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  • Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) is frequently detected in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and is associated with a dismal long-term prognosis. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide short-term disease control, but relapse invariably occurs within months. Pim protein kinases are oncogenic FLT3-ITD targets expressed in AML cells.Read More
  • CRISPR-Cas9 delivery to hard-to-transfect cells via membrane deformation.
    Sci Adv 2015 Aug 14;1(7):e1500454. Epub 2015 Aug 14.
    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) nuclease system represents an efficient tool for genome editing and gene function analysis. It consists of two components: single-guide RNA (sgRNA) and the enzyme Cas9. Typical sgRNA and Cas9 intracellular delivery techniques are limited by their reliance on cell type and exogenous materials as well as their toxic effects on cells (for example, electroporation).Read More
  • Over the past 4 years, nearly 100 exome sequencing studies have revealed the high frequency of mutations in the genes encoding the subunits of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers in human cancer. Most of these mutations are within the genes encoding subunits of the BAF (Brg/Brahma-associated factors) or mSWI/SNF complex, which is one of two dozen predicted ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in mammals. Considering BAF complexes as a single entity, the 15 subunits encoded by 29 genes are mutated in >20% of human cancer, across a broad range of tumor types.Read More
  • Abacavir, an anti-HIV-1 drug, targets TDP1-deficient adult T cell leukemia.
    Sci Adv 2015 Apr 24;1(3):e1400203. Epub 2015 Apr 24.
    Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T cell malignancy caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and has a poor prognosis. We analyzed the cytotoxic effects of various nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for HIV-1 on ATL cells and found that abacavir potently and selectively kills ATL cells. Although NRTIs have minimal genotoxicities on host cells, the therapeutic concentration of abacavir induced numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the chromosomal DNA of ATL cells.Read More
  • The tumor microenvironment is profoundly immunosuppressive. We show that multiple tumor types create intratumoral immune suppression driven by a specialized form of regulatory T cell (Treg) activation dependent on the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) lipid phosphatase. PTEN acted to stabilize Tregs in tumors, preventing them from reprogramming into inflammatory effector cells.Read More