who were multiparous (1.72; P = 0.011), and those with young husbands. Of the 832 (64%) nonsmokers, almost all (94%, n = 780) were exposed to SHS, with the majority exposed at home (72%) or in a public place (64%). Less educated women and younger women were exposed more often than their better educated and older peers (P < 0.001). Adjusting for potential confounders, parental level of education, age, and ethnicity were the main mediators of exposure to SHS during pregnancy.
Active smoking and exposure to SHS are very prevalent among pregnant women in Greece. The above findings indicate the need for support of population-based educational interventions aimed at smoking cessation in both parents, as well as of the importance of establishing smoke-free environments in both private and public places.
Serum cotinine levels were calculated for non-smokers, while serum cytokine IL-6 and VEGF concentrations were also calculated among 88 randomly selected subjects. Controlling for the donors age and gender, a strong tendency was found for smoking within 24 h of the blood donation to be associated with a higher VEGF concentration of the donated blood (ß = 141.13, p = 0.06), while the donor age was independently related to VEGF levels (p = 0.001). Additionally the IL-6 levels in the transfused blood were independently associated with the donors age (p = 0.001) and gender (p = 0.002) but not with their smoking status. Further research is needed so as to assess the need of updating blood donation guide lines to regulate the time intervals between the time from the last cigarette and blood donation.
Five hundred and two farmers (18-79 years old) from the Valley of Messara in Crete were randomly selected and examined in 2005. Complete clinical, biochemical, dietetic, anthropometrical and lifestyle CVD risk factors were assessed, matched and compared with published data from the 1960s.
In comparison with 45 years ago, present day male farmers from Crete were found to have a 30% higher BMI (29.8 vs. 22.9 kg/m, P<0.001) and a 16% higher total cholesterol level (239.6 vs. 206.9 mg/dl, P<0.001) and also a not so favourable daily dietary intake (increase in meat and saturated fat and decrease in fruit, P<0.001, respectively), while a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure and energy intake was noticed. In regards to changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acid composition, a decrease in monounsaturated (P<0.001) and an increase in saturated fatty acids (P<0.001) was also found elucidating the temporal change in dietary habits.
The population's lack of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, have led to the fact that currently farmers from Crete are likely to be at a higher risk for developing CVD in comparison with earlier generations.
Comparing smokers to nonsmokers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 2.8 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7, 4.6] for low birth weight and 2.6 (95%CI: 1.6, 4.2) for fetal growth restriction. This corresponded to a 119-g reduction in birth weight, a 0.53-cm reduction in length, and a 0.35-cm reduction in head circumference. Smoking cessation early during pregnancy modified significantly these pregnancy outcomes indicating the necessity for primary smoking prevention.
This article reports on an empirical model of 10 steps developed and applied in Crete, Greece. It aims to exchange views on how to better design and undertake actions in order to develop future family practice research in countries with limited resources.
This current review evaluates the existing biological evidence regarding the acute health effects of SHS exposure. Analyses on the inhaled toxicants and the carcinogenicity of SHS are included as well as in-depth discussions on the evidence for acute SHS-induced respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine and immune effects, and SHS-induced influences on oxygen delivery and exercise. The influence of the length of exposure and the duration of the observed effects is also described. Moreover, recent findings regarding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms related to SHS are depicted so as to generate models that describe the SHS-induced effects on different systems within the human body. Based on the presented biological evidence, it is concluded that brief, acute, transient exposures to SHS may cause significant adverse effects on several systems of the human body and represent a significant and acute health hazard. Future research directions in this area include research on the concentrations of tobacco smoke constituents in the alveolar milieu following SHS exposure, individual susceptibility to SHS, as well as the effects of SHS on neurobehavioral activity, brain cell development, synaptic development, and function.
Health related ads were rated the highest, and as identified through the logistic regression analysis, adolescents who perceived an ad to be emotional or to have a clear message that was relevant to them, were more likely to rate the ad as more effective. The strong agreement between the above findings and the existing literature indicates the applicability of this pilot study's methodological approach.
In this review we present the different mechanisms through which passive smoking may induce an inflammatory response that may lead to the development of cardiovascular disease, on a whole and through certain of its toxic constituents. Passive smoke itself, is a volatile mixture of numerous toxins, chemicals and carcinogens, that interact with in vivo mechanisms and induce vascular damage, including endothelium inflammation, atherosclerosis development, lipid peroxidisation, alterations in cytokines and acute phase proteins (such as CRP), as well as platelet aggravation. Acting alone or in synergy, the above mentioned effects suggest a causal relationship between exposure to passive smoking and the development of cardiovascular disease.
Prospective students can obtain a degree as a registered nurse through both university-based degree studies and Technological Educational Institute (TEI) studies that differ significantly in both the provision of clinical experience and theoretical background due to their different course curricula and teaching staff. University graduates are provided with a better theoretical background while TEI graduates are usually better in clinically skills, even though both programmes lead to professional registration and are in accordance with European Union directives. Postgraduate studies in nursing science are mainly organized by the University of Athens, but recently joint postgraduate degrees of other university departments and TEIs, are possible. Changes that will lead to one common undergraduate nursing education leading to registration as a registered nurse, and organized in such a way that will reduce the gap between theory and practice is a proposal that is gradually gaining acceptance by the profession. However, the development of a single nursing degree in Greece is complex, and close cooperation between the government and the professional authorities is essential.
Data on health care information sources and overall adolescent health literacy were collected with the use of a questionnaire exploring education on health topics over the past year, sources of health information, and interaction with their physician.
More than half the study participants indicated having received information within the past year on oral health, sexually transmitted diseases, physical activity, smoking, and nutrition. The family (71.8%) and the physician (51.5%; boys vs. girls: 44.2% vs. 57.9%, p = .009) are most usually consulted for health information. Girls were found to seek out more sources of health information than boys and to receive more information from their friends (26.9% vs. 11.0%, p < .001), magazines (23.4% vs. 15.1%, p = .046), other health professionals (boys vs. girls: 11.2% vs. 5.8%, p = .068), and pamphlets (boys vs. girls: 21.3% vs. 9.9%, p = .003).
A large percentage of adolescents, especially boys, are insufficiently informed on major health issues. Health education programming for youth in Greek schools is imperative to promote healthier lifestyles and to prevent chronic and infectious diseases.
Fifty-one per cent responded that they would not be willing to withhold life-sustaining treatment if legalized, while almost 30% responded that they had withheld life-sustaining treatment from a patient at least once in the past; specifically 47.7% of intensive care unit nurses (OR 8.2; 95% CI: 1.6-41.3), 20% of cancer ward nurses (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 0.5-15.6) and 8.3% of other nurses from other wards (P = 0.001). Age, gender and self-reported levels of religiosity among Greek nurses were not found to affect statistically any variable regarding euthanasia and its enactment.
Five hundred seventy four adolescents (13-18, 54% male) from Greece were privately interviewed, with the use of a digital questionnaire and randomly shown seven existing EU text-only and proposed EU graphic warning labels. Non-smoking respondents were asked to compare and rate the warnings effectiveness in regard to preventing them from smoking on a 1-5 Likert type scale.
Irrespective of the warning category shown, on all occasions, non-smoking adolescents rated the suggested EU graphic labels as more effective in preventing them from smoking in comparison to the existing EU text-only warnings. Controlling for gender, age, current smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per month, younger adolescents were found to opt for graphic warnings more often, and also perceive graphic warning labels as a more effective means of preventing them from smoking, in comparison to their elder peers (P < 0.001).
The proposed EU graphic warning labels may play an important role in preventing of smoking initiation during the crucial years of early adolescence when smoking experimentation and early addiction usually take place.
57.8% of the nursing personnel and 34.5% of medical/research staff were found to be current smokers (p < 0.05). Although 66% of the staff does not oppose the complete hospital smoking ban, 95% responded that they would prefer it to be partial. The above findings warrant the necessity for nurturing efforts to reduce smoking and increase the health professionals' awareness of their position as a role model to both patients and the society.
R 1.13, p<0.001) while, having a non-smoking spouse had a protective effect (O.R 0.44, p=0.026). Maternally induced household SHS exposure was related to cigarette consumption. For both parents, child exposure to SHS in the family car was related to higher numbers of cigarettes smoked (p<0.001), and for fathers was also more often found in larger families. Additionally, lower educated fathers were more likely to have a spouse that exposes their children to SHS inside the family car (O.R 1.38 95%C.I: 1.04-1.84, p=0.026). Conclusively, efforts must be made to educate parents on the effects of home and household car exposure to SHS, where smoke free legislation may be difficult to apply.
Inflammatory cells were identified by morphology and T-lymphocyte subpopulations by flow cytometry. Sputum macrophages were decreased after 12 months of smoking cessation in comparison to baseline, while neutrophils increased. Moreover, CD8+ T-cells were decreased in smokers before smoking cessation compared to never-smokers and increased in smokers after 6 months of smoking cessation in comparison to baseline; result that was maintained after 1 year of smoking cessation. These novel findings indicate that smoking cessation can equilibrate certain inflammatory cells of smokers with those of nonsmokers, within 6 months of smoking cessation.
Complete three-day and 24-hr recall questionnaires were collected along with anthropometrical, physical activity and clinical data from all participating subjects.
After adjusting for age, gender and number of fasting days adhered to per year, current smokers were found to have a lower dietary intake of vitamin C (112.1 mg vs. 136.4 mg, p = 0.03), fibre (16.6 g vs. 19.1 g, p = 0.006) and fruits and vegetables (339 g vs. 412 g, p = 0.014), while dietary vitamin B1 intake was found to be higher (1.7 mg vs. 1.4 mg, p = 0.02) in comparison to non/ex smokers. Dietary intake of meat, folate and vitami A, E, B2, B6 and B12 did not differ between the groups. Controlling age, gender, fasting days and dietary micronutrient intake, serum folate levels were found to be lower among smokers (geometric mean 15.3 nmol/L vs. 17.7 nmol/L, p = 0.023), while serum iron and vitamin B12 levels were not affected by smoking status.
Current smoking status affects dietary nutrient intake as well as plasma folate levels. The above coherence between antioxidant depletion and reduced antioxidant intake may predispose smokers to the premature development of tobacco related mortality and morbidity.
Environmental airborne respirable suspended particles (RSP) of PM2.5 were performed and the personnel's excess mortality risk was estimated using risk prediction formulas. Excluding the intensive care unit and the operating theatres, all wards and clinics were polluted with environmental tobacco smoke. Mean SHS-RSP measurements ranged from 11 to 1461 microg/m3 depending on the area. Open wards averaged 84 microg/m3 and the managing wards averaged 164 microg/m3 thus giving an excess lung cancer and heart disease of 1.12 (range 0.23-1.88) and 11.2 (range 2.3-18.8) personnel in wards and 2.35 (range 0.55-12.2) and 23.5 (range 5.5-122) of the managing staff per 1000 over a 40-year lifespan, respectively. Conclusively, SHS exposure in hospitals in Greece is prevalent and taking into account the excess heart disease and lung cancer mortality risk as also the immediate adverse health effects of SHS exposure, it is clear that proper implementation and enforcement of the legislation that bans smoking in hospitals is imperative to protect the health of patients and staff alike.
The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population.
A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents), and interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan school health promotion programme.
63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers). Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p < 0.001), unlike place of residence (p = 0.862) and level of maternal education (p = 0.132).
Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.
Data were collected from the international PubMed database and from the Greek database, Iatrotek, during January 2006 and the tobacco legislation was discussed with other counterparts in Greece and was rechecked with the Greek ministry of Health and Social Welfare.
Currently Greece has the highest smoking prevalence not only among members of the European Union but also among all members of the OECD. Recent epidemiological studies estimate that 40% of the adult population are daily smokers, with one in two adolescents in certain areas also current smokers. Although anti-smoking policies do exist, and have been enforced over the years, many factors have contributed to their failure with a pro-tobacco culture and an increasing number of adolescent smokers exacerbating the problem.
It is obvious that the strict enforcement of a nationwide anti-tobacco policy must be a priority on the national health agenda, if we are to ever effectively combat the high prevalence of smoking in Greece.
Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006.
Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p < 0.001). ETS levels in Greek designated non-smoking areas are similar to those found in the smoking sections of UK hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece.
Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.
The geometric means of serum nicotine values in children with both parents current smokers and in those with both parents non-smokers were 0.71 ng/ml (95%CI 0.62, 0.80) and 0.59 ng/ml (95%CI 0.49, 0.69), respectively, (p=0.073). Cotinine geometric mean values were found at 1.69 ng/ml (95%CI 0.93, 3.06) and 0.15 ng/ml (95%CI 0.09, 0.28), respectively, (p<0.001). Girls with smoker parents had also greater cotinine geometric mean values than boys (3.35 versus 0.85 ng/ml, respectively, p=0.018).
Our findings prove that Greek preschool children, especially young girls, are exposed to substantial levels of passive smoke which therefore stresses the need for immediate action so as to prevent the predisposition and early addiction of Greek preschool children to tobacco.